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STORY 


OP 


•  -  »  ,    * » 


«    •  »         _      4> 


GOVERNMENT. 


I     •  •■  ^ 


*  -, 


From  Savagef5^to  Civilizatfon. 


RUDIMENTS    AMONG    ANIMALS.  —  TRACB5    AMONG    GYPSIES,    BRIGAND5    AND 

THIEVES.  —  EMPIRES    AND    OLIGARCHIES.  —  MONARCHIES,    FEUDAL    AND 

CONSTITUTIONAL.  — THEOCRACY   OR  PRIESTLY   RULE.  — WOMAN  IN 

OOVERNMENT.-riASONRY  AND  SECRET  ORDERS.— REPUBLICS. 


•.  'X- 


Henry  Austin,  Editor. 


Illustrated  with  over  350  engravings  and  many  double-page  plates  by 

the  best  American  and  European  Artists. 


1893: 
A.  M.  THAYER  &  CO.,  PublUhers, 

BOSTON  AND  LONDON. 


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THE  SKW  YOIIK 
PrBI.IC  I.imiARY    j 


TiLl.KN  AT.ONg 

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I 


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•       •        .  •       •  -.'•     .•       •*       • 

•  *■  •■       •■  ..  > 


Copyrishty  1893. 
By  a.  M.  Thayer  &  Co. 


^  //  ri^A/«  rtstrvtd. 


SOLD  ONLY  BY  SUBSCRIPTION. 


Typography  and  Prcsswork  by 
Thb  Barta  Press,  Boston. 


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E 


WHO  reads  a  preface  ?  Not  the  public  as  a  rule,  and  yet 
this  preface  is  written  in  the  hope  of  being  the  excep- 
tion that  proves  the  rule  —  an  exception  made  in  favor, 
of  this  book  by  a  majority  of  thinking  people.  For  this  cause  : 
it  has  no  excuse  to  ofifer  for  its  existence,  but  a  reason  and  a  right. 

Last  winter,  the  publishing  firm,  A.  M.  Thayer  &  Co.,  of 
Boston  and  London,  realizing  that  the  people  lyere  beginning  to 
show  a  deep  and  deepening  interest  in  questions  of  government, 
and  that  they  were  studying  how  to  improve  the  American  republic 
in  spite  of  the  politicians,  conceived  the  idea  of  having  a  book 
that  should  show  as  picturesquely  as  possible  all  the  forms  of 
government  under  which  mankind  has  lived,  so  that  the  people 
could  study  governmental  problems  by  the  light  of  comparison. 

Chosen  to  compose  this  work,  I  have  been  embarrassed  from  the 
start  by  the  riches  of  the  mines  from  which  my  material  was  to  be 
drawn,  and  I  am  conscious  that  many  other  journalists  might  have 
done  this  selection,  connection  and  addition  of  thoughts  and  pic- 
tures much  better  than  I.  Yet,  as  one  of  the  Titans  of  this  age 
has  said  :  "  What  is  writ  is  writ.      Would  it  were  worthier  !  " 

If  it  were,  I  would  like  to  have  paid  my  friend,  Hezekiah  But- 
terworth,  of  The  Youth^s  Companion^  that  deservedly  popular 
paper,  the  slight  compliment  of  inscribing  his  honored  name 
on  a  dedicatory  page.  As  it  is,  I  make  no  dedication  of  my 
labor,  except  to  those  men  and  women  who  find  attraction  in 
these  pages. 


rv 


6  PBEFACE. 

Well  aware  how  much  more  might  have  been  put  between 
the  covers,  I  still  hope  and  believe  that  this  book  will  not  merely 
feed  the  temporary  curiosity  of  the  average  mind,  but  will  stim- 
ulate the  toiling  men  and  women  of  America  to  desire,  to  demand, 
and  to  obtain  better  conditions  of  environment  if  not  for  them- 
selves, at  least  for  their  children. 

As  to  the  help  I  have  had  in  composing  this  book  let  me 
say  a  few  words.  Several  chapters,  perhaps  the  weightiest,  were 
written  by  the  veteran  Irish  journalist,  O'Neil  Larkin,  and  one, 
the  Sixteenth,  by  Frederick  Haynes,  with  only  slight  additions 
from  my  pen,  and  in  some  other  chapters  I  have  used  so  freely 
the  work  of  other  writers,  English,  French,  and  German,  that  I 
feel  myself  rather  an  editor  than  an  author  in  this  case. 

Nevertheless,  I  dare  to  hope  that  some  critics  who  are  familiar  with 
former  work  of  mine  may  find  some  original  and  suggestive  obser- 
vations scattered  through  this  book.     In  that  hope  I  rest. 

Very  sincerely, 

Henry  Austin. 


During  th.e  composition  of  this  book,  Mr.  Austin,  at  our  sug- 
gestion, for  tlie  sake  of  ensuring  accuracy,  cheerfully  submitted 
most  of  th.e  chapters  to  various  authors  ^vho  are  authorities  on 
certain  subjects.  We  reproduce  of  the  letters  received  by  him 
just  a  few, —  one  from  Gen.  Douglas  Frazar,  the  well-known 
traveller  and  author  of  "Perseverance  Island,"  "The  Log  of  the 
Maryland, '*  *'  Practical  Boat^sailing, "  etc.,  etc.;  and  one  from 
Mrs.  Mary  A.  Livermore,  the  famous  author  and  lecturer,  and 
one  from  the  true  philanthropist  and  world-renowned  author 
of  "The  Man  Without  a  Country,"  etc.,  etc.,  the  Rev.  Edward 
Everett  Hale.  These  letters  indicate  to  the  public,  better  than 
any  amount  of  advertising  could,  the  character- value  of  this 
book. 

A.  M.  THAYER  &  CO., 

Publishers. 


9 


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■DWARD  E.  HALB. 


39  HIGHLAND  ST 
ROXBURY.  MASS \Jt4~^.^0^^^.xB^ 


vti/t/  *• 


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13 


CHAPTER   I. 

ORIGIN  OF  GOVERNMENT. 

Great  Antiquity  of  Man  —  Periods  of  development  classified  as  Savagery, 
Barbarism,  and  Civilization — How  pottery  came  to  be  made  —  The 
invention  of  an  alphabet — An  approximate  Table  of  Centuries  showing 
the  great,  slow  steps  of  the  race  —  Definition  of  the  word  Government 
—  The  family  as  the  germ  —  Different  forms,  such  as  the  Consanguine, 
the  Punaluan,  Syndyasmian,  the  Patriarchal,  and  the  Monogamic  — 
Development  of  the  single  family  into  the  Gens  —  Growth  of  the  Gens 
into  the  Phratry  —  Development  as  shown  by  a  tribe  of  American  In- 
dians—  The  American  Indian^s  true  character —  Incident  in  the  life  of 
Wamsutta  —  Division  of  the  Seneca-Iroquois  into  Gentcs,  Phratries,  and 
Tribes  —  Political  rights  of  the  Gens  —  Duties  of  the  Sachem,  or  peace- 
governor —  Installing  a  Sachem  —  Horns  as  an  emblem  of  office  and 
authority — The  election  and  confirmation  of  the  War  Chief  —  Safe- 
guards to  prevent  usurpations  —  Liberty,  Equality,  and  Fraternity  the 
cardinal  principles  of  Iroquois  government  —  A  council  of  Indian  chiefs 
the  germ  of  a  modern  congress  —  The  first  stage  of  tribal  government  a 
one-power  government  —  The  second  stage  a  double  government  — 
Creation  of  a  three-power  government  —  The  Iroquois'  further  step  — 
Striking  resemblance  in  sentiment  between  the  American  Indians  and 
Homeric  Greeks 35 

CHAPTER  II. 

RUDIMENTS   AMONG   ANIMALS. 

Instinct,"  as  a  mysterious  line  of  separation  between  man  and  other 
animals,  wiped  out — Opinions  of  Descartes  and  Bonjeant  on  dogs  — 
The  brain  of  the  ant  as  a  wonderful  atom  —  Political  and  Industrial 
equality  a  feature  of  the  ant  republic  —  Slavery  among  ants  far  gentler 
tlian  that  among  men  —  Only  larvae  and  pupa)  stolen  by  Ant- kidnap- 
pers to  bring  up  as  regular  slaves  —  Government  among  the  Termites  — 
Their  architectural  talent  —  Buildings  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  high  — 
A  Termite  town  an  example  of  cooperation  —  Possession  of  a  standing 
army  —  The  Bee  state  a  communistic  monarchy  —  The  Queen  the  nec- 
essary centre  and  bond  of  the  hive  —  Labor  among  bees  offering  the 
highest  ideal  of  Communism,  free,  voluntary,  and  uncompulsory— 
Many  work  themselves  to  death,  thus  disproving  'Mnstinct "  again  — 

15 


16  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Qualifications  for  office  among  animal  leaders —  The  donkey  as  a  leader 
of  a  caravan  of  camels  —  Mares  as  leaders  of  mules  in  Central  America 
The  principle  of  appointment  among  animal  leaders  —  Ample  evidence 
of  self -appointment  to  leadership  among  social  animals  —  Street-dog 
republics  of  Constantinople  —  Division  of  labor  and  duty  among  ani- 
mals —  Strength  in  Union  a  recognized  principle  —  Cooperation  clearly 
evidenced  in  animal  conventions,  conferences,  etc.  — Trials  by  jury 
witnessed  among  rooks  and  storks  —  Public  punisliment  among  spar- 
rows and  apes 61 

CHAPTER  III. 

TRACKS  AMONG   GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS   AND  THIEVES. 

A  people  opposed  to  order  or  authority  from  outside  —  Physiognomy  and 
habits  of  the  Gypsy  —  Their  beauty  —  Known  to  Europeans  for  eight 
centuries  and  still  conundrums  —  Disputed  origin  —  *' Dukes  of  Little 
Egypt'' — Halcyon  times  followed  by  persecutions  —  The  passion  for 
wandering —  A  study  of  their  language  —  Extremely  unwilling  to  unfold 
themselves  to  strangers  —  A  warm  family  affection  —  Superstitions  and 
customs  —  Odd  reasons  for  swearing  off  from  liquor  or  tobacco  — 
Curious  burial  rites  —  Seven  hundred  thousand  pure  blooded  gypsies  — 
Ineffectual  attempts  to  civilize  them  —  Tlie  Abb^  Liszt  and  a  Gypsy 
boy — **Five  florins  for  hanging  a  man'' — The  real  home  of  the 
continental  gypsy  —  Odd  specimen  of  Gypsy  poetry  —  The  Camorra  — 
History  as  remarkable  as  a  fable — The  Camonistic  treasury  supplied 
from  every  quarter — Violence,  robbery,  and  murder  their  weapons  — 
Many  names  in  different  places  —  The  Mafia  or  Maffia  —  Suppressed  in 
Italy  it  plants  itself  in  America — Mysterious  murders  —  Singular 
stories  from  New  Orleans  — Its  suppression  in  March,  1891  — The  beam 
in  our  own  eye  in  the  shape  of  Pinkerton's  band  —  A  certain  tendency 
to  order  among  thieves  in  London  and  Paris  —  Hank  —  The  common 
pickpocket  not  recognized  publicly  by  the  **  swell  mobsmen,"  or  by 
house-breakers — Fascinating  interview  with  a  retired  pickpocket  and 
brief  sketch  of  his  life  in  his  own  words  —  '*  Thieves'  Latin  "  —  **  Sus- 
picion always  haunts  the  guilty  mind"  painfully  illustrated  in  the 
thieves' quarter — Pathetic  remarks  of  a  professional  thief  —  Difficulty 
of  a  discharged  prisoner  in  escaping  from  old  habits  —  The  boy  thief 
gets  a  fourth  of  the  value  of  what  he  steals  —  Infinitely  worse  in  their  con- 
sequences than  petty  larceny  or  burglary  are  some  of  the  ways  of 
commerce  —  The  adulteration  of  food  —  The  Juggernaut  of  Avarice 
and  Ignorance 89 

CHAPTER  IV. 

FEUDALISTIC   MOXARCHY. 

A  Gk>vemment  of  Chiefs  with  a  loose  or  elastic  allegiance  to  a  Head  Chief  or 
King  —  The  **Rundo"  —  Affectation  of  political  modesty  among  the 
Banyai  —  A  curious  Waliuman  law  —  Treatment  of  women  in  Central 
Africa  —  Killing  a  wife  a  mere  trifle  —  A  hundred  wives  buried  alive 
with  one  king  in  the  bed  of  a  river — Captives  reserved  for  slaves  — 
The  immortality  of  the  soul  generally  believed —  Curious  cu8t*>m  of 
cementing  friendship  by  mixing  blood  and  butter  —  The  African  idea  of  a 
Fetish  —  The  Priest  of  the  Nile  —  Horrible  devices  of  magicians  — 
Human  sacrifice  —  The  rain-maker  a  popular  figure  —  Baker's  amusing 
interview  —  The  "Gold  Coast" — Fanti  women —•  Innocence  tested  by 
means  of  **  ordeals"  —  Morals  —  European  influence  corrupting —  Belief 
in  a  mysterious  child  **  who  has  existed  from  the  beginning  of  the 
world" — The  women  the  more  intellectual  and  energetic  sex  on  the 
Gold  Coast  —  The  man  who  buries  another  succeeds  to  his  property, 
^Isahis  debts  ~  Statesman-like  ability  and  military  skill  in  the  Ashanti 


r.» 


r^  CONTENTS.  17 


V 


kingdom  —  Women  a  regular  article  of  merchandise  reckoned  by  cows  — 
The  powers  of  the '*  Ko toko,"  or  council  —  An  Ashanti  king  —  Gold 
mining  —  "Three  hundred  ounces  of  gold  taken  in  a  single  day"  — 
Industries  apai-t  from  mining  —  The  Ashanti  army  —  In  battle  the  women 
stand  behind  their  husbands  —  The  *'  Encouragei's  "  —  Police  regulations 
in  Coomassio  —  The  King  as  head  of  the  Fire  Department  —  The  skull 
of  Governor  Sir  Charles  Macaithy,  killed  in  the  iirst  war,  kept  in  the 
Bantama,  the  mausoleum  of  the  kings,  as  a  drinking  cup  —  "  By  Wednes- 
day and  Macarthy  "  a  sacred  Ashanti  oath  —  The  *' Customs'*  in  Ashanti 
and  Dahomey  —  Decapitation  as  a  fine  art — The  Yam  and  the  Adai 
customs — "Kra,"  the  soul  of  man  —  The  kingdom  of  Dahomey  —  Odd 
origin  of  the  **  bush-king,"  or  double  of  the  real  monarch  —  Tlie  **  Nin- 
gan,"  or  prime  minister  —  The  *'Meu,"  the  second  minister  —  The 
soldiei*s  divided  into  several  corps;  each  soldier  equipped  at  the  expense 
of  the  government  —  Tlie  corps  of  Amazons,  or  female  wamors  —  Origin 
of  these  Amazons  —  Their  number  at  present  four  thousand;  divided 
into  three  brigades  —  The  Dahoman  eminently  religious  —  Tlie  worship 
of  Danli-gbwe  —  The  Danh-hweh,  or  fetish  snake-house  —  Tlie  Danhsi, 
or  snake  priests  —  "  Atinbodun  "  —  Tlie  Dahoman  *'  Neptune  "  —  Khevy- 
osoh,  the  Thunder-god — Missionary  failure  in  Africa  —  The  reasons  — 
A  better  field  for  effort  suggested 141 

CHAPTER  V. 

ABSOLUTISM. 

Persia  a  perfect  type  of  despotism  —  Chai-acter  of  the  courtier — Many 
public  functionaries  selected  by  the  Persian  monarchs  from  the  order  of 
Mirzas,  or  *'  men  of  business  "  —  The  Collector  of  the  public  revenue  — 
Small  salaries  of  government  officials — Precarious  life  of  a  courtier  — 
The  pardoned  rebel  of  one  province  appointed  to  the  supreme  command 
in  another — No  official,  however  high,  sure  of  his  life  —  The  Gholams, 
or  king's  guards  —  The  mooshteheds,  the  highest  order  of  priests,  the 
supreme  pontiffs  of  the  kingdom  —  The  Sheik  al  Islam  —  The  character 
of  the  moUalis  or  priests —  **  To  cheat  like  a  mollali "  a  frequent  saying 
in  the  mouth  of  a  Persian  —  Persian  women  believed  not  to  have  souls 
by  some  Moslem  priests  —  An  Eastern  seraglio  a  "gilded  cage" — De- 
scription of  harem  life  —  The  gala  dress  of  a  lady  of  high  rank  — Mar- 
riage ceremonies  —  Ungovernable  temper  of  Persian  women  —  Persia 
no  longer  the  granary  of  the  world  —  The  population  of  Persia  less  than 
8,000,000 — No  navigable  rivers,  and  railways  a  thing  of  the  future  — 
The  whole  revenue  of  the  empire  considerably  less  than  $10,000,000  — 
The  Koran  as  the  basis  of  civil  and  criminal  law  —  The  t/r/*,  or  "  common 
law"  —  The  goverainj^  principle  in  Mohammedan  law,  an  eye  for  an  eye, 
and  a  tooth  for  a  tooth  —  Ancient  religion  of  the  Persians  —  The  Par- 
sees,  like  the  Jews,  a  persecuted  race  —  Learning  of  Persia  —  The  stone 
and  seal  cutters  of  Shirazand  Ispahan  famous  for  their  skill  —  Literature 
—  Adoption  of  European  habits 197 

CHAPTER  VI. 

TFIE    RULE    OF    CASTE. 

A  marvel  and  a  mystery  to  Western  minds — Religious  despotism  still  flour- 
ishing throughout  India — The  Vedas,  or  Hindoo  Scriptures  —  The 
foundation  of  Brahminism  —  Compared  with  the  Greek  mythology,  that 
of  India  infinitely  deeper,  more  mysterious,  and  vastly  more  sublime  — 
AVater- worship — Self-drowning  in  the  Ganges  —  Brahmins  propitiated 
with  divine  honors  —  Siva  and  Vishnoo —  Vishnooism  a  sort  of  reformed 
Sivaism — In  addition  to  the»  Hindoo  Trinity  many  inferior  gods  — 
Animals  also  venerated  —  The  two  aspects  of  Brahminism  —  Caste  every- 
where an  essentia]  part  of  religion  —  In  the  "  Institutes  of  Menu"  four 


18  THB  STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

castes  defined  as  composing  the  nation  —  For  three  thousand  years  by 
means  of  caste  the  Brahmins  have  preserved  their  ascendency — ^No  other 
example  of  such  a  lease  of  power  —  The  life  of  a  Brahmin  divided  into 
four  periods — The  high  caste  man  defiled  by  the  low  caste  man  —  Tlie 
Brahmin  *'can  cook  for  every  man,  whilst  no  one  can  cook  for  him'*  — 
The  home  of  human  horrors — The  Hindoo  Fakir  preeminent  among 
cranks  —  Strange  self -martyrdoms — Remarkable  municipal  institutions 
of  Hindostan  —  The  famous  "  village  system  "  —  Thieving  and  burglary 
raised  to  the  rank  of  science  —  The  riches  of  India  —  Anecdote  of  Mali- 
moud,  the  idol-breaker  —  Temples  and  shrines — The  sacred  rivers  — 
The  idol  of  Juggernaut  and  its  procession  —  Pinkerton  Thugs;  the 
word  and  comparison  taken  from  India — Origin  of  the  religious  crime. 
Thuggee  —  Early  training  of  Thugs  —  Secrecy  one  of  the  essentials  of 
their  work —  Manner  of  strangling  and  burying  their  victims  —  Account 
of  the  founder  of  Buddhism  —  Buddhism  now  closely  studied  by  Eu- 
ropean scholars  —  Marriage  customs  —  Qualifications  for  a  Brahmin's 
bride  —  Elaborate  festival  rites  and  ceremonies — Celibacy  a  disgrace 
both  to  men  and  women  —  The  Hindoo  women's  taste  for  ill-treatment 

—  The  women  of  Northern  India  trea«^ed  with  respect  and  devotion  — 
The  ** Festival  of  tlie  Bracelet"  —  A  whole  province  often  accompanies 
the  return  of  the  pledge  —  The  temple- women  —  The  Suttee  —  Laws  of 
inheritance  —  Education  —  Architecture  and  the  manufacture  of  jewelry 

—  Snake-charming  —  The  moral  character  of  the  Hindoo  —  The  Indian 
not  the  same  all  over  India  —  A  Bengalee  the  most  despicable —  Macau- 
lay  on  the  character  of  the  Bengalee —  Political  future 225 

CHAPTER  VII. 

A   SCHOLASTIC    OLIGARCHY. 

Oldest  and  oddest  of  nations  and  governments  —  An  eclipse  calculated  2155 
years  before  our  era — Topography  of  China  —  Division  into  eighteen 
provinces;  each  province  into  poos,  counties,  and  prefectures — The 
great  wall  —  The  gate  of  honor —  Chicese  streets  —  The  umbrellaed  side- 
walks —  The  sewerage  system  —  High-sounding  titles  of  streets  —  Shops 

—  Monumental  arches  —  Hoo  Chow  Foo  —  Governmental  precaution 
against  fires  —  The  Emperor  of  China  assisted  in  the  management  of  his 
government  by  a  cabinet  of  four  ministers;  in  addition  to  this,  six 
supreme  tribunals  —  Duties  of  each  tribunal  —  The  Empress,  or  head 
wife,  is  the  representative  of  Mother  Earth  —  The  choice  of  an  empi-ess 
and  of  sub-wives  —  A  formidable  ari-ay  of  officials  in  each  province  —  All 
supposed  to  be  appointed  by  the  Emperor  on  recommendation  of  the 
Board  of  Ceremonies  — Nine  marks  of  distinction  by  which  the  rank  of 
a  Chinese  officer  may  be  recognized  —  Dress  —  Custom  of  an  officer 
approaching  the  Imperial  presence  —  The  army  made  up  of  the  lowest 
class  —  Government  residences  for  all  officials  —  A  curious  sort  of  lot- 
tery adds  a  certain  spice  to  the  life  of  convicted  criminals — Justice  in 
China  a  ''Serial  Story  of  Torture" — The  process  in  civil  cases  — 
Another  peculiarity  of  Chinese  government —  Imperial  clemency  extends 
to  all  offenders  who  are  crippled  —  Religion  of  China  interfuses  with  its 
laws — The  original  i*eligion  —  No  hereditary  nobility  —  Rank  graded  by 
literary  examinations  —  Every  office  except  that  of  the  Emperor  deter- 
mined by  these  —  Severity  of  the  examinations  —  Fifteen  candidates  suc- 
cessful out  of  five  hundred  considered  remarkable  —  The  degree  of 
Han-lin;  the  few  who  attain  it  become  membei*s  of  the  Han-lin  College  and 
receive  fixed  salaries  —  The  greatest  care  taken  that  these  examinations 
shall  be  fair  —  Daring  devices  of  the  candidates  to  elude  the  lynx-eyed 
examiners  —  Ancestral  worship  —  The  penalty  of  striking  or  cursing 
parents  —  Ideas  of  beauty  —  Deformed  feet  of  the  women  and  leavings  of 
Chinese  poets  thereon  —  The  Kow-tow  —  Modesty  of  the  ladies  — 
Chinese  handmaids  —  Seven  different   reasons  for  divorce  —  Amusing 


^♦. 


CONTENTS.  19 

contrariety  of  Chinese  customs  —  Curious  census  anecdote  —  History  of 
Confucius  and  his  doctrines  —  The  five  canonical  hooks  —  Tlie  writings 
which  ranlc  next  —  Chinese  literature  —  All  classes  read  —  Proverbs     .    281 

CHAPTER    VIII. 

PATERNAL    SOCIALISM. 

A  system  of  government  especially  worthy  of  study — Difference  in  the  mean- 
ing or  value  of  the  word  Socialism  twenty  years  ago  and  to-day  —  The 
electric  shock  of  a  new  idea — Tlie  chief  moral  argument  of  modern 
Socialism  —  Men  to-day  in  tlie  mass  becoming  too  much  like  the 
machines  tliey  tend — Tlie  ultimate  economic  proposition  of  Socialism 
—  The  Post-office  a  shining  example — The  best  illustration  on  a  na- 
tional scale  —  A  miraculous  land  in  which  the  sum  of  human  happiness 
was  large  and  increasing  —Vast  extent  and  singular  shape  of  Peru  — 
The  naturally  barren  coast  fertilized  by  a  system  of  canals  and  under- 
ground aqueducts  —  The  Maguey  suspension  bridges  —  Cuzco  the  chief 
capital  —  A  miniature  of  the  empire  —  The  decimal  system  used  by  the 
Incas  of  Peru  with  remarkable  results  —  The  whole  empire  arranged  in 
departments  of  ten  thousand  with  a  special  governor  appointed  from  the 
Inca  nobility  —  Officialism  prevented  from  being  an  evil  by  being  all- 
pervasive  —  Few  laws  and  crime  a  rarity  —  Worship  of  the  Sun  —  Fable 
of  the  founding  of  the  City  of  the  Sun  by  the  children  of  the  Sun-God  — 
Personal  pomp  of  an  Inca  —  Magnificence  of  his  palaces  —  The  Baths  of 
Yucay — Burial  customs — Remarkable  skill  in  embalming  —  Fiscal 
regulations  and  the  laws  of  property — The  cultivation  of  the  king's 
lands  a  holiday  performance  —  The  llamas  —  Idleness  a  crime  and  indus- 
try a  matter  of  public  honor  and  reward  —  The  Peruvians  had  a  chance 
to  cultivate  the  graces  and  dignities  of  life  —  Two  orders  of  nobility  — 
Superior  method  of  taking  the  census  —  The  <irtisan  provided  by  the 
government  with  his  materials,  and  only  required  to  give  a  certain  por- 
tion of  his  time  to  public  service  —  Peruvian  literature — Method  of 
preserving  thought  —  Description  of  the  quipus — Anecdote  of  Atah- 
ualpa 325 

CHAPTER   IX. 

THEOCRACY  OH  PRIESTLY   GOVERNMENT. 

Basic  principle  of  theocracy  —  The  Pythoness  or  Priestess  of  Delphi,  how 
inspired  —  Pagan  priests  the  first  librarians  —  The  crystallization  of  the 
Hebrew  nation  —  Singularity  of  the  Mosaic  laws  —  Strikinj^  anecdote  of 
Solomon  —  The  Sanhedrim  —  The  functions  of  the  Levite  —  The  syna- 
gogues as  schools  —  Caiphas  the  head  of  the  theocracy  —  Crucifixion  of 
Jesus  —  Jerusalem  battered  down  by  Titus  thirty-seven  years  later  — 
Dispersion  of  the  Jewish  nation —  Meeting  of  the  Apostles  and  framing 
of  the  Apostles'  Creed  —  St.  Paul  before  the  Sanhedrim  —  Condition  of 
the  world  at  this  period  —  **  Eat,  drink,  and  be  merry,  for  to-morrow  we 
die,"  the  motto  of  the  Roman  Empire  —  Frightful  persecution  of  the 
Christians  by  Xero  —  The  infant  church  driven  to  underground  refuges  — 
Christian  theocracy  assuming  shape  — The  Cross  a<lopted  by  Constivntine 
as  the  imperial  standard  —  The  combat  practically  closed  by  the  imperial 
decree,  A.  D.  313  —  Two  sovereignties  recognized  and  proclaimed,  that 
of  Pope  and  Emperor — The  heresy  of  Arius  of  Alexandria —  Ecumeni- 
cal council  summoned  at  Nice  by  Constantine — Summary  of  the  Apos- 
tolic Canons  —  Endeavors  of  Julian,  the  apostate,  to  restore  the  worship 
of  the  Pagan  gods  —  Decline  of  the  Roman  Empire  —  Attila,  **the 
Scourge  of  God" — Meeting  between  Saint  Leo  I.  and  Attila — Roman 
empire  of  the  West  extinguished  —  A  universal  Papal  protectorate  — 
Simoniacal  bishops — *'Tlie  poisonous  viper  of  the  Church" — Extent 
of  Simony  —  Struggle  between  Henry  IV.  and  Hildebrand  opened  by  the 
election  of  Pope  Alexander  II.— The  election  of  Alexander  II.  declared 


20  THE  STORV  OF   GO\'ERXMENT. 

nail  bjT  Henrj,  who  nominates  Honorios  IL  as  mn  anti-pope  —  Death  of 
Alexander  IL  and  election  of  Hildebrand — Decree  issued  against  im- 
moral priests — Attempt  of  Henry  to  imprison  and  depose  the  Pope  — 
Gregory  pronoonces  the  famous  sentence  of  excommunication  and  depo- 
sition against  Henry — Decisive  battle  of  spiritual  service  reform  begun 

—  Gregory  YIL  deposed  by  the  simoniacal  bishops,  and  Gilbert  of 
Ravenna  elected  as  Pope  Clement  III.  —  Conflict  between  Pope  Innocent 
III.  and  Philip  Augustus  on  the  marriage  question — Ferdinand  and  Isa- 
l>ella  establish  the  *'  Spanish  Inquisition"  — Cause  of  the  Great  Schism 

—  Luther —  The  Peasants'  War — Cause  of  the  Reformation  in  England 

—  Tlie  "  Society  of  Jesus  "  founded  by  Ignatius  of  Loyola  —  Summary  of 
the  constitution  of  the  Jesuits — The  onder  dissolve<i  by  Pope  Clement 
XIV.  under  pressure  of  Catholic  Governments — Emperor  Xapoleon 
crowned  in  Paris  by  Pope  Pius  VII. —  Reestablishment  of  the  order  of 
the  Jesuits  by  Pius  VII. —  Explanation  of  the  administration  of  the 
Catholic  Church  —  Religious  feeling  expressed  in  architecture  —  Macau- 
lay  on  the  Church —  Future  of  the  Church  in  America 357 

CHAPTER    X. 

SIMPLE  REPUBLICAKISM. 

Switzerland,  the  democracy  most  near  to  perfection  —  Her  history  a  polit- 
ical romance  of  intense  interest — The  First  Federal  Constitution  — 
**  Each  for  all  and  all  for  each  " — The  growth  of  the  national  germ  — 
Gradual  union  of  the  different  cantons  —  Battle  of  Sempach  —  The  last 
attempt  of  Austria  to  subdue  the  confederation  —  Capture  of  the  town 
of  Grandson  by  Charles  the  Bold  —  A  new  treaty  signed  —  The  federal 
H^>vereignty  much  strengthened  —  The  Helvetic  Republic  established  in 
Switzerland  by  the  French  directory  —  A  new  constitution  called  the  Act 
of  Mediation  drawn  up  by  Bonaparte  —  A  federal  declaration  lasting 
until  1848  takes  the  place  of  the  Act  of  Mediation  —  Two  legislative 
chambers  created  by  tlie  new  constitution  —  Government  ownership  and 
management  of  postal,  telegraphic,  and  telephonic  systems  —  No  stand- 
ing army  —  Rules  of  the  Federal  Assembly  —  Democratic  character  of 
the  executive  —  The  Council  of  States  —  The  National  Council  —  The 
Federal  census  the  basis  of  representation  to  the  National  Council  — 
Method  of  voting — The  right  of  initiative —  Tlie  famous  Swiss  Referen- 
dum —  Meaning  of  the  referendum  —  If  the  initiative  and  referendum 
systems  prevailed  in  the  United  States,  what  then  ?  —  Professor  Ely's 
illustration  —  The  ancient  Land sgeraeinden,  or  open-air  assemblies — A 
lively  interest  taken  in  national  and  communal  affairs  by  Sw^iss  voters  — 
Socialistic  undertakings  of  the  Communes  —  The  local  self-govei*nment 
of  the  commune  the  cradle  and  the  schoolhouse  which  evolved  the 
present  Swiss  Confederation —  Swiss  traditions  —  Industries  —  Switzer- 
land ti>o  small  for  the  support  of  its  population  — The  **  playground  of 
Europe  *'  —  Peasant  proprietors  numerous  —  A  passion  for  borrowing 
on  mortgage  —  The  Vaudois  peasant  —  Poverty  in  Canton  Vaud  almost 
UAiknown  —  Education  free  of  cost 435 

CHAPTER    XI. 

CONSTITUTION  AX     MONARCHY. 

England  —  The  growth  of  constitutional  monarchy  a  story  full  of  the  most 
startling  contrasts  —  Military  despotism  of  William  the  Norman  — 
The  reign  of  Henry  11.  the  first  in  which  the  people  came  into  promi- 
nence —  One  of  the  greatest  and  saddest  of  regal  histories  —  A  true  step 
toward  the  equalization  of  all  men  before  the  law  —  Henry's  character 
— King  John  as  the  most  expensive  dentist  on  record  —  The  signing  of 
the  Great  (Charter  at  Runymede  —  One  of  the  most  curious  reigns  in 
England  —  Great  gains  made  for  the  people  in  the  development  of  con- 


CONTENTS.  21 

stitutional  government  —  Magna  Charta  revised,  and  Lord  Pembroke 
made  Protector — Amusing  episode  of  tlie  Sicilian  throne  —  Simon  de 
Hontfort^s  check  upon  the  regal  power  the  germ  of  the  present  Britisli 
Ministry  —  Tlie  first  parliament  in  which  the  people  had  any  real  share 
summoned  by  De  Montfort  in  1205  —  **  Sir  Simon  the  Righteous''  — 
Prince  Edward's  return  from  a  successful  crusade  and  public  ovation  — 
Royal  schemes  for  raising  money  —  Germ  of  the  phi-ase  **  Taxation 
witliout  representation  is  tyranny" — King  Edward's  attempt  to  unite 
Scotland,  Wales,  and  England  in  one  country,  and  lay  the  foundation  of 
English  unity — The  Welsh  insurrection  —  Origin  of  the  title  *' Prince 
of  Wales" — The  rising  of  the  popular  tide  and  the  eating  away  of 
tlie  stubborn  rocks  of  royal  privilege  and  prerogative  —  Lawless  career 
of  Edward  IL  —  Appointment  of  a  Committee  of  Government  to  connect 
abuses  in  the  State  —  Gaveston  beheaded  by  order  of  the  nobles  —  A 
new  encroachment  on  royal  power  —  Deposition  of  Edward — Institu- 
tion of  the  poll  tax  —  Insurrection  of  Ihe  peasants  under  Wat,  the  Tiler 

—  Attempt  of  Wat,  the  Tiler,  to  abolish  tlie  cruel  forest  laws  —  Defeat 
of  the  insurgents;  The  beginning  of  the  custom  of  hanging  in  chains  — 
Quarrel  between  Parliament  and  King  Richard  —  Richard  impeached 
and  deposed  by  Bolingbroke,  Duke  of  Hereford  —  The  reign  of  Boling- 
broke  distinguished  for  its  brilliancy  and  for  an  extension  of  the  power 
of  law  —  Insurrection  of  the  people  under  Jack  Cade  during  the  reign 
of  Henry  VI.  — Beginning  of  the  Wars  of  the  Roses  —  Edward  IV.  ex- 
torts money  from  the  citizens  of  London  in  the  form  of  loans,  or  **  benevo- 
lences" —  Quickening  of  popular  intelligence  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII. 

—  The  power  of  the  baronage  broken  —  The  reign  of  Heniy  VIII.  that 
in  which  the  monarchy  reached  its  worst  pitch  of  cruel  absolutism  — 
The  religious  agitation  of  this  time  productive  of  immense  intel- 
lectual results  —  Publication  of  More's  Utopia  —  The  society  of  his 
time  defined  by  Sir  Thomas  as  **  Nothing  but  a  conspiracy  of  the 
rich  against  the  poor"  —  The  obsequious  Parliament  simply  a  tool  of 
regal  power  —  Beginning  of  the  English  Reign  of  Terror  —  Thomas 
Cromwell  beheaded,  the  first  victim  of  his  own  law — The  dogma  of 
divine  right  originated  by  Henry  VIII.  —  A  slavish  devotion  to  a  man 
replacing  the  old  loyalty  to  the  law  —  The  reign  of  Elizabeth  and  epoch 
of  Shakespeare  and  Bacon  —  Defeat  of  the  Spanish  Armada  and  rise  of 
England  to  the  position  of  a  first-class  power  —  The  feeling  of  nation- 
ality intensified  —  The  impetus  given  to  the  minds  of  men  by  the  revival 
of  learning  produces  an  intellectual  harvest  —  Puritanism  the  first  polit- 
ical system  which  recognized  the  grandeur  of  the  people  as  a  whole  — 
Greneral  conception  of  kingship  modified  by  the  events  of  the  sixteenth 
century  —  Charles  raises  his  revenue  by  unjust  taxation  in  all  direc- 
tions —  The  trial  of  Hampden  the  first  declaration  of  independence  on 
the  part  of  an  English  gentleman  —  John  Pym,  the  first  and  finest  of 
parliamentary  leatiers  —  Charles'  minister,  Strafford,  impeached  by  the 
Commons  for  high  treason  —  Execution  of  Strafford,  a  faithful  servant 
to  a  bad  king  —  The  battle  of  Edge  Hill  the  beginning  of  the  grandest 
era  of  English  history  —  Oliver  Cromwell  comes  into  prominence  as  a 
leader  at  the  battle  of  Marston  Moor  —  A  man  of  surpassing  greatness 

—  Modern  England  as  a  political  entity  beginning  with  the  triumph  of 
Cromwell  at  the  battle  of  Naseby — For  the  first  time  a  conscious 
struggle  between  political  tradition  and  political  progress  —  Execution 
of  King  Charles  —  The  monarchy  formallv  abolished  and  the  govera- 
ment  provided  for  by  the  creation  of  a  Council  of  State  selected  from  the 
Commons  —  Dissolution  of  Parliament  by  Cromwell  —  Cromwell's  pro- 
tectorate a  simple  tyranny  —  **  A  time  of  great  peace  and  prosperity" 

—  Cromwell  refuses  the  crown  and  is  formally  inaugurated  Protector  — 
His  sway  over  the  minds  of  men  mighty  even  in  death  —  Eager  royal- 
ists greatly  disappointed  with  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  —  Charles  II.  the 
cleverest  of  the  Stuarts  —  A  crisis  between  King  and  Parliament  pre- 
cipitated by  the  impeachment  of  Danby  —  Consent  of  Charles  to  the 
Habeas  Corpus  Act  —  The  two  years'  struggle  between  King,  Parlla- 


22  THE  STORY  OF  GOVERXMETr. 


meiit,  and  CofninoBi  resnltiiis  in  the  rise  of  m  nev  partj  called  the  Whig 
—  The  rise  of  orgBoizad  parties  in  Pariiaaient  the  most  important  erent 
sinee  the  restoraticyn  —  Polrdeal  acts  of  Charles  IL  daring  the  last  three 
jears  of  his  Ufe  —  The  stor^r  of  the  mistakes  of  James  IL  —  Flight  of 
King  James,  and  transference  of  the  crown  to  William  of  Orange  — 
DechmUions  of  the  Bill  of  Righto  —  The  Triennial  Act  of  William  III/s 
parliament  —  James  I.  a  learned  bat  weak  king  —  Parliament  occapied 
onljT  with  the  reassertion  of  ito  former  righto  —  Illegal  monopolj  insti- 
tuted hj  Cliarles  I.  the  germ  of  present  trasto  and  sjndicates  —  First 
eifecto  of  pariiamentary  freedom  —  Change  in  the  character  of  the 
Ministry  —  The  goTemment  acquiring  a  corporate  character  —  *  Repre- 
sentatires  of  the  people  "  —  The  Whig  nobles  the  most  powerful  ctoss 
in  the  kingdom  —  The  reign  of  the  nobility  a  beneficent  despotism  — 
Haphazard  method  of  the  House  of  Commons  in  the  days  of  George 
IlL  —  The  society  of  the  '*  Friends  of  the  People  ^*  —  Apparently  hope- 
less entanglement  of  the  legislative,  ezecutiTe  and  judicial  functions  — 
Determination  of  Victoria  to  know  the  doings  of  her  ministers — System 
of  the  British  Cabinet  —  Pointo  of  difference  between  the  American  and 
English  systems  of  government  —  Qualities  needful  to  a  minister  in 
England  —  Summary  of  the  development  of  English  government .    •    .  475 

CHAPTER  Xn. 
A   GOYSRXMEXT   OF   MT3TERT   A!n>   FBATESXITT. 

An  odd  incident  connected  with  one  of  the  secret  signs  of  Masonry — 
Legendary  Masonry  of  profound  ethical  interest — The  legend  of  the 
Temple  a  fascinating  myth — Curious  claim  set  up  by  Freemasonry  — 
The  aim  of  all  secret  societies  of  the  past — Freemasonry  the  com- 
pendium of  all  primitive  accumulated  human  knowledge  —  The  history 
of  the  order  divided  into  two  periods — Records  of  a  lodge  of  1648  — 
The  name  *' masonic"  adopted  by  the  society  in  the  last  century  — 
Freemasonry  a  tree  whose  roots  are  spread  through  many  soils  —  The 
masonic  alphabet — Description  of  a  Lodge  —  A  relic  of  astrology — 
Initiation  of  a  novice  into  the  first  or  Apprentice  degree  —  The  second 
degree  of  symbolic  Freemasony,  the  Fellow-Craft —Supposed  significance 
of  the  letter  G  seen  in  the  lodge — The  degree  of  Master  Mason  — 
Another  version  of  the  legend  of  Osiris — The  degree  of  the  Holy  Royal 
Arch  — The  Omnific  Word  —  The  emblem  of  emblems  —  Masonry  at  its 
height  in  France  during  the  revolutionary  period  —  Napoleon  and 
Masonry — Masonic  titles  bestowed  upon  Cambacer^s  —  The  Grand 
Orient  Lodge  —  Its  half  yearly  words  of  command  were  Napoleonic  for- 
mulae—  The  fall  of  Napoleon  attributed  to  Masonry  —  History  of 
Joseph  Balsamo,  alias  Count  Cagliostro  —  The  Egyptian  rite  invented 
by  Cagliostro — Adoptive  Masonry  —  First  lodge  of  adoption — Anec- 
dote of  the  Jew  and  the  Parsee  —  Speculative  or  Philosophical  Masonry 
not  derived  from  Operative — Historic  uncertainty  of  Masonry — First 
appearance  of  the  name  **  Freemason "  —  ^*  Masons  made  here  for  12 
shillings**  — A  complete  change  and  rebirth  in  the  year  1717  —  The  true 
character  of  Freemasonry  in  the  history  of  the  operative  sodalities  and 
successive  ages  of  architects  — The  *•  New  Constitution"  the  Freemasonry 
of  the  present  day  —  The  touch  of  Masonry  penetrating  all  the  scenes 
of  the  Revolution  —  Repeated  attempts  to  make  Freemasonry  a  union  of 
States  and  a  union  of  Grand  Lodges  —  A  Grand  Lodge  territory  sacred 
from  invasion  —  Washington  as  a  Mason  —  Temporary  setback  to  Ma- 
sonry —  The  golden  era  of  Freemasonry  —  The  comer-stone  of  Bunker 
HiU  monument  laid  by  the  Grand  Lodge  —  Anti-masonic  excitement — 
The  famous  ''Declaration"  —  The  '* Masonic  Education  and  Charity 
Trust"  —  Boston  Masonic  Temple  —  The  Masonic  Temple,  Philadelphia, 
the  finest  and  largest  in  the  world  —  Plan  of  the  Chicago  building  — 
Masonry  developed  from  a  simple  secret  society  into  a  great  interna- 
tional bond,  a  government  within  government  ^>  The  purest  of  democra- 


CONTENTS.  28 

cieB  in  theory  and  practice  —  One  of  the  most  binding  oaths  and  obliga- 
tions—  Review  of  history  in  the  United  States— -A  Grand  Lodge  of 
Masons  in  every  State  of  the  Union —  Templar  Masonry  a  semi-military 
organization — Degrees  and  rites  of  the  order  —  The  true  essence  of 
Fieemasonry 567 

CHAPTER    XIII. 

EXPERIMENTAL  BEPUBLICANISM. 

The  Republic  of  France  the  offspring  of  revolution  —  Condition  of  the 
people  prior  to  the  Revolution  of  1793  —  The  peasantry  merely  beasts  of 
burden  —  Liberty  of  speech  and  of  the  press  non-existent  —  Three  gen- 
eral classes  —  Inequality  even  in  the  family  —  The  taxes  all  paid  by  the 
peasantry  and  artisans  —  Misery  of  the  common  people  —  Immorality 
the  fashion  —  View  of  mai-riage  —  Tremendous  political  influence  of 
Voltaire,  Montesquieu  and  Rousseau,  or  dramatist,  lawyer  and  novelist 

—  Louis  XVI.  attempts  reform  — Turgot's  plans  for  financial  retrench- 
ment—  Turgot  and  Malesherbes  forced  to  resign  —  The  famous  **Account 
Rendered  " — Neckar  deposed  —  Calonne  exiled  —  Neckar  recalled  to  ofiice 
—Convocation  of  the  States-General  —  Platform  of  principles  adopted 
by  the  Third  Estate  —  First  difficulty  arising  in  the  assemblage  Icacls  to 
a  live  weeks'  contest  —  **  National  Constituent  Assembly  "  —  First  for- 
mal session  of  the  Assembly  —  The  inviolability  of  its  membei*s  solemnly 
proclaimed  —  Committees  for  business  organized  —  Dismissal  and  exile 
of  Neckar  —  Storming  of  the  Bastile — Curious  anecdotes  prophetic  of  the 
flood  —  Cagliostro,  the  Wizard  —  The  Revolution  baptized  in  blood  — 
Feudalism  abolished,  and  the  first  plank  in  the  platform  of  the  Third 
Estate,  the  equality  of  man,  a  reality  —  Many  beneficent  laws  passed  by 
the  National  Assembly  —  Dissolution  of  the  Assembly  after  two  years' 
term  of  office  —  New  and  formidable  difficulties  before  the  Legislative 
Assembly  —  Twenty-three  years'  war  —  Lafayette  proscribed  —  Sacking 
of  the  Tuilleries  —  The  Assembly  powerless  —  France  invaded  by  the 
Duke  of  Brunswick  —  Louis  XVI.  guillotined  —  A  huge  political  blunder 

—  The  Reign  of  Terror  legalized — Strange  anecdote  of  the  institution 
by  Carrier  of  Republican  marriage  —  Conflict  with  the  Kings  —  The 
Republic  definitively  established  —  The  Revolution  succeeded  by  the 
military  dictatorship  of  Napoleon  —  Charles  X.  a  true  type  of  the 
Bourbon  prince  —  Louis  Philippe  chosen  king  by  the  Chamber  of 
Deputies  —  Universal  suffrage  decreed  by  the  National  Assembly  — 
Napoleon  III.  deposed  by  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  and  the  Republic 
proclaimed  —  The  Constitution  of  France  —  The  present  Republic  the 
offspring  of  1793 031 

CHAPTER  XIV. 

GOVEBNMENT    AMONG    SECRET    ORDERS. 

Every  secret  society  with  a  political  aim  an  act  of  collective  conscience  — 
A  legitimate  hatred  of  evil  the  salvation  of  nations  —  Order  of  the 
Chauffeurs,  or  Burners  —  Rites  of  initiation  —  Marriage  customs  of  the 
order  —  Their  detection  by  the  cunning  of  one  of  their  victims  and  their 
extinction  —  The  Society  of  the  Carbonari  —  Ceremonies  of  the  Lodge  — 
A  mixture  of  Masonry  and  Catholic  mysticism  —  Initiation  into  the 
different  degrees  —  Real  object  of  the  association  —  The  Carbonari 
played  no  small  part  in  general  European  politics  —  Ambition  of  the 
Carbonari  to  obtain  a  constitutional  government  for  their  country  — 
Influence  of  the  order  —  Carbonarism  introduced  into  France  —  Why 
of  special  historic  interest  —  Combination  with  young  Italy,  a  society 
with  identical  aims  —  Society  of  "  American  Hunters  "  —  Lord  Byron 
said  to  have  been  its  head  —  The  society  an  ethical  as  well  as  practical 
one  —  Object  of  the  revolutionary  society  of  Nihilists  — Articles  of  their 


24  THE   STORY  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

belief  —  **From  the  United  to  the  Isolated" — Sentences  on  early 
prisoners  mild  in  comparison  to  those  of  recent  date  —  The  Fenians  one 
of  the  most  active  of  political  secret  societies  —  Indications  that  the 
association  is  not  extinct  —  Founding  of  Fenianism  in  America  —  Cou- 
yentions  at  Chicago  and  Cincinnati  —  Traitors  within  tlie  organization  — 
Report  of  tlie  Investigating  Committee  —  Origin  of  the  word  Fenian  — 
Extracts  from  the  Patriotic  Litany  of  Saint  Lawrence  O*  Toole  —  The 
term  Tammany  first  applied  to  the  Columbian  order  —  Evolution  of  the 
title  —  A  striking  characteristic  —  Record  of  the  organization  —  Early 
history  —  Part  played  in  national  affairs  —  Intricate  relations  with  New 
York  politics  —  A  survivor  of  several  defeats  —  The  Tammany  legend, 
a  very  amusing  and  instructive  tradition  — The  supreme  trait  of  Tam- 
many's character  —  Symbols  of  the  thirteen  tribes  —  Statistics  of 
Tammany  Hall  —  The  leader  of  the  Tammany  forces  —  The  General 
Committee  —  Salaries —  Outline  of  the  plan  of  organization  —  The  work 
of  the  committee  —  Assembly  district  organizations  —  Qualifications 
necessary  for  a  district  leader  —  Strict  discipline 605 

CHAPTER  XV. 

WOMAN    IN    GOVERNMENT. 

Equal  citizenship  of  sexes  first  recognized  during  the  French  Revolution  — 
Partial  citizenship  in  early  American  colonies  —  Wyoming  the  first  real 
political  democracy  of  large  area — England  moving  faster  than  America 
towards  full  female  suffrage — Proofs  of  the  interest  taken  in  it  by  intelli- 
gent women  —  Stain  on  the  history  of  the  State  of  Washington  —  How 
women  have  voted  and  are  likely  to  vote  —  Woman's  political  status  all 
over  the  world  —  The  next  step  from  a  political  must  be  an  industrial 
democracy — The  general  stream  of  human  happiness — The  world's 
debt  to  women  of  simple  lives  —  Sudden  possession  of  excessive  power — 
Depraved  women  not  so  much  the  cause  as  the  result  of  the  corruption  of 
the  middle  ages — Sex  equality  among  primitive  races — Respect  shown  to 
women  by  New  England  Indians  —  Feminine  leadership  in  modem  Africa 

—  Number  of  Beiiangin's  female  warriors  —  Peculiarities  of  Polyandrous 
tribes  —  An  odd  incident  illustrative  of  the  working  of  an  Eastern  mind  — 
Condition  of  woman  in  the  age  of  Homer  —  Degradation  of  woman  in  the 
palmy  days  of  Athens  —  Sparta  alone  the  cradle  of  great  women — The 
HetairsB  —  Aspasia  and  the  government  of  Athens  —  Orientalized  Athens 
corrupts  her  conqueror,  the  Roman  —  The  character  of  Cleopatra  —  Zeno- 
bia — Rome  overrun  by  Grermans  —  Effect  of  feudalism  and  the  Catholic 
church  on  women  —  The  age  of  chivalry  —  Joan  D'  Arc  and  Agnes  Sorel 
—  Decency  in  eclipse  for  three  centuries —  Isabella  of  Castile  —  Mary  A. 
Livermore's  opinion  about  her — John  Knox  and  his  Trumpet  Blast — 
Elizabeth,  the  greatest  of  England'^  queens  —  Madame  de  Maintenon  — 
Madame  de  Pompadour  and  her  deluge  —  The  crowned  women  of  Russia 

—  Striking  feminine  figures  of  the  present  century  —  The  real  queens  of 
to-day,  where  found 721 

CHAPTER    XVL 

SEMT-MILITARY   CONSTITUTIONAL   MONARCHY. 

Reflections  arising  from  wandering  through  the  galleries  of  Versailles  — 
The  most  dramatic  of  recent  historical  events  —  Proclamation  of  Em- 
peror William  —  Legislative  functions  of  the  empire  —  The  executive 
power  in  the  hands  of  the  Emperor — The  Bundesrath  and  its  com- 
mittees —  The  Reichstag  —  Officers  of  State  —  Historical  growth  of 
the  Grerman  empire  —  Earliest,  recorded  Teutonic  invasion  —  Ger- 
mans in  the    Roman  armies  —  Characteristics  of  the  different  tribes 

—  Assemblies  of  the  freemen  —  Important  victory  of  the  German 
tribes  under  Herman  —  Migratory  instincts  of   the    Grermanic    tribes 


CONTENTS.  26 

again  showing  itself  —  History  of  the  Franks  in  Gaul  —  The  treaty 
of  Verdun  —  The  Huns  conquered  by  King  Henry  —  Beginning  of 
town  life  among  the  Germans  —  Alliance  of  Church  and  State  sovereign- 
ties—  Origin  of  Germany*8  claim  to  Italy  —  Revival  of  learning  —  Di- 
vision of  large  duchies  into  small  principalities  the  beginning  of 
individualism  —  Quarrel  of  Guelph  and  Gliibeline  —  Conflict  between 
Emperor  and  Pope  —  Effect  on  Germany  —  Power  of  the  Emperors 
shattered  —  Extincti(mof  the  house  of  Hohenstaufcn  —  The  Interregnum 

—  The  robber  castles  of  tlie  Rhine  —  Growth  of  cathedral  towns  — 
Election  of  Rudolf,  founder  of  the  house  of  Habsburg  —  Charles  IV. 
issues  the  Golden  Bull  —  Invention  of  gunpowder  —  Revolution  in  the 
art  of  war  —  Invention  of  printing  —  Attempt  of  the  rulers  to  check 
the  intellectual  awakeninij  —  The  edict  of  Perpetual  Peace  —  The 
House  of  Habsburg  at  the  culmination  (►f  its  power —  The  Diet  at  Worms 

—  Martin  Luther  placed  under  the  ban  of  the  empire  —  His  translation 
of  the  Bible  —  Spirit  of  the  times  —  Beginning  of  the  *'  Thirty  Years' 
War"  —  Militiry  tactics  of  Gustavus  Adolphus —  The  Peace  of  West- 
phalia—  The  question  of  the  Rhine  provinces  made  a  permanent  issue — 
Change  in  the  character  of  the  German  —  Louis  XIV.  of  France  signs 
the  Peace  of  Utrecht — The  Great  Elector  the  11  rst  to  keep  a  standing 
army  in  time  of  peace  —  Accession  of  Frederick  the  Great  —  The 
"Seven  Years*  War"  —  Frederick  in  the  front  rank  of  great  com- 
manders —  Wisdom  and  energy  of  Frederick's  government  —  Im- 
portant changes  in  the  internal  affairs  of  Germany  —  Separation  of  the 
spiritual  and  secular  power  —  Wars  with  Napoleon  —  War  of  Liberation 
followed  by  a  season  of  peace  —  Constitutions  granted  by  the  kings 
to  their  subjects  —  Unilication  of  Italy  under  Victor  Emanuel  —  Otto 
Von  Bismarck  made  Prime  Minister  by  King  William  of  Prussia  — 
Beginning  of  the  end  of  the  small  principalities  —  War  between  Prussia 
and  Austria  —  Formation  of  the  North  German  Confederation  —  Defeat 

of  the  French  —  Political  unification  of  Germany ,     753 

CHAPTER  XVIL 
COMPLEX     REPUBLICANISM. 

Rrst  movement  toward  Home  Rule  by  the  Colonists  —  Complex  Republi- 
canism still  an  experiment — Congress  of  the  United  States  and  Parlia- 
ment of  Great  Britain  the  models  of  government  for  other  countries  — 
The  Congress  of  the  republics  of  Central  and  South  America  —  Form  of 
government  in  Germany,  Denmark,  and  other  countries  —  Three  coordi- 
nate branches  in  the  government  of  the  United  States  —  The  first  coor- 
dinate branch:  the  legislative  —  General  powers  of  Congress — Article 
I.,  Section  2  of  the  Constitution  —  Number  of  population  required  to 
constitute  a  congressional  district  —  Election  of  members  —  The  great 
power  which  the  House  of  Representatives  exclusively  possesses  —  An- 
other power  exclusively  exercised  by  the  House —  Trials  of  impeachment 

—  Power  of  the  Speaker  of  the  House  —  Importance  of  the  jiosition  — 
Committees  of  the  House  —  Duties  of  the  different  committees  —  A 
member  prohibited  from  holding  any  other  governmentid  office  —  Pro- 
hibited also  from  voting  on  measures  in  which  their  private  interests  are 
affected  —  The  Senate  of  the  United  States  —  Officers  of  the  Senate  — 
Exclusive  power  of  **  consent"  possessed  by  the  Senate  —  Notable  ex- 
ception to  the  general  rule  of  the  Senate  durimx  the  administration  of 
President  Cleveland  —  An  executive  session  —  **  The  billionnaireclub  "  — 
Movement  agitated  for  the  election  of  senators  by  a  direct  vote  of  the 
people  —  Reasons  in  favor  —  The  second  coordinate  branch  of  govern- 
ment: the  executive  —  The  Electoral  College  —  Election  of  the  President 

—  Chief  duty  of  the  President  —  Power  to  pardon  —  Right  of  veto  — 
Reason  for  so  much  legislative  power  in  the  hands  of  the  Executive  — 
The  Cabinet  —  Duties  of  the  Secretary  of  State  —  Assistant  Secretaries 


24  THE  STORY  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

belief — **From  the  United  to  the  Isolated*' — Sentences  on  early 
prisoners  mild  in  compaiison  to  those  of  recent  date  —  The  Fenians  one 
of  the  most  active  of  political  secret  societies  —  Indications  that  the 
association  is  not  extinct  —  Founding  of  Fenianism  in  Ameiica  —  Cou- 
yentions  at  Chicago  and  Cincinnati  —  Traitors  within  tlie  organization  — 
Report  of  the  Investigating  Committee  —  Origin  of  the  word  Fenian  — 
Extracts  from  the  Patriotic  Litany  of  Saint  Lawrence  O' Toole  —  The 
term  Tammany  first  applied  to  the  Columbian  order  —  Evolution  of  the 
title  —  A  striking  characteristic  —  Record  of  the  organization  —  Early 
history  —  Part  played  in  national  affairs  —  Intricate  relations  with  New 
York  politics  —  A  survivor  of  several  defeats  —  Tlie  Tammany  legend, 
a  very  amusing  and  instructive  tradition  — The  supreme  trait  of  Tam- 
many's character  —  Symbols  of  the  thirteen  tribes  —  Statistics  of 
Tammany  Hall  —  Tlie  leader  of  the  Tammany  forces  —  The  General 
Committee  —  Salaries —  Outline  of  the  plan  of  organization  —  The  work 
of  the  committee  —  Assembly  district  organizations  —  Qualifications 
necessary  for  a  district  leader  —  Strict  discipline dd5 

CHAPTER  XV. 

WOMAN    IN    GOVERXMENT. 

Equal  citizenship  of  sexes  first  recognized  during  the  French  Revolution  — 
Partial  citizenship  in  early  American  colonies^ — Wyoming  the  first  real 
political  democracy  of  large  area — England  moving  faster  than  America 
towards  full  female  suffrage  —  Proofs  of  the  interest  taken  in  it  by  intelli- 
gent women  —  Stain  on  die  history  of  the  State  of  Washington  —  How 
women  have  voted  and  are  likely  to  vote  —  Woman's  political  status  all 
over  the  world  —  The  next  step  from  a  political  must  be  an  industrial 
democracy — The  general  stream  of  human  happiness — The  world's 
debt  to  women  of  simple  lives — Sudden  possession  of  excessive  power — 
Depraved  women  not  so  much  the  cause  as  the  result  of  the  corruption  of 
the  middle  ages — Sex  equality  among  primitive  races — Respect  shown  to 
women  by  New  England  Indians  —  Feminine  leadership  in  modem  Africa 
—  Number  of  Beliangin's  female  warriors  —  Peculiarities  of  Polyandrous 
tribes  —  An  odd  incident  illustrative  of  the  working  of  an  Eastern  mind — 
Condition  of  woman  in  the  age  of  Homer  —  Degradation  of  woman  in  the 
palmy  days  of  Athens  —  Sparta  alone  the  cradle  of  great  women — The 
Hetairffi  —  Aspasia  and  the  government  of  Athens  —  Orientalized  Athens 
corrupts  her  conqueror,  the  Roman —  The  character  of  Cleopatra — Zeno- 
bia — Rome  overrun  by  Grermans  —  Effect  of  feudalism  and  the  Catholic 
church  on  women  —  The  age  of  chivalry  —  Joan  D' Arc  and  Agnes  Sorel 

—  Decency  in  eclipse  for  three  centuries —  Isabella  of  Castile  —  Mary  A. 
Livermore's  opinion  about  her — John  Knox  and  his  Trumpet  Blast — 
Elizabeth,  the  greatest  of  England'^  queens  —  Madame  de  Maintenon  — 
Madame  de  Pompadour  and  her  deluge  —  The  crowned  women  of  Russia 

—  Striking  feminine  figures  of  the  present  century —  The  real  queens  of 
to-day,  where  found 721 

CHAPTER    XVL 
REMT-MILITARY   CONSTITUTIONAL   MONARCHY, 

Reflections  arising  from  wandering  through  the  galleries  of  Versailles  — 
The  most  dramatic  of  recent  historical  events  —  Proclamation  of  Em- 
peror William  —  Legislative  functions  of  the  empire  —  The  executive 
power  in  the  hands  of  the  Emperor  —  The  Bundesrath  and  its  com- 
mittees—The Reichstag  —  Officers  of  State  —  Historical  growth  of 
the  German  empire  —  Earliest  recorded  Teutonic  invasion  —  Ger- 
mans in  the   Roman  armies  —  Characteristics  of  the  different  tribes 

—  Assemblies  of  the  freemen  —  Important  victory  of  the  German 
teftM  under  Herman — Migratory  instincts  of   the   Grermanio   tribes 


CONTENTS.  25 

again  showing  itself  —  History  of  the  Franks  in  Gaul  —  The  treaty 
of  Verdun  —  The  Uuns  conquered  by  King  Henry  —  Beginning  of 
town  life  among  the  Germans  —  Alliance  of  Church  and  State  sovereign- 
ties—  Origin  of  Germany's  claim  to  Italy  —  Revival  of  learning — Di- 
vision of  large  duchies  into  small  principalities  the  beginning  of 
individualism  —  Quarrel  of  Guelph  and  Giiibeline  —  Conflict  between 
Emperor  and  Pope  —  Etfect  on  Germany  —  Power  of  the  Emperors 
hiiattcied  —  Extinction  of  the  house  of  lloheustaufen  —  The  Interregnum 

—  TJie  robber  castles  of  tlie  Rhine  —  Growth  of  cathedral  towni^i  — 
Election  of  Rudolf,  founder  of  the  house  of  Ilabsburg  —  Charlej?  IV. 
issues  the  Golden  Bull  —  Invention  of  gunpowder  —  Revolution  in  the 
art  of  war  —  Invention  of  printing  —  Attempt  of  the  rulers  to  check 
the  intellectual  awakeuinif  —  The  edict  of  Perpetual  Peac«  —  The 
House  of  Habsburg  at  the  culmination  of  its  power — The  Diet  at  Womih 

—  Martin  Luther  placed  under  the  ban  of  the  empire  —  His  tran*ilat](>zi 
of  the  Bible  —  Spirit  of  the  times  —  Beginning  of  the  **  Thirty  Yean»' 
AVar"  —  Military  tactics  of  Gustavus  Adolphus —  Tlie  Peare  of  West- 
phalia—  The  question  of  the  Rhino  provinces  m.ide  a  permanent  ihsue — 
Change  in  the  char.icter  of  the  German  —  Louis  XIV.  of  Franre  Kiini*^ 
the  Peace  of  Utrecht  —  The  Great  Elector  tlie  first  to  keep  a  KLauoixic 
army  in  time  of  peace  —  Accession  of  Frederick  the  Great  —  'J'iit: 
"Seven  Years'  War" — Frederick  in  the  front  rank  of  great  c'.»ur- 
manders — Wisdom  and  energy  of  Frederick's  government  —  luu- 
portant  changes  in  the  internal  atfairs  of  Germany  —  Separation  <A  uit 
spiritual  and  secular  power  —  Wars  witli  Napoleon  —  Wai  of  LibeniiuiJ 
followed  by  a  season  of  peace  —  Constitutions  granted  by  the  kium*- 
to  their  subjects  —  Unification  of  Italy  under  Victor  Emauuel  —  Oin 
Von  Bismarck  made  Prime  Minister  by  King  William  of  PruKbia  — 
Beginning  of  the  end  of  the  small  principalities  —  War  l>etwe*»L  PruMu 
and  Austria  —  Formation  of  the  North  German  ConfederaUoii  —  i>vle«' 

of  the  French  —  Political  unification  of  (Termany 'Z^, 

CHAPTER   XVIL 
COMPLEX     KEPUBLICAXISM. 

First  movement  toward  Home  Rule  by  the  Colonists  —  Compler  htewur*- 
canism  still  an  experiment  —  Congress  of  the  United  Staiw  Mjji    tnzt^ 

ment  of  Great  Britain  the  models  of  government  for  uiij*ft  cuiiiit:*^ 

The  Congress  of  the  republics  of  Central  and  South  Amtrrjui i'-.-n..  • 

government  in  Germany,  Denmark,  and  other  countrieh  -  -  '1  iir«^ 
nate  branches  in  the  government  of  the  United  Stater  —  'In-  ia* 
dinate  branch:  the  legislative  —  General  powers  of  C^^mis^w^— 
I.,  Section  2  of   the  Constitution  —  Number  of  popuiviiuj    Paius^r    . 

constitute  a  congressional  district  —  Election  of    nifiuuri "^L**- 

power  which  the  House  of  Representatives  excluhiv«>i- 
other  power  exclusively  exercised  by  the  Houm.'  —  '1  rnur-  «•: 

—  Power  of  the  Speaker  of  the  Hijuse  —  lmjiortaii4-K«  «i    u^ 
Committees  of   the    House  —  Duties   of  the   diflvreis- 
member  prohibited  from  holding  any  other  gtiv- 
hibited  also  from  voting  on  measures  in  wiiifji  tli«i' 
affected  — The  Senate  of  the  Uniled  Stat^iK  — CiHiB^,  ♦* 
Exclusive  power  of  **  consent"    possessed   liv  li«* 
ception  to  the  general  rule  of  the  Senate  duhm:  tm-^, 
President  Cleveland  —  An  executive  session  —  "Tj 
Movement  agitated  for  the  election  of  seuaim  •9.«ht 
people  —  Reasons  in  favor  —  The  secimd 
ment:  the  executive  —  The  Electoral  Col   _ 

—  Chief   duty  of  the   President  —  Paw«r  tD 
Reason  for  so  much  legislative  poww  k 
The  Cabinet  —  Duties  of  the 


26  THE  8TOBY  OF    GOYERNXENT. 

—  Daties  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasurr  luid  his  assistauits— The 
Commiuioner  of  Castoms'— The  Treasurer  of  the  United  States — The 
Begister  of  the  Treasurr — Comptroller  of  the  Currency  —  Director 
of  the  Mint — Commissioner  of  Internal  Revenue  —  Solicitor  of  the 
Treasury — Superintendent  of  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  — 
Other  officials  of  the  Treasury  Department — Publications  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics  —  Bureau  of  Printing  and  Engraving — Secretary 
of  War—  Secretary  of  the  Xavy — Secretary  of  the  Interior — Im- 
portant officials  of  this  department — Office  of  Postmaster-General  — 
Attorney-General  and  assistants  —  Secretary  of  Aj^ricnlture — Commis- 
sioner of  labor — Interstate  Commerce  law  —  The  form  of  State  gov- 
ernment similar  to  that  of  the  national  government  —  Duty  of  a  State 
legislature — State  elections  —  The  annual  political  campaign  a  great 
educator  of  the  masses — Necessity  for  the  people  to  keep  the  closest 
supervision  over  the  doings  of  their  representatives —  The  Constitution 
the  organic  law  of  each  commonwealth — Government  in  the  sparsely 
settled  districts  of  the  country  —  The  power  of  Congress  over  the  Terri- 
tories —  Good  reasons  for  popular  discontent,  and  remedies  suggested  .    d23 


I. 

Origin  of  Government  with  Man 35 

Making  Fire  by  Friction 37 

A  Savage  of  the  Seoond  Period 39 

Two  Mothers  in  the  Days  Before  the  Flood 41 

The  Bow  and  Arrow  or  Second  Stage  of  Sav^ery 43 

The  First  Potter 45 

The  Ffrst  Weaver 47 

Early  Agriculture  in  Europe 49 

Meeting  of  Massaaoit  and  the  Pilgrims 51 

One  of  King  Philip's  Hunting  Lodges 53 

Philip,  the  Last  New  England  King 55 

A  Haman  Heart  Offered  up  to  the  Sun-God    (4  p.  fnlder)  ...  56a 

Wigwam  Building  Among  the  Iroquois 57 

A  Sachem  Rendering  Judgment 59 


From  a  Picture  by  Sir  Edwin  Landseer 63 

The  Police  of  the  Alps 65 

A  Vill^e  of  Beavers 67 

Natives  of  South  Africa  Fighting  Termites 69 

Hiving  a  Bee-Cloud 71 

A  King  of  Beasts  Who  Has  No  Regular  Subjects 73 

A  City  of  Sea  Birds 77 

Kangaroos  Led  by  an  Axis  Deer 79 


28  THE  STOEY  OP  GOVEENMBNT. 

A  Mutiny  in  the  Cage  (4  p  folder) 80a 

A  Prairie  Dog  Town 81 

A  Royal  Bengal  Tiger 83 

The  Wild  Horse 85 

A  Convention  of  Seals 87 

III. 

A  Gypsy  Queen 90 

Roumanian  Gypsies  Begging 91 

A  Gypsy  Camp 95 

In  Prison 97 

A  Group  of  Turkish  Gypsies 99 

A  French  Gypsy  Selling  Baskets 103 

Pleading  for  Freedom 107 

Zigani  Pleading  before  Philip  III.  of  Spain Ill 

A  Camorristic  Tramp 114 

Mob  of  Gentlemen  Storming  the  Parish  Prison  at  New  Orleans  .  117 

A  Gypsy  Circus  (4  p.  folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A  Young  London  Thief 189 

IV. 

Punishing  a  Wife  Beater 143 

Dragging  a  King's  Wives  to  His  Funeral 149 

Making  a  Fetish  of  a  Foeman's  Head 151 

King  M'Teza,  a  Friend  of  Stanley 158 

Taking  a  Prisoner  for  Slavery 158 

Two  Fanti  Ladies 159 

A  Criminal  Decapitated 161 

Ashanti  Girls  Producing  Fetish 165 

A  Fetish  Temple 173  . 

An  Expert  at  the  "  Customs  "  Asking  Applause 175 

A  Town  in  Dahomey 181 

A  Boy's  Head,  part  African  —  part  Arab  of  the  Lower  Nile   .     .  188 

Stanley 185 

The  Hill  of  the  Holy  Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The  Shah 199 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTBATIONS.  29 

Barracks  of  the  Gholams 203 

A  Market  Scene  in  Meshed 205 

An  Elocutionist  in  the  Harem 207 

A  Persian  Village  Belle 210 

Musicians  in  Ispahan  Saluting  the  Sunrise 213 

A  Marriage  Procession 215 

A  Persian  Caravansary  or  Hotel 219 

A  Parsee  Burial  in  Northern  India 221 

A  Guebre  Making  Himself  Known  by  a  Secret  Sign      ....  223 

VI. 

Benares  from  the  Ganges 227 

The  Banyan  or  Sacred  Tree 231 

High  Caste  Brahmins 235 

A  Rich  Fakir 237 

A  Low  Class  Fakir 239 

A  Village  Sutar 241 

Punishment  of  a  Thief  in  Village  India 243 

The  Temple  of  Soma 247 

The  Car  of  Juggernaut 249 

Rushing  to  Juggernaut 251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs  Burying  a  Victim  Alive 255 

A  Siesta  in  the  Jungle 257 

A  Jeweller  in  the  Shadow  of  the  Temple 259 

The  Water  Carrier 261 

Rapid  Transit  in  Northern  India 263 

The  Egg  Dancer  at  a  Marriage  Celebration 265 

A  Travelling  Barber 267 

Husbandry  in  Northern  India 269 

Sowing  the  Seed 271 

Two  Peasant  Women 273 

A  Snake  Charmer 275 

Mount^n  Travel 277 

VII. 

A  Scholastic  Oligarchy 281 

A  GUmpse  of  the  Great  Wall 282 

Opium  Smokers 283 

A  Street  of  Hongs  in  Canton 285 

Canton  on  the  River  Side 287 


22  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

ment,  and  Commons  resulting  In  the  rise  of  a  new  party  called  the  Whig 
—  The  rise  of  organized  parties  in  Parliament  the  most  important  event 
since  the  restoration  — Political  acts  of  Charles  II.  during  the  last  three 
years  of  his  life —  The  story  of  the  mistakes  of  James  II.  — Flight  of 
King  James,  and  transference  of  the  crown  to  William  of  Orange  — 
Declarations  of  the  Bill  of  Rights  —  The  Triennial  Act  of  William  UI.'s 
pai'liament  —  James  I.  a  learned  but  weak  king  —  Parliament  occupied 
only  with  the  reassertion  of  its  former  rights  —  Illegal  monopoly  insti- 
tuted by  Charles  I.  the  germ  of  present  trusts  and  syndicates  —  First 
effects  of  parliamentary  freedom  —  Change  in  the  character  of  the 
Ministry  —  The  government  acquiring  a  corporate  character  —  **  Repre- 
sentatives of  the  people  **  —  The  Whig  nobles  the  most  powerful  class 
in  the  kingdom  —  The  reign  of  the  nobility  a  beneficent  despotism  — 
Haphazard  method  of  the  House  of  Commons  in  the  days  of  George 
III.  —  The  society  of  tlie  "  Friends  of  the  People  '*  —  Apparently  hope- 
less entanglement  of  the  legislative,  executive  and  judicial  functions  — 
Determination  of  Victoria  to  know  the  doings  of  her  ministers  —  System 
of  the  British  Cabinet  —  Points  of  difference  between  the  American  and 
English  systems  of  government  —  Qualities  needful  to  a  minister  in 
England  —  Summary  of  the  development  of  English  government .    .    .  475 

CHAPTER  XII. 

A   CM)VEBNMENT    OF   MYSTERY   AND   FRATERNITY. 

An  odd  incident  connected  with  one  of  the  secret  signs  of  Masonry  — 
Legendary  Masonry  of  profound  ethical  interest — The  legend  of  the 
Temple  a  fascinating  myth  —  Curious  claim  set  up  by  Freemasonry  — 
The  aim  of  all  secret  societies  of  the  past — Freemasonry  the  com- 
pendium of  all  primitive  accumulated  human  knowledge  —  The  history 
of  the  order  divided  into  two  periods  —  Records  of  a  lodge  of  1G48  — 
The  name  ** masonic'*  adopted  by  the  society  in  the  last  century  — 
Freemasonry  a  tree  whose  roots  are  spread  through  many  soils  —  The 
masonic  alphabet — Description  of  a  Lodge  —  A  relic  of  astrology — 
Initiation  of  a  novice  into  the  first  or  Apprentice  degree  —  The  second 
degree  of  symbolic  Freemasony,  the  Fellow-Craft —Supposed  significance 
of  the  letter  G  seen  in  the  lodge  —  The  degree  of  Master  Mason  — 
Another  version  of  the  legend  of  Osiris — The  degree  of  the  Holy  Royal 
Arch  —  The  Omnific  Word  —  The  emblem  of  emblems  —  Masonry  at  its 
height  in  France  during  the  revolutionary  period  —  Napoleon  and 
Masonry — Masonic  titles  bestowed  upon  Cambacenis  —  The  Grand 
Orient  Lodge  —  Its  half  yearly  words  of  command  were  Napoleonic  f  or- 
mulse  —  The  fall  of  Napoleon  attributed  to  Masonry  —  History  of 
Joseph  Balsamo,  alias  Count  Cagliostix)  —  The  Egyptian  rite  invented 
by  Cagliostro  —  Adoptive  Masonry  —  First  lodge  of  adoption — Anec- 
dote of  the  Jew  and  the  Parsee  —  Speculative  or  Philosophical  Masonry 
not  derived  from  Operative — Historic  uncertainty  of  Masonry  —  First 
appearance  of  the  name  **  Freemason '*  —  **  Masons  made  here  for  12 
shillings^*  — A  complete  change  and  rebirth  in  the  year  1717  —  The  true 
character  of  Freemasonry  in  the  history  of  the  operative  sodalities  and 
successive  ages  of  architects — The  *•  New  Constitution*'  the  Freemasonry 
of  the  present  day  —  The  touch  of  Masonry  penetrating  all  the  scenes 
of  the  Revolution  —  Repeated  attempts  to  make  Freemasonry  a  union  of 
States  and  a  union  of  Grand  Lodges  —  A  Grand  Lodge  territory  sacred 
from  invasion — Washington  as  a  Mason  —  Temporary  setback  to  Ma- 
sonry —  The  golden  era  of  Freemasonry  —  The  comer-stone  of  Bunker 
HiU  monument  laid  by  the  Grand  Lodge  —  Anti-masonic  excitement  — 
The  famous  "Declaration**  —  The  ** Masonic  Education  and  Charity 
Trust"  —  Boston  Masonic  Temple  —  The  Masonic  Temple,  Philadelphia, 
the  finest  and  largest  in  the  world  —  Plan  of  the  Chicago  building  — 
Masonry  developed  from  a  simple  secret  society  into  a  great  interna- 
tional bond,  a  government  within  government  ^>  The  purest  of  democra- 


CONTENTS.  28 

cies  in  theory  and  practice  —  One  of  the  most  binding  oaths  and  obliga- 
tions—  Review  of  history  in  the  United  States — A  Grand  Lodge  of 
Masons  in  every  State  of  the  Union —  Templar  Masonry  a  semi-military 
organization — Degrees  and  rites  of  the  order  —  The  true  essence  of 
Freemasonry 567 

CHAPTER    XIIL 

EXPERIMENTAL  BEPUBLICANISM. 

The  Republic  of  France  the  offspring  of  revolution  —  Condition  of  the 
people  prior  to  the  Revolution  of  1793  —  The  peasantry  merely  beasts  of 
burden  —  Liberty  of  speech  and  of  the  press  non-existent  —  Three  gen- 
eral classes  —  Inequality  even  in  the  family  —  The  taxes  all  paid  by  the 
peasantry  and  artisans  —  Misery  of  the  common  people  —  Immorality 
the  fashion  —  View  of  marriage  —  Tremendous  political  influence  of 
Voltaire,  Montesquieu  and  Rousseau,  or  dramatist,  lawyer  and  novelist 

—  Louis  XVI.  attempts  reform  —  Turgors  plans  for  financial  retrench- 
ment—  Turgotand  Malesherbes  forced  to  resign  —  The  famous  "Account 
Rendered" — Neckar  deposed  —  Calonne  exiled  —  Neckar  recalled  to  office 
— Convocation  of  the  States-General  —  Platform  of  principles  adopted 
by  the  Third  Estate  —  First  difficulty  arising  in  the  assemblage  leads  to 
a  five  weeks'  contest  —  **  National  Constituent  Assembly  '*  —  First  for- 
mal session  of  the  Assembly  —  The  inviolability  of  its  membere  solemnly 
proclaimed  —  Committees  for  business  organized  —  Dismissal  and  exile 
of  Neckar  —  Storming  of  the  Bastile — Curious  anecdotes  prophetic  of  the 
flood  —  Cagliostro,  the  Wizard  —  The  Revolution  baptized  in  blood  — 
Feudalism  abolished,  and  the  first  plank  in  the  platform  of  the  Third 
Estate,  the  equality  of  man,  a  reality  —  Many  beneficent  laws  passed  by 
the  National  Assembly  —  Dissolution  of  the  Assembly  after  two  years' 
term  of  office  —  New  and  formidable  difficulties  before  the  Legislative 
Assembly  —  Twenty-three  years'  war —  Lafayette  proscribed  —  Sacking 
of  the  Tuillerles  —  The  Assembly  powerless — France  invaded  by  the 
Duke  of  Brunswick  —  Louis  XVI.  guillotined  —  A  huge  political  blunder 

—  The  Reign  of  Terror  legalized — Strange  anecdote  of  the  institution 
by  Carrier  of  Republican  marriage  —  Conflict  with  the  Kings  —  The 
Republic  definitively  established  —  The  Revolution  succeeded  by  the 
military  dictatorship  of  Napoleon  —  Charles  X.  a  true  type  of  the 
Bourbon  prince — Louis  Philippe  chosen  king  by  the  Chamber  of 
Deputies  —  Universal  suffrage  decreed  by  the  National  Assembly  — 
Napoleon  III.  deposed  by  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  and  the  Republic 
proclaimed —  The  Constitution  of  France  —  The  present  Republic  the 
offspring  of  1793 031 

CHAPTER  XIV. 

GOVEENMENT    AMONG    SECRET    ORDERS. 

Every  secret  society  with  a  political  aim  an  act  of  collective  conscience  — 
A  legitimate  hatred  of  evil  the  salvation  of  nations  —  Order  of  the 
Chauffeurs,  or  Burners  —  Rites  of  initiation  —  Marriage  customs  of  the 
order  —  Their  detection  by  the  cunning  of  one  of  their  victims  and  their 
extinction  —  The  Society  of  the  Carbonari  —  (Ceremonies  of  the  Lodge  — 
A  mixture  of  Masonry  and  Catholic  mysticism  —  Initiation  into  the 
different  degrees  —  Real  object  of  the  association  —  The  Carbonari 
played  no  small  part  in  general  European  politics  —  Ambition  of  the 
Carbonari  to  obtain  a  constitutional  government  for  their  country  — 
Influence  of  the  order  —  Carbonarism  introduced  into  France  —  Why 
of  special  historic  interest  —  Combination  with  young  Italy,  a  society 
with  identical  aims  —  Society  of  **  American  Hunters  *'  —  Lord  Byron 
said  to  have  been  its  head  —  The  society  an  ethical  as  well  as  practical 
one  —  Object  of  the  revolutionary  society  of  Nihilists  — Articles  of  their 


24  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

belief  —  **  From  the  United  to  the  Isolated  ''  —  Sentences  on  early 
prisoners  mild  in  comparison  to  those  of  recent  date  —  The  Fenians  one 
of  the  most  active  of  political  secret  societies  —  Indications  that  tlie 
association  is  not  extinct  —  Founding  of  Fenianism  in  America  —  Cou- 
ventions  at  Chicago  and  Cincinnati  —  Traitors  within  the  organization  — 
Report  of  the  Investigating  Committee  —  Origin  of  the  word  Fenian  — 
Extracts  from  the  Patriotic  Litany  of  Saint  Lawrence  O' Toole  —  The 
term  Tammany  first  applied  to  the  Columbian  order  —  Evolution  of  the 
title  —  A  striking  characteristic  —  Record  of  the  organization  —  Early 
history  —  Part  played  in  national  affairs  —  Intricate  relations  with  New 
York  politics  —  A  survivor  of  several  defeats  —  The  Tammany  legend, 
a  very  amusing  and  instructive  tradition  — The  supreme  trait  of  Tam- 
many's character  —  Symbols  of  the  thirteen  tribes  —  Statistics  of 
Tammany  Hall  —  Tlie  leader  of  the  Tammany  forces  —  The  General 
Committee — Salaries —  Outline  of  the  plan  of  organization  —  The  work 
of  the  committee  —  Assembly  district  organizations  —  Qualifications 
necessary  for  a  district  leader  —  Strict  discipline 665 

CHAPTER  XV. 

WOMAN    IN    GOVERNMENT. 

Equal  citizenship  of  sexes  first  recognized  during  the  French  Revolution  — 
Partial  citizenship  in  early  American  colonies  —  Wyoming  the  first  real 
political  democracy  of  large  area — England  moving  faster  than  America 
towards  full  female  suffrage — Proofs  of  the  interest  taken  in  it  by  intelli- 
gent women  —  Stain  on  Uie  history  of  the  State  of  Washington  —  How 
women  have  voted  and  are  likely  to  vote  —  Woman's  political  status  all 
over  the  world  —  The  next  step  from  a  political  must  be  an  industrial 
democracy  —  The  general  stream  of  human  happiness — The  world's 
debt  to  women  of  simple  lives  — Sudden  possession  of  excessive  power  — 
Depraved  women  not  so  much  the  cause  as  the  result  of  the  corruption  of 
the  middle  ages — Sex  equality  among  primitive  races — Respect  shown  to 
women  by  New  England  Indians —  Feminine  leadership  in  modem  Africa 

—  Number  of  Behangin's  female  warriors  —  Peculiarities  of  Polyandrous 
tribes  —  An  odd  incidentillustrative  of  the  working  of  an  Eastern  mind  — 
Condition  of  woman  in  the  age  of  Homer — Degradation  of  woman  in  the 
palmy  days  of  Athens  —  Sparta  alone  the  cradle  of  great  women  —  The 
HetairsB  —  Aspasia  and  the  government  of  Athens  —  Orientalized  Athens 
corrupts  her  conqueror,  the  Roman  —  The  character  of  Cleopatra — Zeno- 
bia — Rome  overrun  by  Germans  —  Effect  of  feudalism  and  the  Catholic 
church  on  women  —  The  age  of  chivalry  —  Joan  D' Arc  and  Agnes  Sorel 

—  Decency  in  eclipse  for  three  centuries —  Isabella  of  Castile —  Mary  A. 
Livermore's  opinion  about  her — John  Knox  and  his  Trumpet  Blast — 
Elizabeth,  the  greatest  of  England'^  queens  —  Madame  de  Maintenon  — 
Madame  de  Pompadour  and  her  deluge  —  The  crowned  women  of  Russia 

—  Striking  feminine  figures  of  the  present  century —  The  real  queens  of 
to-day,  where  found 721 

CHAPTER    XVL 
SEMI-MILITARY   CONSTITUTIONAL   MONARCHY. 

Reflections  arising  from  wandering  through  the  galleries  of  Versailles  — 
The  most  dramatic  of  recent  historical  events  —  Proclamation  of  Em- 
peror William  —  Legislative  functions  of  the  empire  —  The  executive 
power  in  the  hands  of  the  Emperor — The  Bundesrath  and  its  com- 
mittees —  The  Reichstag  —  Officers  of  State  —  Historical  growth  of 
the  German  empire  —  Earliest  recorded  Teutonic  invasion  —  Ger- 
mans in  the    Roman  armies  —  Characteristics  of  the  different  tribes 

—  Assemblies  of  the  freemen  —  Important  victory  of  the  German 
tribes  under  Herman  —  Migratory  instincts  of   the    Germanic    tribes 


CONTENTS.  26 

again  showing  itself  —  History  of  the  Franks  in  Gaul  —  The  treaty 
of  Verdun  —  The  Huns  conquered  by  King  Henry  —  Beginning  of 
town  life  among  the  Grermans  —  Alliance  of  Church  and  State  sovereign- 
ties—  Origin  of  Germany's  claim  to  Italy  —  Revival  of  learning  —  Di- 
vision of  large  duchies  into  small  principalities  the  beginning  of 
individualism  —  Quarrel  of  Guelph  and  Giiibeline  —  Conflict  between 
Emperor  and  Pope  —  Effect  on  Germany  —  Power  of  the  Emperors 
shattered —  Extinction  of  the  house  of  Uohenstaufen  —  The  Interregnum 

—  The  robber  castles  of  the  Rhine  —  Growth  of  cathedral  towns  — 
Election  of  Rudolf,  founder  of  the  house  of  Habsburg  —  Charles  IV. 
issues  the  Golden  Bull  —  Invention  of  gunpowder  —  Revolution  in  the 
art  of  war  —  Invention  of  printing  —  Attempt  of  the  rulers  to  check 
the  intellectual  awakeuin*^  —  The  edict  of  Perpetual  Peace — The 
House  of  Habsburg  at  the  culmination  of  its  power —  The  Diet  at  Worms 

—  Martin  Luther  placed  under  the  ban  of  tlie  empire  —  His  translation 
of  the  Bible  —  Spirit  of  the  times  —  Beginning  of  tlie  **  Thirty  Years' 
War"  —  Military  tactics  of  Gustavus  Adolphus —  The  Peace  of  West- 
phalia —  Tlie  question  of  the  Rhine  provinces  made  a  permanent  issue — 
Change  in  the  character  of  the  German  —  Louis  XIV.  of  France  signs 
the  Peace  of  Utrecht  —  The  Great  Elector  the  first  to  keep  a  standing 
army  in  time  of  peace  —  Accession  of  Frederick  the  Great  —  The 
*' Seven  Years'  War" — Frederick  in  the  front  rank  of  gi-eat  com- 
mandei-s  —  Wisdom  and  energy  of  Frederick's  government — Im- 
portant changes  in  the  internal  affairs  of  Germany  —  Separation  of  the 
spiritual  and  secular  power  —  Wars  with  Napoleon  —  War  of  Liberation 
followed  by  a  season  of  peace  —  Constitutions  granted  by  the  kings 
to  their  subjects  —  Unification  of  Italy  under  Victor  Emanuel  —  Otto 
Von  Bismarck  made  Prime  Minister  by  King  William  of  Prussia  — 
Beginning  of  the  end  of  the  small  principalities  —  War  between  Prussia 
and  Austria  —  Formation  of  the  North  German  Confederation  —  Defeat 

of  the  French  —  Political  unification  of  Germany 753 

CHAPTER  XVIL 
COMPLEX     REPUBLICANISM. 

First  movement  toward  Home  Rule  by  the  Colonists  —  Complex  Republi- 
canism still  an  experiment  —  Congress  of  the  United  States  and  Parlia- 
ment of  Great  Britain  the  models  of  government  for  other  countries  — 
The  Congress  of  the  republics  of  Central  and  South  America  —  Form  of 
government  In  Germany,  Denmark,  and  other  countries  —  Three  coordi- 
nate branches  In  the  government  of  the  United  States  —  The  first  coor- 
dinate branch:  the  legislative  —  General  powers  of  Congress — Article 
I.,  Section  2  of  the  Constitution  —  Number  of  population  required  to 
constitute  a  congressional  district — Election  of  members  —  The  great 
power  which  the  House  of  Representatives  exclusively  possesses  —  An- 
other power  exclusively  exercised  by  the  House —  Trials  of  impeachment 

—  Power  of  the  Speaker  of  the  House  —  Importance  of  the  position  — 
Committees  of  the  House  —  Duties  of  the  different  committees  —  A 
member  prohibited  from  holding  any  other  governmental  office  —  Pro- 
hibited also  from  voting  on  measures  in  which  their  private  interests  are 
affected  —  The  Senate  of  the  United  States  —  Officers  of  the  Senate  — 
Exclusive  power  of  '*  consent"  possessed  by  the  Senate  —  Notable  ex- 
ception to  the  general  rule  of  the  Senate  durini;  the  administration  of 
President  Cleveland  —  An  executive  session  —  "  The  bllllonnaire  club  "  — 
Movement  agitated  for  the  election  of  senators  by  a  direct  vote  of  the 
people — Reasons  in  favor — The  second  coordinate  branch  of  govern- 
ment: the  executive  —  The  Electoral  College  —  Election  of  the  President 

—  Chief  duty  of  the  President  —  Power  to  pardon — Right  of  veto — 
Reason  for  so  much  legislative  power  in  the  hands  of  the  Executive  — 
The  Cabinet  —  Duties  of  the  Secretary  of  State  —  Assistant  Secretaries 


26  THE  STORY  OP    GOVERNMENT. 

—  Duties  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  and  his  assistants— The 
Commissioner  of  Customs  —  The  Treasurer  of  the  United  States  —  The 
Ba^ster  of  the  Treasury  —  Comptroller  of  the  Currency  —  Director 
of  the  Mint — Commissioner  of  Internal  Revenue  —  Solicitor  of  the 
Treasury — Superintendent  of  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Sxu-vey  — 
Other  officials  of  the  Treasury  Department — Publications  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics  —  Bureau  of  Printing  and  Enji^raving  —  Secretary 
of  War—  Secretary  of  the  Navy — Secretary  of  the  Interior  —  Im- 
portant officials  of  this  department  —  Office  of  Postmaster-Creneral  — 
Attomey-Greneral  and  assistants  —  Secretary  of  Agriculture  —  Commis- 
sioner of  labor  —  Interstate  Commerce  law  —  The  form  of  State  gov- 
ernment similar  to  that  of  the  national  government  —  Duty  of  a  State 
legislature — State  elections  —  The  annual  political  campaign  a  great 
educator  of  the  masses — Necessity  for  the  people  to  keep  the  closest 
supervision  over  the  doings  of  their  representatives  —  The  Constitution 
the  organic  law  of  each  commonwealth — Grovemment  in  the  sparsely 
settled  districts  of  the  country  —  The  power  of  Congress  over  the  Terri- 
tories—  Good  reasons  for  popular  discontent,  and  i^emedies  suggested  .    823 


I. 

Origin  of  Government  with  Man 35 

Making  Fire  by  Friction 37 

A  Savage  of  the  Second  Period 39 

Two  Mothers  in  tlie  Days  Before  the  Flood 41 

The  Bow  and  Arrow  or  Second  Stage  of  Sav^ery 43 

The  First  Potter 45 

The  First  Weaver 47 

Early  Agriculture  in  Europe 49 

Meeting  of  Massasoit  and  the  Pilgrims 51 

One  of  King  Philip's  Hunting  Lodges 58 

Philip,  the  Last  New  England  King 55 

A  Human  Heart  Offered  up  to  the  Sun-God   (4  p.  folder)  ...  56a 

Wigwam  Building  Among  the  Iroquois 57 

A  Sachem  Rendering  Judgment 59 

IL 

From  a  Keture  by  Sir  Edwin  Landseer 63 

The  Police  of  the  Alps 65 

A  Village  of  Beavers 67 

Natives  of  South  Africa  Fighting  Termites 69 

Hiving  a  Bee-Cloud 71 

A  King  of  Beaata  Who  Has  No  Regular  Subjects 73 

A  City  of  Sea  Birds 77 

Kangaroos  Led  by  an  Axis  Deer 79 


28  THE  STOEY  OP  GOVEBNMBNT. 

A  Mutiny  in  the  Cage  (4  p  folder) 80a 

A  Prairie  Dog  Town 81 

A  Royal  Bengal  Tiger 83 

The  Wild  Horse 85 

A  Convention  of  Seals 87 

III. 

A  Gypsy  Queen 90 

Roumanian  Gypsies  Begging 91 

A  Gypsy  Camp 95 

In  Prison 97 

A  Group  of  Turkish  Gypsies 99 

A  French  Gypsy  Selling  Baskets 103 

Pleading  for  Freedom 107 

Zigani  Pleading  before  Philip  III.  of  Spain Ill 

A  Camorristic  Tramp 114 

Mob  of  Gentlemen  Storming  the  Parish  Prison  at  New  Orleans  .  117 

A  Gypsy  Circus  (4  p.  folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A  Young  London  Thief 189 

IV. 

Punishing  a  Wife  Beater 143 

Dragging  a  Bang's  Wives  to  His  Funeral 149 

Making  a  Fetish  of  a  Foeman's  Head 151 

King  M'Teza,  a  Friend  of  Stanley 153 

Taking  a  Prisoner  for  Slavery 158 

Two  Fanti  Ladies 159 

A  Criminal  Decapitated 161 

Ashanti  Girls  Producing  Fetish 165 

A  Fetish  Temple 173  . 

An  Expert  at  the  "  Customs  "  Asking  Applause 175 

A  Town  in  Dahomey 181 

A  Boy's  Head,  part  African  — part  Arab  of  the  Lower  Xile   .     .  188 

Stanley 185 

The  Hill  of  the  Holy  Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The  Shah 199 


LIST   OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  29 

Barracks  of  the  Gholams 203 

A  Market  Scene  in  Meshed 205 

An  Elocutionist  in  the  Harem 207 

A  Persian  Village  Belle 210 

Musicians  in  Ispahan  Saluting  the  Sunrise 213 

A  Marriage  Procession 215 

A  Persian  Caravansary  or  Hotel 219 

A  Parsee  Burial  in  Northern  India 221 

A  Guebre  Making  Himself  Known  by  a  Secret  Sign      ....  223 

VI. 

Benares  from  the  Ganges 227 

The  Banyan  or  Sacred  Tree 231 

High  Caste  Brahmins 235 

A  Rich  Fakir 237 

A  Low  Class  Fakir 239 

A  Village  Sutar 241 

Punishment  of  a  Thief  in  Village  India 243 

The  Temple  of  Soma 247 

The  Car  of  Ju2C£fernaut 249 

Rushing  to  Juggernaut 251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs  Burying  a  Victim  Alive 255 

A  Siesta  in  the  Jungle 257 

A  Jeweller  in  the  Shadow  of  the  Temple 259 

The  Water  Carrier 261 

Rapid  Transit  in  Northern  India 263 

The  Egg  Dancer  at  a  Marriage  Celebration 265 

A  Travelling  Barber 267 

Husbandry  in  Northern  India 269 

Sowing  the  Seed 271 

Two  Peasant  Women 273 

A  Snake  Charmer 275 

Mountain  Travel 277 

VII. 

A  Scholastic  Oligarchy 281 

A  Glimpse  of  the  Great  Wall 282 

Opium  Smokers 283 

A  Street  of  Hongs  in  Canton 285 

Canton  on  the  River  Side 287 


80  THE  STOBY  OF  GOVBBNMBNT. 

Ancient  Chinese  Soldier 289 

The  Fruit  Girl  Who  Became  an  Empress 293 

An  Officer 294 

A  Culprit  in  the  Cangue  Fed  by  His  Wife 295 

Executing  a  Parricide 297 

Hearing  a  Civil  Case 299 

Crushing  a  Rebel 801 

A  Public  Whipping 302 

Escorting  a  Pirate  to  Execution       303 

The  Chinese  Judgment  Day 305 

A  Great  Scholar 307 

A  Schoolmaster  of  Pekin 309 

On  a  Fashionable  Footing 313 

A  Sail  Wagon 815 

A  Rat  Peddler 319 

A  Buddhist  Temple 321 

vm. 

A  Castle  in  Spain 327 

A  Chimuan  Palace  About  the  Time  of  Pizarro 329 

Pizarro  Drawing  the  Line 331 

A  Maguey  Suspension  Bridge 333 

Front  View  of  a  Maguey  Bridge 335 

Modem  Cuzco       337 

Early  Peruvians  Worshipping  the  Sun 339 

Lighting  the  Sacred  Fire 340 

An  Early  Inca  and  His  Queen 341 

An  Inca  Travelling 343 

A  Grovemmental  Hotel 344 

A  Temple  of  the  Sun 345 

Peruvian  Boys  Guarding  a  Grain  Field 347 

Modern  Llamas  as  Beasts  of  Burden 349 

A  Chimuan  Princess 351 

Peruvian  Viceroy  Receiving  Reports  by  Quipus 353 

The  Quipu 355 

IX. 

Theocracy  or  Priestly  Government 357 

Priestess  or  Pythoness  of  Delphi  (4  p.  folder) 859 

Moses  and  the  Tables  of  the  Law 367 

King  Solomon  Deciding  a  Case 870 


LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  81 

The  Crucifixion 876 

The  Holy  Family 377 

Paul  Pleading  His  Case  at  Rome 379 

Lions  Fed  with  Christians 381 

The  Stoning  of  St.  Stephen 383 

Constantine  after  His  Conversion 386 

The  Scourge  of  God 387 

St.  Austin  Converting  the  English  to  Christianity 391 

A  Marriage  among  Ancient  Jews  (4  p.  folder) 395 

Charlemagne  Crowned  by  the  Pope 401 

Priests  in  Prayer  at  the  Deathbed  of  Columbus 403 

An  Officer  of  the  Papal  Household 406 

The  Queen  of  Philip  Augustus  Appealing  to  Rome 410 

The  Trial  of  a  Dead  Pope 413 

Burial  of  a  Monk 417 

Elevation  of  Pope  Pius  VII 419 

A  Jesuit  Missionary 421 

Pope  Leo  XIII 425 

St.  Peter's,  Rome 429 

Oldest  Church  in  United  States 431 

James  Cardinal  Gibbons 433 

X. 

Simple  Republicanism 435 

A  Switzer  of  Ancient  Days 437 

A  Swiss  Village 439 

Napoleonic  Cavalry  Crossing  the  Alps 443 

Crystal  Seekers  on  Mont  Blanc 445 

Election  of  a  President  (4  p.  folder) 449 

The  President  Delivering  His  Inaugural  Address 455 

The  Government  Buildings  at  Berne 457 

The  Great  St.  Bernard 463 

Tell  Escaping  in  the  Storm 465 

A  Giri  of  Berne 469 

The  Peasant's  Friend 471 

The  Swiss  Senate  Chamber 473 

XL 

Constitutional  Monarchy 475 

Harold  the  Saxon  Taking  the  Oath  of  Office 477 


80  THE   STORY   OF  GOVERHMENT. 

Ancient  Chinese  Soldier 289 

The  Fruit  Girl  Who  Became  an  Empress 298 

An  Officer 294 

A  Culprit  in  the  Cangue  Fed  by  His  Wife 295 

Executing  a  Parricide 297 

Hearing  a  Civil  Case 299 

Crushing  a  Rebel SOI 

A  Public  Whipping 802 

Escorting  a  Pirate  to  Execution       308 

The  Chinese  Judgment  Day 806 

A  Great  Scholar 307 

A  Schoolmaster  of  Pekin 309 

On  a  Fashionable  Footing 818 

A  Sail  Wi^on 315 

A  Rat  Peddler 319 

A  Buddhist  Temple 321 

vni. 

A  Castle  in  Spain 327 

A  Chimuan  Palace  About  the  IHme  of  I^zarro 329 

Pizarro  Drawing  the  Line 331 

A  M^uey  Suspension  Bridge 333 

Front  View  of  a  Ms^uey  Bridge 335 

Modem  Cuzco 337 

Early  Peruvians  Worshipping  the  Sun 339 

Lighting  the  Sacred  Fire 340 

An  Early  Inca  and  His  Queen 341 

An  Inca  Travelling 848 

A  Governmental  Hotel 844 

A  Temple  of  the  Sun 846 

Peruvian  Boys  Guarding  a  Grain  Field 847 

Modern  Llamas  as  Beasts  of  Burden 349 

A  Chimnan  Princess 851 

Pemviao  Viceroy  Receiving  Reports  by  Quipus 858 

The  Qnipu 865 

IX. 

ci-aoy  or  Prio«ly  Government 867 

»  or  PytbmiMB  of  Delphi  (4  p.  folder) 859 

"■"*""       "     I  Uw 867 

870 


LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  81 

The  Crucifixion 875 

The  Holy  Family 377 

Paal  Pleading  His  Case  at  Rome 379 

Lions  Fed  with  Christians 381 

The  Stoning  of  St.  Stephen 383 

Constantine  after  His  Conversion 385 

The  Scourge  of  God 387 

St.  Austin  Converting  the  English  to  Christianity 391 

A  Marriage  among  Ancient  Jews  (4  p.  folder) 395 

Charlemagne  Crowned  by  the  Pope 401 

Priests  in  Prayer  at  the  Deathbed  of  Columbus 403 

An  Officer  of  the  Papal  Household 406 

The  Queen  of  Philip  Augustus  Appealing  to  Rome 410 

The  Trial  of  a  Dead  Pope 413 

Burial  of  a  Monk 417 

Elevation  of  Pope  Pius  VII 419 

A  Jesuit  Missionary 421 

Pope  Leo  XIII 425 

St.  Peter's,  Rome 429 

Oldest  Church  in  United  States 431 

James  Cardinal  Gibbons 433 

X. 

Simple  Republicanism 435 

A  Switzer  of  Ancient  Days 437 

A  Swiss  Village 439 

Napoleonic  Cavalrj-  Crossing  the  Alps 443 

Crystal  Seekers  on  Mont  Blanc 445 

Election  of  a  President  (4  p.  folder) 449 

The  President  Delivering  His  Inaugural  Address 455 

The  Government  Buildings  at  Berne 457 

The  Great  St.  Bernard 463 

Tell  Escaping  in  the  Storm 465 

A  Giri  of  Berne 469 

The  Peasant's  Friend 471 

The  Swiss  Senate  Chamber 473 

XL 

Constitational  Monarchy 475 

Harold  the  Saxon  Taking  the  Oath  of  Office 477 


24  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

belief  —  *»From  the  United  to  the  Isolated*' — Sentences  on  early 
prisoners  mild  in  comparison  to  those  of  recent  date  —  The  Fenians  one 
of  the  most  active  of  political  secret  societies  —  Indications  tliat  tlie 
association  is  not  extinct  —  Founding  of  Fenianism  in  America  —  Con- 
ventions at  Chicago  and  Cincinnati  —  Traitors  within  tlie  organization  — 
Report  of  tlio  Investigating  Committee  —  Origin  of  the  word  Fenian  — 
Extracts  from  the  Patriotic  Litany  of  Saint  Lawrence  O' Toole  —  Tlie 
term  Tammany  first  applied  to  the  Columbian  order  —  Evolution  of  the 
title  —  A  striking  characteristic  —  Record  of  the  organization  —  Early 
history  —  Part  played  in  national  affairs  —  Intricate  relations  with  New 
York  politics  —  A  survivor  of  several  defeats  —  The  Tammany  legend, 
a  very  amusing  and  instructive  tradition  — The  supreme  trait  of  Tam- 
many's character  —  Symbols  of  the  thirteen  tribes  —  Statistics  of 
Tammany  Hall  —  The  leader  of  the  Tammany  forces  —  The  General 
Committee — Salaries —  Outline  of  the  plan  of  organization  —  The  work 
of  the  committee  —  Assembly  district  organizations  —  Qualifications 
necessary  for  a  district  leader  —  Strict  discipline 665 

CHAPTER  XV. 

WOMAN    IN    GOVERNMENT. 

Equal  citizenship  of  sexes  first  recognized  during  the  French  Revolution  — 
Partial  citizenship  in  early  American  colonies  —  Wyoming  the  first  real 
political  democracy  of  large  area — England  moving  faster  than  America 
towards  full  female  suffrage  —  Proofs  of  the  interest  taken  in  it  by  intelli- 
gent women  —  Stain  on  the  history  of  the  State  of  Washington  —  How 
women  have  voted  and  are  likely  to  vote  —  Woman's  political  status  all 
over  the  world  —  The  next  step  from  a  political  must  be  an  industrial 
democracy — The  general  stream  of  human  happiness — The  world's 
debt  to  women  of  simple  lives — Sudden  possession  of  excessive  power  — 
Depraved  women  not  so  much  the  cause  as  the  result  of  the  corruption  of 
the  middle  ages — Sex  equality  among  primitive  races —  Respect  shown  to 
women  by  New  England  Indians  —  Feminine  leadership  in  modern  Africa 

—  Number  of  Bebangin's  female  warriors — Peculiarities  of  Polyandrous 
tribes  —  An  odd  incident  illustrative  of  the  working  of  an  Eastern  mind  — 
Condition  of  woman  in  the  age  of  Homer  —  Degradation  of  woman  in  the 
palmy  days  of  Athens  —  Sparta  alone  the  cradle  of  great  women — The 
Hetairaa  —  Aspasia  and  the  government  of  Athens  —  Orientalized  Athens 
corrupts  her  conqueror,  the  Roman —  The  character  of  Cleopatra  —  Zeno- 
bia — Rome  overrun  by  Germans  —  Effect  of  feudalism  and  the  Catholic 
church  on  women  —  The  age  of  chivalry  —  Joan  D' Arc  and  Agnes  Sorel 
—  Decency  in  eclipse  for  three  centuries —  Isabella  of  Castile  —  Mary  A. 
Livermore's  opinion  about  her — John  Knox  and  his  Trumpet  Blast — 
Elizabeth,  the  greatest  of  England';^  queens  —  Madame  de  Maintenon  — 
Madame  de  Pompadour  and  her  deluge  —  The  crowned  women  of  Russia 

—  Striking  feminine  figures  of  the  present  century  —  The  real  queens  of 
to-day,  where  found 721 

CHAPTER    XVI. 

8EMT-M1LITARY   CONSTITUTIONAL   MONARCHY. 

Refiections  arising  from  wandering  through  the  galleries  of  Versailles  — 
The  most  dramatic  of  recent  historical  events  —  Proclamation  of  Em- 
peror William  —  Legislative  functions  of  the  empire  —  The  executive 
power  in  the  hands  of  tlie  Emperor  —  The  Bundesrath  and  its  com- 
mittees —  The  Reichstag  —  OflBcers  of  State  —  Historical  growth  of 
the  German  empire  —  Earliest  recorded  Teutonic  invasion  —  Ger- 
mans in  the    Roman  armies  —  Characteristics  of  the  different  tribes 

—  Assemblies  of  the  freemen  —  Important  victory  of  the  German 
tribes  under  Herman  —  Migratory  instincts  of    the    Grermanic    tribes 


CONTENTS.  26 

again  showing  itself  —  History  of  the  Franks  in  Gaul  —  The  treaty 
of  Verdun  —  The  Huns  conquered  by  King  Henry  —  Beginning  of 
town  life  among  the  Germans  —  Alliance  of  Church  and  State  sovereign- 
ties—  Origin  of  Germany's  claim  to  Italy  —  Revival  of  learning  —  Di- 
vision of  large  duchies  into  small  principalities  the  beginning  of 
individualism  —  Quarrel  of  Guelph  and  Ghibeline  —  Conflict  between 
Emperor  and  Pope  —  Effect  on  Germany  —  Power  of  the  Emperoi*s 
sliatteied  —  Extinction  of  the  house  of  Hohenstaufen  —  The  Interregnum 

—  The  robber  castles  of  the  Rhine  —  Growth  of  cathedral  towns  — 
Election  of  Rudolf,  founder  of  the  house  of  Habsburg  —  Charles  IV. 
issues  the  Golden  Bull  —  Invention  of  gunpowder  —  Revolution  in  the 
art  of  war  —  Invention  of  printing  —  Attempt  of  the  rulers  to  check 
the  intellectual  awakening  —  The  edict  of  Perpetual  Peace  —  The 
House  of  Habsburg  at  the  cuhnination  of  its  power —  The  Diet  at  Worms 

—  Martin  Luther  placed  under  the  ban  of  the  empire  —  His  translation 
of  the  Bible  — Spirit  of  the  times —  Beginning  of  the  **  Thirty  Years' 
War"  —  Military  tactics  of  Gustavus  Adolphus —  Tlie  Peace  of  West- 
phalia—  Tiie  question  of  the  Rhine  provinces  made  a  permanent  issue — 
Change  in  the  character  of  the  German  —  Louis  XIV.  of  France  signs 
the  Peace  of  Utrecht  —  The  Great  Elector  the  lirst  to  keep  a  standing 
army  in  time  of  peace  —  Accession  of  Frederick  the  Great  —  The 
** Seven  Years*  War" — Frederick  in  the  front  rank  of  great  com- 
mandei-s — Wisdom  and  energy  of  Frederick's  government  —  Im- 
portant changes  in  the  internal  affairs  of  Germany  —  Separation  of  the 
spiritual  and  secular  power  —  Wars  witli  Napoleon  —  War  of  Liberation 
followed  by  a  season  of  peace  —  Constitutions  granted  by  the  kings 
to  their  subjects  —  Unification  of  Italy  under  Victor  Emanuel  —  Otto 
Von  Bismarck  made  Prime  Minister  by  King  William  of  Prussia  — 
Beginning  of  the  end  of  the  small  principalities  —  War  between  Prussia 
and  Austria  —  Formation  of  the  North  German  Confederation  —  Defeat 

of  the  French  —  Political  unification  of  Germany 753 

CHAPTER   XVIL 
COMPLEX     REPUBLICANISM. 

First  movement  toward  Home  Rule  by  the  Colonists  —  Complex  Republi- 
canism still  an  experiment — Congress  of  the  United  States  and  Parlia- 
ment of  Great  Britain  the  models  of  government  for  other  countries  — 
The  Congress  of  the  republics  of  Central  and  South  America  —  Form  of 
government  in  Germany,  Denmark,  and  other  countries  —  Three  coordi- 
nate branches  in  the  government  of  the  United  States  —  The  first  coor- 
dinate branch:  the  legislative  —  General  powers  of  Congress — Article 
L,  Section  2  of  the  Constitution  —  Number  of  population  required  to 
constitute  a  congressional  district  —  Election  of  members  —  The  great 
power  which  the  House  of  Representatives  exclusively  possesses  —  An- 
otlier  power  exclusively  exercised  by  the  House —  Trials  of  impeachment 

—  Power  of  the  Speaker  of  the  Hcmse  —  Importance  of  the  position  — 
Committees  of  the  House  —  Duties  of  the  different  committees  —  A 
member  prohibited  from  holding  any  other  governmental  office  —  Pro- 
hibited also  from  voting  on  measures  in  which  their  private  interests  are 
affected  — The  Senate  of  the  United  States  —  Officers  of  the  Senate  — 
Exclusive  power  of  '*  consent"  possessed  by  the  Senate  —  Notable  ex- 
ception to  the  general  rule  of  tlie  Senate  durinjx  the  administration  of 
President  Cleveland  —  An  executive  session  —  "  The  billionnaire  club  "  — 
Movement  agitated  for  the  election  of  senators  bv  a  direct  vote  of  the 
people  —  Reasons  in  favor  —  The  second  coordinate  branch  of  govern- 
ment: the  executive  —  The  Electoral  College  —  Election  of  the  President 

—  Chief  duty  of  the  President  —  Power  to  pardon  —  Right  of  veto  — 
Reason  for  so  much  legislative  power  in  the  hands  of  the  Executive  — 
The  Cabinet  —  Duties  of  the  Secretary  of  State  —  Assistant  Secretaries 


26  THE  STORY  OP    GOVERNMENT. 

—  Duties  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  and  his  assistants  —  The 
Commissioner  of  Customs  —  The  Treasurer  of  the  United  States — The 
Bflgister  of  the  Treasury — Comptroller  of  the  Currency  —  Director 
of  the  Mint — Commissioner  of  Internal  Revenue  —  Solicitor  of  the 
Treasury  —  Superintendent  of  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  — 
Other  officials  of  the  Treasury  Department — Publications  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics  —  Bureau  of  Printing  and  Engraving  —  Secretary 
of  War—  Secretary  of  the  Navy — Secretary  of  the  Interior  —  Im- 
portant officials  of  this  department  —  Office  of  Postmaster-General  — 
Attorney-General  and  assistants  —  Secretary  of  Agriculture  —  Commis- 
sioner of  labor — Interstate  Commerce  law  —  The  form  of  State  gov- 
ernment similar  to  that  of  the  national  government  —  Duty  of  a  State 
legislature — State  elections  —  The  annual  political  campaign  a  great 
educator  of  the  masses  —  Necessity  for  the  people  to  keep  the  closest 
supervision  over  the  doings  of  their  representatives — The  Constitution 
the  organic  law  of  each  commonwealth — Government  in  the  sparsely 
settled  districts  of  the  country  —  The  power  of  Congress  over  the  Terri- 
tories —  Good  reasons  for  popular  discontent,  and  i*emedies  suggested  .    823 


Origin  of  Government  with  Man 35 

Making  Fire  by  Friction 37 

A  Savage  of  the  Seuond  Period 39 

Two  Mothers  in  the  Days  Before  the  Flood 41 

The  Bow  and  Arrow  or  Second  Stage  of  Savagery 43 

The  First  Potter 45 

The  Flrat  Weaver 47 

Early  Agriculture  in  Europe 49 

Meeting  of  Massasoit  and  the  PilgrimH 51 

One  of  King  Philip's  Hunting  Lodges 53 

Philip,  the  Last  New  England  King 55 

A  Human  Heart  Offered  up  to  the  Sun-God   (4  p.  folder)  ...  56a 

Wigwam  Building  Among  the  Iroquois 57 

A  Sachem  Rendering  Judgment 59 

II. 

From  a  Picture  by  Sir  Edwin  Landscer 63 

The  Police  of  the  Alps 65 

A  Village  of  Beavers 67 

Natives  of  South  Africa  Fighting  Termites 69 

Hiving  a  Bee-Cloud 71 

A  King  of  Beasts  Who  Has  No  Regular  Subjects 73 

A  City  of  Sea  Birds 77 

Kangaroos  Led  by  an  Axis  Deer 79 


28  THE  STOEY  OP  GOVEENMBNT. 

A  Mutiny  in  the  Cage  (4  p  folder) 80a 

A  Prairie  Dog  Town 81 

A  Royal  Bengal  Tiger 83 

The  Wild  Horse 85 

A  Convention  of  Seals 87 

III. 

A  Gypsy  Queen 90 

Roumanian  Gypsies  Begging 91 

A  Gypsy  Camp 95 

In  Prison 97 

A  Group  of  Turkish  Gypsies 99 

A  French  Gypsy  Selling  Baskets 103 

Pleading  for  Freedom 107 

Zigani  Pleading  before  Philip  III.  of  Spain Ill 

A  Camorristic  Tramp 114 

Mob  of  Gentlemen  Storming  the  Parish  Prison  at  New  Orleans  .  117 

A  Gypsy  Circus  (4  p.  folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A  Young  London  Thief 139 

IV. 

Punishing  a  Wife  Beater 143 

Dragging  a  King's  Wives  to  His  Funeral 149 

Making  a  Fetish  of  a  Foeman's  Head 151 

King  M'Teza,  a  Friend  of  Stanley 153 

Taking  a  Prisoner  for  Slavery 158 

Two  Fanti  Ladies 159 

A  Criminal  Decapitated 161 

Ashanti  Girls  Producing  Fetish 165 

A  Fetish  Temple 173  . 

An  Expert  at  the  "  Customs  "  Asking  Applause 175 

A  Town  in  Dahomey 181 

A  Boy's  Head,  part  African  — part  Arab  of  the  Lower  Nile   .     .  188 

Stanley 185 

The  Hill  of  the  Holy  Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The  Shah 199 


LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  29 

Barracks  of  the  Gholams 203 

A  Market  Scene  in  Meshed 205 

An  Elocutionist  in  the  Harem 207 

A  Persian  Village  Belle 210 

Musicians  in  Ispahan  Saluting  the  Sunrise 213 

A  Marriage  Procession 215 

A  Persian  Caravansary  or  Hotel 219 

A  Parsee  Burial  in  Northern  India 221 

A  Guebre  Making  Himself  Known  by  a  Secret  Sign      ....  223 

VI. 

Benares  from  the  Ganges 227 

The  Banyan  or  Sacred  Tree 231 

High  Caste  Brahmins 235 

A  Rich  Fakir 237 

A  Low  Class  Fakir 239 

A  Village  Sutar 241 

Punishment  of  a  Thief  in  Village  India 243 

The  Temple  of  Soma 247 

The  Car  of  Juggernaut 249 

Rushing  to  Juggernaut  .     .         251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs  Burying  a  Victim  Alive 255 

A  Siesta  in  the  Jungle 257 

A  Jeweller  in  the  Shadow  of  the  Temple 259 

The  Water  Carrier 261 

Rapid  Transit  in  Northern  India 263 

The  Egg  Dancer  at  a  Marriage  Celebration 265 

A  Travelling  Barber 267 

Husbandry  in  Northern  India 269 

Sowing  the  Seed 271 

Two  Peasant  Women 273 

A  Snake  Charmer 275 

Mountain  Travel 277 

VII. 

A  Scholastic  Oligarchy 281 

A  Glimpse  of  the  Great  Wall 282 

Opium  Smokers 283 

A  Street  of  Hongs  in  Canton 285 

Canton  on  the  River  Side 287 


28  THE  STOEY  OP  GOVKBNMENT. 

A  Mutiny  in  the  Cage  (4  p  folder) 80a 

A  Prairie  Dog  Town 81 

A  Royal  Bengal  Tiger 83 

The  Wild  Horse 85 

A  Convention  of  Seals 87 

III. 

A  Gypsy  Queen 90 

Roumanian  Gypsies  Begging 91 

A  Gypsy  Camp 95 

In  Prison 97 

A  Group  of  Turkish  Gypsies 99 

A  French  Gypsy  Selling  Baskets 103 

Pleading  for  Freedom 107 

Zigani  Pleading  before  Philip  III.  of  Spain Ill 

A  Camorristic  Tramp 114 

Mob  of  Gentlemen  Storming  the  Parish  Prison  at  New  Orleans  .  117 

A  Gypsy  Circus  (4  p.  folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A  Young  London  Thief 139 

IV. 

Punishing  a  Wife  Beater 143 

Dragging  a  King's  Wives  to  His  Funeral 149 

Making  a  Fetish  of  a  Foeman's  Head .     .     .  151 

King  M'Teza,  a  Friend  of  Stanley 153 

Taking  a  Prisoner  for  Slavery 158 

Two  Fanti  Ladies 159 

A  Criminal  Decapitated 161 

Ashanti  Girls  Producing  Fetish 165 

A  Fetish  Temple 173  . 

An  Expert  at  the  "  Customs  "  Asking  Applause 175 

A  Town  in  Dahomey 181 

A  Boy's  Head,  part  African  — part  Arab  of  the  Lower  Nile    .     .  188 

Stanley 185 

The  Hill  of  the  Holy  Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The  Shah 199 


LIST   OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  29 

Barracks  of  the  Gholams 203 

A  Market  Scene  in  Meshed 205 

An  Elocutionist  in  the  Harem 207 

A  Persian  Village  Belle 210 

Musicians  in  Ispahan  Saluting  the  Sunrise 213 

A  Marriage  Procession 215 

A  Persian  Caravansary  or  Hotel 219 

A  Parsee  Burial  in  Northern  India 221 

A  Guebre  Making  Himself  Known  by  a  Secret  Sign      ....  223 

VI. 

Benares  from  the  Ganges 227 

The  Banyan  or  Sacred  Tree 231 

High  Caste  Brahmins 235 

A  Rich  Fakir 237 

A  Low  Class  Fakir .239 

A  Village  Sutar 241 

Punishment  of  a  Thief  in  Village  India 243 

The  Temple  of  Soma 247 

The  Car  of  Jucjcjernaut 249 

Rushing  to  Juggernaut  .     .         251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs  Burying  a  Victim  Alive 255 

A  Siesta  in  the  Jungle 257 

A  Jeweller  in  the  Shadow  of  the  Temple 259 

The  Water  Carrier 261 

Rapid  Transit  in  Northern  India 263 

The  Egg  Dancer  at  a  Marriage  Celebration 265 

A  Travelling  Barber 267 

Husbandry  in  Northern  India 269 

Sowing  the  Seed 271 

Two  Peasant  Women 273 

A  Snake  Charmer 275 

Mountain  Travel 277 

VII. 

A  Scholastic  Oligarchy 281 

A  Glimpse  of  the  Great  Wall 282 

Opium  Smokers 283 

A  Street  of  Hongs  in  Canton 285 

Canton  on  the  River  Side 287 


80  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Ancient  Chinese  Soldier 289 

The  Fruit  Girl  Who  Became  an  Empress 293 

An  Officer 294 

A  Culprit  in  the  Cangue  Fed  by  His  Wife 295 

Executing  a  Parricide 297 

Hearing  a  Civil  Case 299 

Crushing  a  Rebel 301 

A  Public  Whipping 302 

Escorting  a  Pirate  to  Execution       303 

The  Chinese  Judgment  Day 305 

A  Great  Scholar 307 

A  Schoolmaster  of  Pekin 309 

On  a  Fashionable  Footing 313 

A  Sail  Wagon 315 

A  Rat  Peddler 319 

A  Buddhist  Temple 321 

VIII. 

A  Castle  in  Spain 327 

A  Chimuan  Palace  About  the  Time  of  Pizarro 329 

Pizarro  Drawing  the  Line 331 

A  Maguey  Suspension  Bridge 333 

Front  View  of  a  Maguey  Bridge 335 

Modem  Cuzco       337 

Early  Peruvians  Worshipping  the  Sun 339 

Lighting  the  Sacred  Fire 340 

An  Early  Inca  and  His  Queen 341 

An  Inca  Travelling 343 

A  Governmental  Hotel 344 

A  Temple  of  the  Sun 345 

Peruvian  Boys  Guarding  a  Grain  Field 347 

Modern  Llamas  as  Beasts  of  Burden 349 

A  Chimuan  Princess 351 

Peruvian  Viceroy  Receiving  Reports  by  Quipus 353 

The  Quipu 355 

IX. 

Theocracy  or  Priestly  Grovemment 857 

Priestess  or  P3rthone8s  of  Delphi  (4  p.  folder) 359 

Moses  and  the  Tables  of  the  Law 367 

King  Solomon  Deciding  a  Case 870 


LIST   OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  ^1 

The  Crucifixion 875 

The  Holy  Family 377 

Paul  Pleading  His  Case  at  Rome 379 

Lions  Fed  with  Christians 381 

The  Stoning  of  St.  Stephen 383 

Constantine  after  His  Conversion 385 

The  Scourge  of  God 387 

St.  Austin  Converting  the  English  to  Christianity 391 

A  Marriage  among  Ancient  Jews  (4  p.  folder) 395 

Charlemagne  Crowned  by  the  Pope 401 

Priests  in  Prayer  at  the  Deathbed  of  Columbus 403 

An  Officer  of  the  Papal  Household 406 

The  Queen  of  Philip  Augustus  Appealing  to  Rome 410 

The  Trial  of  a  Dead  Pope 413 

Burial  of  a  Monk 417 

Elevation  of  Pope  Pius  VII 419 

A  Jesuit  Missionary 421 

Pope  Leo  XIII.    / 425 

St.  Peter's,  Rome 429 

Oldest  Church  in  United  States 431 

James  Cardinal  Gibbons 433 

X. 

Simple  Republicanism 435 

A  Switzer  of  Ancient  Days 437 

A  Swiss  Village 439 

Napoleonic  Cavalry  Crossing  the  Alps 443 

Crystal  Seekers  on  Mont  Blanc 445 

Election  of  a  President  (4  p.  folder) 449 

The  President  Delivering  His  Inaugural  Address 455 

The  Government  Buildings  at  Berne 457 

The  Great  St.  Bernard 463 

Tell  Escaping  in  the  Storm 465 

A  Giri  of  Berne 469 

The  Peasant's  Friend 471 

The  Swiss  Senate  Chamber 473 

XI. 

Constitutional  Monarchy 475 

Harold  the  Saxon  Taking  the  Oath  of  Office 477 


82  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Hubert,  an  early  English  judge,  killed  at  the  Horns  of  the  Altar 

(4  p.  folder) 479 

Magna  Charta  Island 483 

King  John  in  Anger 485 

A  Crusader 487 

Edward  I.  the  Successful  Crusader ^     .     .     .  489 

Coronation  Chair  of  Edward  IH.  with  the  Stone  of  Scone  .     .     .  497 

Windsor  Castle,  the  Queen's  Favorite  Residence 501 

Interior  of  the  House  of  Commons ...  507 

Block,  Ax,  and  Mask  of  Headsman  in  Days  of  Sir  Thomas  More  511 

Execution  of  Lady  Jane  Grey 513 

Shakespeare's  Birthplace  before  Restoration 515 

Shakespeare  Reading  before  Queen  Elizabeth 517 

"  My  Lord,  we've  time  to  finish  the  game  and  beat  the  Spaniards 

too" 519 

Death  of  Queen  Elizabeth 521 

Charles  1 525 

The  Trial  of  Hampden        529 

Cromwell  Refusing  the  Crown 539 

William  Ewart  Gladstone 543 

Westminster  in  1647 545 

An  American  Bible  Presented  to  the  Queen.  (4  p.  folder)   .     .     .  553 

The  Great  Seal  of  England 561 

The  Cabinet  Room  in  Downing  St 563 

Queen  Victoria 565 

XII. 

Albert  Pike 571 

Albert  Edward,  Prince  of  Wales,  in  Masonic  Dress 575 

The  Cathedral,  Baptistry,  and  Leaning  Tower  of  Pisa    ....  579 

A  French  Lodge  for  the  Reception  of  an  Apprentice,  1745      .     .  583 

A  French  Lodge  for  the  Reception  of  a  Master                      ...  .587 

The  Cathedral  at  Rheims 591 

Old  Tun  Tavern  at  Philadelphia,  where  the  first  American  Lodge 

was  organized 595 

Napoleon's  Retreat  from  Leipsic  (4  p.  folder) 599 

Green  Dragon  Tavern,  Boston,  where  the  first  Boston  Lodge  was 

organized 607 

Brother  George  Washington's  Masonic  Apron 615 

George  Washington 625 

A  Female  Crusader  Saving  a  Knight  Templar 627 


LIST  OP   ILLUSTRATIONS.  38 

XIII. 

Napoleon  Crossing  the  Alps 633 

Assassination  of  Gustaviis  III.  (4  p.  folder) 639 

Turgot  Pavilion  of  the  Louvre 647 

Hotel  des  Invalides        651 

A  French  Monastery  During  the  Revolution 657 

Assassination  of  Julius  Cajsar 659 

A  Woodman's  Hut  at  Ardennes,  on  the  Way  to  Waterloo,  1815,  661 

xrv. 

An  Initiation  Among  the  Chauffeurs 667 

Chauffeurs    Disguised    as  Musicians  and  Flower  Peddlers  (4  p. 

folder)        671 

A  Travelling  Cardinal  Apprehensive  of  Carbonari,  Italy  in  1 800  .  679 

Russian  Political  Exiles  in  Siberia  (4  p.  folder) 685 

John  Boyle  O'Reilly 693 

Richard  Croker 099 

Meeting  of  Tammany  and  Manco  Capac 705 

Carbonari  Making  Merry  in  a  Monastery  Cellar  (4  p.  folder)  .     .  711 

XV. 

A  Head  Dance  by  Squaws 723 

The  Female  Soldiers  of  Dahomev  Fiirhtinc:  tlie  French       .     .     .  727 

Hetaira}  of  Ancient  Athens 729 

The  Present  Empress  of  Russia '  .  735 

Isabella  Receiving  Columbus 739 

Women  Watching  the  Outbreak  of  Vesuvius 743 

Wilhelmine,  the  Child  Queen  of  the  Netherlands 745 

Mary  A.  Livermore 751 

XVI. 

Colossal  Statues  of  the  Genii  or  War  and  Peace  at  ^Munich  (4  j). 

folder) 757 

Brunhild  Beholding  her  Rival,  Guthrun,  at  the  Side  of  Siegfried 

(4  p.  folder) 765 

An  Early  German  Warrior 769 

Two  Games — A  German  Scene  in  the  17th  Century  (4  p.  folder)  773 
Wittikind  the  Saxon  Received  into  Baptism  with  Charlemagne 

for  Sponsor 779 

Modem  German  Artillerymen 781 


82  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Hubert,  an  early  English  judge,  killed  at  the  Horns  of  the  Altar 

(4  p.  folder) 479 

Magna  Charta  Island 483 

King  John  in  Anger 485 

A  Crusader 487 

Edward  I.  the  Successful  Crusader ^     .     .     .  489 

Coronation  Chair  of  Edward  III.  with  the  Stone  of  Scone  .     .     .  497 

Windsor  Castle,  the  Queen's  Favorite  Residence 501 

Interior  of  the  House  of  Commons ...  507 

Block,  Ax,  and  Mask  of  Headsman  in  Days  of  Sir  Thomas  More  511 

Execution  of  Lady  Jane  Grey 513 

Shakespeare's  Birthplace  before  Restoration 515 

Shakespeare  Reading  before  Queen  Elizabeth 517 

"  My  Lord,  we've  time  to  finish  the  game  and  beat  the  Spaniards 

too" 519 

Death  of  Queen  Elizabeth 521 

Charles  1 525 

The  Trial  of  Hampden       529 

Cromwell  Refusing  the  Crown 539 

William  Ewart  Gladstone 543 

Westminster  in  1647 545 

An  American  Bible  Presented  to  the  Queen.  (4  j).  folder)  .     .     .  553 

The  Great  Seal  of  England 561 

The  Cabinet  Room  in  Downing  St 563 

Queen  Victoria 565 

XII. 

Albert  Pike 571 

Albert  Edward,  Prince  of  Wales,  in  Masonic  Dress 575 

The  Cathedral,  Baptistry,  aiid  Leaning  Tower  of  Pisa    ....  579 

A  French  Lodge  for  the  Reception  of  an  Apprentice,  1745  .  .  583 
A  French  Lodge  for  the  Reception  of  a  Master                     ....  587 

The  Cathedral  at  Rheims 591 

Old  Tun  Tavern  at  Philadelphia,  where  the  first  American  Lodge 

was  organized 595 

Napoleon's  Retreat  from  Leipsic  (4  p.  folder) 599 

Green  Dragon  Tavern,  Boston,  where  the  first  Boston  Lodge  was 

organized 607 

Brother  George  Washington's  Masonic  Apron 615 

George  Washington 625 

A  Female  Crusader  Saving  a  Knight  Templar 627 


LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.  38 

XIII. 

Napoleon  Crossing  the  Alps 633 

Assassination  of  Giistavus  III.  (4  p.  folder) 639 

Turgot  Pavilion  of  the  Louvre 647 

Hotel  des  Invalides        651 

A  French  Monastery  During  the  Revolution 657 

Assassination  of  Julius  Cneaar 659 

A  Woodman's  Hut  at  Ardennes,  on  the  Way  to  Waterloo,  1815,  661 

XIV. 

An  Initiation  Among  the  Chauffeurs 667 

Chauffeurs    Disguised    as  Musicians  and  Flower  Peddlers  (4  p. 

folder)        671 

A  Travelling  Cardinal  Apprehensive  of  Carbonari,  Italy  in  ISOO  .  679 

Russian  Political  Exiles  in  Siberia  (4  p.  folder) 685 

John  Boyle  O'Reilly 693 

Richard  Croker 099 

Meeting  of  Tammany  and  Manco  Capac 705 

Carbonari  Making  Merry  in  a  Monastery  Cellar  (4  p.  folder)   .     .  711 

XV. 

A  Head  Dance  by  Squaws 723 

The  Female  Soldiers  of  Dahomey  Figliting  tlie  French       .     .     .  727 

Hetaira?  of  Ancient  Athens 729 

The  Present  Empress  of  Russia '  .  735 

Isabella  Receivinij  Columbus 739 

Women  Watching  the  OutVireak  of  Vesuvius 743 

Wilhelmine,  the  Child  Queen  of  the  Netherlands 745 

Mary  A.  Livermore 751 

XVI. 

Colossal  Statues  of  the  Genii  or  War  and  Peace  at  Municli  (4  p. 

folder) 757 

Brunhild  Beholding  her  Rival,  Guthrun,  at  the  Side  of  Siegfried 

(4  p.  folder) 765 

An  Early  German  Warrior 769 

Two  Games — A  German  Scene  in  the  17th  Century  (4  p.  folder)  773 
Wittikind  the  Saxon  Received  into  Baptism  with  Charlemagne 

for  Sponsor 779 

Modem  German  Artillerymen 781 


84  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  Makers  of  Modem  Germanv 783 

Robber  Knights  Stealing  on  a  Hamlet 785 

The  Crowning  of  a  Poet  with  Laurel 787 

Grerman  Monks  Copying  3Ianuscript  Before  the  Invention  of  Type  789 

The  Return  of  Herman  After  Beaming  the  Romans 793 

John  of  Gutenberg 795 

German  Soldiers  of  Modem  Days 797 

Beethoven 799 

German  Children  of  To-dav 801 

Frederick  the  Great  lieturning  from  the  Battle  <»f  Prague  .     .     .  805 

Frederick  the  Great  Holding  a  War  Council 807 

The  Xun  and  the  Flowers 811 

Louise  of  Prussia  and  Her  Two  Sons,  Afterwards  Frederick 

William  IV.  and  Kaiser  William 813 

The  Surrender  of  Paris 815 

The  3Iakers  of  Modern  Italy 819 

XVII 

Complex  Republicanism 823 

The  Discoverer  of  America 825 

The  Pilgrims'  First  Sunday  in  America 827 

The  White  House 833 

Thomas  Jefferson 835 

Ben  Franklin 837 

Faneuil  Hall,  Boston 839 

Bunker  Hill  Monument  at  Charlestown,  Mass 841 

Custom  House,  Xew  Orleans 845 

Naval  Heroes  of  the  Late  War 847 

Military  Heroes  of  the  Late  War 849 

Wall  Street,  New  York 853 

Grand  Army  Parade  at  Washington  at  Close  of  War  (4  p.  folder)  855 

New  York  Post-Office 861 

The  Capitol  at  Washington 863 

Lincoln 865 

Grant 869 

A  Daughter  of  the  Republic 873 

The  Spirit  of  Home  (4  p.  folder) 877 


PROPERTY  OF 
1ME  Onv  OF  NEW  YORK 


To  come  as  near  as  possible  to  an 

:./'      understaiidiiig  of  the  origin  of  govem- 

■■  ment  we    need   the   iviiigs    of   imagination 

adilwl  to  the  nimlile  foet  of  science,  as  we 

move  along  the  stmnge,  the  marvellous  track 

tliat  goes  bick  to  the  very  dawn  of  human  life  on  tliis  jJanet. 

Tlie  great  antiquity  of  man  is  a  fact  on  which  scientists  are 
agreed,  though  only  in  the  last  forty  years  has  it  been  estal)- 
lished  beyond  a  doubt,  but  the  exa<"t  amount  i>f  time  man  has 
been  on  earth  will  probably  never  be  settled.  It  is  tolerably 
certain,  however,  that  man  existed  before  the  glacial  period, 
and  that  the  age  of  the  liuman  mee  dates  back  for  over  one 
hundred  thousand  and  possibly  three  hundred  thousand  years. 
The  different  periods  of  hnnian  develoimieiit  liave  been  styled 
by  men  of  science,  Savagei-y,  liarbarisni,  and  Civilization,  and 
the  first  two  have  been  divided  into  three  grades. 

The  first  or  lower  period  of  savagery  dates  from  the  infancy  of 
the  race  to  the  time  when  man  began  to  catch  fish  for  a  living 
and  discovered  the  making  of  fire  by  simple  friction,  as  depicted 
in  our  first  illustration.  "  More  light !  "  was  the  dying  exclama- 
tion and  aspiration  of  Goethe,  the  greatest  of  German  thinkers. 


86  TCE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT, 

to 

to  «> 

How  stmnge  that 'xKe^waterial  element,  fire,  which  is  the  source 
of  light,  which  is*  vhe  ^ign  or  synlbol  of  progress,  should  mark 
scientifically  the  jJractical  beginning  of  the  enlightenment  of  man- 
kind I  This"  first  period  lasted  many  .thousand  years,  and  during 
that  space,  marjjs  only  weapons  were  clubs  and  stones  rubbed  into 
a  rude  resemblaiicQ  to  ax -heads,  and  tiet^  to  sticks  by  thongs  of 
tough  grass.  -  5^.c-second  picture  repr^^^sents  a  man  of  this  period 
at  the  door  of  hit;  ^cay^-hQnie  in  th^  wildh  of  ancient  Switzerland. 
And  the  third  pi^'ttite/  'i"Two  mbtlicrs  in  the  days  before  the 
flood,"  shows  how  thlb-c^w-honjci  ©f  primitive  man  in  Europe  was 
often  invaded  by  the  cave-bear,  against  whose  attacks  our  savage 
ancestors  were  practically  powerless,  unless  they  happened  to  hit 
with  an  early  blow  a  certaui  part  of  the  animal's  head.  Next  came 
the  middle  period  of  savagery,  which  is  scientifically  dated  from  the 
invention  of  the  bow  and  arrow,  that  by  its  use  in  hunting  gave 
man  a  new  kind  of  food  and  a  new  means  of  defence  against 
enemies. 

The  second  stage  of  savagery,  which  is  indicated  by  the  fourth 
illustration,  lasted  an  almost  equal  space  until  the  discovery  of 
the  art  of  making  pottery  which  marked  a  new  step  in  human 
development  and  introduced  the  first  stage  of  barbarism.  This 
period  stretched  a  weary,  dreary  length  of  many  centuries  until 
man  began,  on  the  Eastern  Hemisphere,  to  domesticate  cattle  and 
live  by  flocks  and  herds ;  or,  on  the  Western  Hemisphere,  as  among 
the  Pueblo  and  Zuni  tribes  of  this  continent,  to  plant  maize,  to 
build  an  excellent  system  of  irrigation  (from  which  our  govern- 
ment might  take  a  hint  to-day)  and  to  make  houses  of  adobe 
brick. 

Goquet,  in  the  last  century,  fii*st  propounded  the  notion  that 
the  way  pottery  came  to  be  made  was  that  some  wooden  vessel,  or 
some  basket  woven  of  bark,  was  daubed  with  damp  clay  to  protect 
it  from  the  fire  and  then  the  people,  finding  the  clay  harden  into 
a  durable  state,  conceived  the  idea  of  making  vessels  of  clay 
instead  of  wood.  Goquet  says  that  Captain  Gonneville,  who 
visited  the  natives  of  southeastern  South  America  in  1502,  found 
their  household  utensils  plastered  with  a  kind  of  clay  to  the 
thickness  of  a  finger  which  prevented  the  fire  from  burning  them. 

This  second  stage  of  barbarism  extends  also  for  ages  till,  on 


to 


•  •  • 


THE   OEIGIN   OP   GOVERNMENT   WITH   MAN.  87 

the  slow  Upward  journey  pt-ti^:iace,  wfj-rcjch  the  third  elation 
of  barbarism  which  is  laax^i^a-lly'thfe'disKJpT^rjrcit  the  process  of 
Btneltiiig  iron  and  the  use  of  ii-on  tools  and  weapons.  This,  like- 
wise, endures  with  slightly  increasing  degrees  of  refinement  for 
ages  and  ages  until  v^ha^.i;^  called  the  first  period  of  civilization, 
chaiacterized  by  the  ^njiention  of  an  alphabet  Jo'eSpress  to  the 
eye  the  sounds  of  the  "(dl^iie  or,  in  fine,  tlie  «fc£  .writing. 


If  we  stop  to  consider  liow  many  thousand  j-cars  elapsed  from 
the  invention  of  the  art  of  writing  to  tlie  invention  of  the  print- 
ing-press, during  wliicli  many  sepiuuto  so-t>alled  civilizations  flour- 
ished and  faded,  we  shall  be  more  able  to  undei-stand  that  many 
thousands  of  years  must  have  intervened  between  the  invention  of 
the  bow  and  arrow  by  some  early  savage  of  tlie  third  period  to 
the  invention  of  a  jar  of  pottery.  The  following  approximate 
table  may  help  to  fix  in  the  memory  the  great,  slow  steps  of  the  race. 


88  THE  STORY  OF  GOVERNMENT. 

TAB  lb:- 


.  •  •  *  •  •  • 

:ABLB:-jbF  H^lMk -PROGRESS. 


/  ••.JRrtiSt  STAGE  (SF-  alVAGERY. 
.   **V'  ■ ^ 1^ 


i       From  the  Infancy* of  the  race  and  a  diet  of 
42,700  years.    •  >   Nuts,  Roots,  *and  Fi^iits  to  catching  fish  and 

•  I   learning  the  u8<ift|^Rre. 


,^*_ 


•  ••• 


-** —  * ,■  •• 


the  invention  of  the 


TIVIRD  CTAGE  OB'SATAGERY. 


42,007  years. 


•  •  From  llie  Bow  and  An-ow  to  the  invention  of 
an  Earthen  Pot  for  cooking. 


FIRST  STAGE  OF  BARBARISM. 


Q"i  nnA  mroo«,  i       From  the  Art  of  Pottery  to  the  Herding  or 

j»,uuu  years.  j    Domestication  of  Cattle,  etc 

SECOND  STAGE  OF  BARBARISM. 


21,000  years. 


From  Herding  Cattle,  Planting  Maize,  Build- 
ing of  Irrigating  Canals  and  Houses  of  Stone 
and  Adobe  Brick,  to  the  discovery  of  a  process 
of  Smelting  Iron  Ore. 


THIRD  STAGE  OF  BARBARISM. 


7,000  years. 


From  the  Smelting  of  Iron  and  Making  of 
Iron  Tools  and  Weapons  to  the  invention  of  an 
Alphabet. 


FIRST  STAGE  OF  CIVILIZATION. 


From  the  Invention  of  Writtijn  Signs  to  ex- 
press the  sounds  of  the  human  tongue  and  the 
consciousness  of  thinking,  as  a  thing  of  value 
in  itself,  to  be  treasured  up  or  recorded,  to 
some  time  in  the  future,  when  government  of, 
for,  and  by  the  people  shall  be  an  established 
fact  all  over  the  world,  and  when  poverty  and 
material  misery  shall  be  merely  a  dim  memory 
of  the  past,  i)08sibly  the  year  2,100  of  our 
present  reckoniug. 


«  Ernest  George  RavenRtein,  F.  R.  G.  S..  of  LoihIoii,  fipirlnj;  the  fertile  regions  of  the 
earth  at  28,209,000  xqiiure  miles,  and  fl^irini;  the  worltl't*  i)Oi)ulation  at  1.407,600.000, 
or  31  to  a  sfiuare  mile,  an<l  takin;;  as  a  basts  for  estimate  the  standard  of  living,  as 
exLning  to-<iay  in  va^iou^  climates,  reckons  that  the  world,  if  brought  to  its  maximnm 
of  cultivation,  can  supply  5.9!H,()00.000  nersons  with  f(K)d.  The  increase  of  iM)pulatlon 
might  l)e  materially  alTvcted  by  many  unforeseen  new  conditions,  social  or  meteorological: 
but  weighing  all  the  data,  and  considering  all  the  causes  likelv  to  hasten  or  retard 
growth  of  iK>iiulatioii  in  various  <iuarters,  Mr.  R.  assumes  that  the  increase  each  decade  irlll 
be  ten  per  cent.  A<'cei>ting  those  figures  as  correct,  in  IJKK)  the  present  population  will  have 
increased  to  1,.'«7,«0(),0(K).  In  IIKW,  there  will  Ihj  2,332.000.000;  in  2000,  3.420,000,000;  and  in  the 
year  2072,  there  would  Ikj  .').l)77,000,000.  or  within  a  few  millions  of  what  the  earth  can  support. 
Consequently  in  the  next  1H2  vears  Civilization  must  have  learned  myriad  new  lessons,  or 
else  a  cataclysm  must  occur,  destroying  the  present  human  race  to  a  great  extent,  and  per- 
haps starting  man  on  the  second  stage  of  Civnization. 


A  OAVASB  op  THE  BFrroiTO  PERIOD. 


40  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  marked  decrease  in  years  indicated  by  the  preceding  table 
from  the  third  stage  of  savagery  to  the  invention  of  pottery,  and 
the  still  greater  decrease  to  the  second  stage  of  barbarism,  are 
estimated  on  the  principle  that  every  additional  invention  has 
a  power  of  stimulation  on  the  inventive  faculty.  But  while 
studying  such  a  table  as  this,  though  we  cannot  help  feeling  how 
slow  the  evolution  has  been,  it  must  not  dishearten  us,  nor  need 
it  fill  us  with  a  profound  sadness  for  the  vanished  millions,  since 
the  progress,  though  slow,  has  been  sure,  and  with  a  promise  of 
evei  higher  certainties  in  the  future.  The  history  of  the  race,  as 
revealed  to  us  by  the  most  recent  reseai'ches  of  science,  points 
conclusively  to  the  fact  that  man  in  the  mass,  as  well  as  man  the 
unit,  is  destined  to  develop  the  animal,  and  probably  to  become 
something  more. 

The  final  findings  of  science  are  growing  to  coincide  with  the 
fundamental  sense  of  all  intelligent  religions ;  that  man's  life  is 
not  merely  summed  up  in  the  verbs,  to  eat,  drink,  sleep,  think, 
propagate,  and  die.  For  it  is  now  beyond  dispute  that  in  the  slow 
process  of  this  development  from  the  naked  savage  of  few  words 
and  equally  few  ideas,  who  toiled  in  caves  and  fished  with  his 
paws  in  streams,  to  the  avemge  man  of  to-day,  who  uses  a  vocabu- 
lary of  ten  thousand  words  to  express  his  ideas,  or  to  the  scholar 
who  uses  twenty  thousand,  many  races  of  animals  that  were  on  the 
eaith  with  the  early  man  liave  entirely  disappeared.  Does  not  this 
seem  to  imply  that  man  is  not  merely  a  cooking  animal,  an  inventing 
and  a^spiring  one,  but  that  he  is  pre-eminently  a  surviving  animal? 

There  is  also  another  reflection  that  naturally  arises  from  a  study 
of  the  ascending  struggle  of  humanity,  which  is,  indeed,  that  we 
are  what  we  are  to-day,  not  merely  on  account  of  our  individual 
struggles  and  difficult  development  amid  adverse  circumstances, 
or  our  fortunate  location  and  easy  development  in  pleasant  circum- 
stiinces,  but  largely  in  either  case,  because  many  millions,  through 
the  countless  ages  of  savagery,  barbarism,  and  early  civilization, 
have  toiled  and  suflfered  to  make  possible  our  present  average  of 
collective  comfort  (still,  alas !  a  pitifully  small  one)  as  well  as 
our  individual  approximations  towards  a  wise,  kindly,  dignified 
existence ;  in  short,  towards  the  happiness  of  refinement  and  the 
refinement  of  happiness. 


40  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  marked  decrease  in  years  incUeated  by  the  preceding  table 
from  the  third  stage  of  savagery  to  the  invention  of  pottery,  and 
the  still  greater  decrease  to  the  second  stage  of  barbarism,  are 
estimated  on  the  principle  that  every  additional  invention  has 
a  power  of  stimulation  on  the  inventive  faculty.  But  while 
studying  such  a  table  as  this,  though  we  cannot  help  feeling  how 
slow  the  evolution  has  been,  it  must  not  dishearten  ns,  nor  need 
it  fill  us  with  a  profound  sadness  for  the  vanished  millions,  since 
the  progress,  though  slow,  lias  been  sure,  and  with  a  promise  of 
evei  higher  certainties  in  the  future.  The  history  of  the  race,  as 
revealed  to  us  by  the  most  recent  researches  of  science,  points 
eonelusivelv  to  the  fact  that  man  in  the  mass,  as  well  as  man  the 
unit,  is  destined  to  develop  the  animal,  and  probably  to  become 
something  more. 

Tlie  final  findings  of  science  are  gro\iing  to  coincide  with  the 
fundamental  sense  of  all  intelligent  religions :  that  man's  life  is 
not  merely  summed  up  in  the  verl>s,  to  eat,  drink,  sleep,  think, 
projxigate,  and  die.  For  it  is  now  beyond  dispute  that  in  the  slow 
process  of  this  development  from  the  naked  savage  of  few  words 
and  equally  few  ideiis,  who  toiled  in  eaves  and  fished  with  his 
paws  in  streams,  to  the  average  man  of  t<>-ilay,  who  uses  a  vocabu- 
lary of  ten  thousand  wonls  to  express  his  ide;^,  or  to  the  scholar 
who  uses  twenty  ihous;ind,  manv  races  of  animals  that  were  on  the 
eanh  with  the  e;u*ly  man  have  entirely  disapjvared.  Does  not  this 
setr-m  TO  imply  tliat  man  is  not  merely  a  civkii^ir  animal,  an  inventing 
and  aspiring  one,  but  that  he  is  pre-eminenily  a  surviving  animal? 

Tiiriv  is  also  another  refle^nion  that  naturally  ;\rises  f n^m  a  study 
of  the  ;\scendin£r  stniiTfirl^  of  humaniiv.  which  is.  indeed,  that  we 
ai>e  wiiai  we  are  to-dav.  not  mcn^lv  on  acconn;  of  our  individual 
simiTiries  and  diificult  development  amid  adverse  cin'umstances, 
or  our  fortunate  ltx\ition  and  e;isy  development  in  ple^isant  cireum- 
star.ovs.  but  lars^-Iv  in  either  c^uk*.  Ixvanse  manv  millions,  thxougfa 
the  eoTir-:!ess  ac^«  of  Siwa^erw  Iwrlwrisrn.  aini  eariv  civilization, 
have  toiled  ar.d  suffered  to  make  jy^ssiKo  or4r  pivtseni  average  of 
collective  comfon  (^s::ll,  ai:is !  a  pitifully  small  one^  as  well  as 
our  individual  api^rvxiniations  tow^nis  a  wise,  kir.tilv.  di^rnified 
exis:er.L-^:  in  shon.  towanis  the  hap;>iues5>  of  T^fir.cment  and  the 
ivirir^jr::!  of  hav'V-ir-ess. 


TWO    MOTTTERS 


HEFOBE   THE   FLOOB. 


42  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Having  thus  briefly  outlined  the  large  steps  of  the  race  during 
which  government  has  had  its  slow  evolution,  suppose  we  try  for 
a  definition  of  our  own  for  this  word.  Suppose  we  say  «  Govern- 
ment  is  the  condition  resulting  from  an  attempt  to  live  together 
under  some  rule  or  order." 

As  to  its  origin,  some  scholars  consider  the  family  as  the  germ 
of  it,  though  some  find  it  rather  difficult,  when  considering  how 
promiscuous  were  the  relations  of  the  sexes  in  the  early  days  of 
the  race,  to  say  \vith  certainty  that  government  developed  from 
the  family.  Indeed,  the  opposite  has  been  ably  maintained,  that 
family,  as  we  understand  it  now,  developed  from  government  and 
the  sense  of  property.^  The  weight  of  likelihood,  however,  seems 
to  be  on  the  side  of  those  who  regard  the  family  as  the  germ, 
and  this  being  so  it  becomes  necessary  to  consider  how  many  kinds 
of  family  relations  have  been  invented  or  accepted  by  the  human 
race. 

Fii*st  is  the  Consanguine  family,  in  which  brothers  and  sisters 
freely  intermarried.  This  form  to-day  seems  to  us  a  most  horrible 
thing  and  is.  punished  by  the  laws  of  every  civilized  State. 
Nevertheless  it  lingered  so  long  in  the  minds  of  men  that  the 
great  empire  of  Egypt,  which  was  in  the  dawn  of  civilization  and 
not  in  the  scientific  period  of  barbarism,  not  only  countenanced  it, 
but  made  it  conspicuous  by  the  example  of  the  royal  family. 

The  Second  form  of  the  family,  or  of  the  married  relation,  has 
heen  called  the  Punaluan,  and  was  extant  until  recently  in  the 
Hawaiian  Islands.  The  missionaries,  in  1820,  found  it  prevalent, 
and  not  being  scientists  or  philosophei*s  were  disproportionately 
shocked  by  it.  This  consists  in  all  the  brothers  of  a  family  being 
the  husbands  of  each  other's  wives,  or  in  the  sisters  being  the 
wives  of  each  sister's  husband;  and  brother  was  a  term,  with 
them,  of  wide  significance,  comprehending  cousins  to  the  third  or 
foui-th  degree. 

Caesar,  the  maker  of  so  much  histoiy,  and  the  historian  of  his 
own  creations,  the  profound  observer  as  well  as  the  practical 
statesman,  makes  a  note  of  finding  Punaluan  marriage  among 
the  ancient  Britons  in  groups  of  ten  or  twelve. 


»  Some  scholars  hold  that  Government,  modelled  after  the  exercise  of  authority  in  the 
family  unit,  is  made  necessary  by  the  existence  of  property. 


THE  OEIGTN   OP   GOVERNMENT   WrTE   MAN, 


AmongtlieCicn 
Indi.iiis,dlbo,!iiel 

of     this     PuiIllllXTI 

marriage    still  Itii 
ge„,-anm„«h„ 
mAiTies  the  eldeit 
(Imghter    lii^nng    \  ngl  t  f 
all  her  sisiters,  if  la    tti-.ln. 
to  support   theni      But  it  is 
hardlv  nece'jsarj  to  add  thit  tiu  I 
exhibitions    of    amorous   indust  i 
are  exceedingly  rare  among  the  ' 


K   OP   BAVAflBRT. 


42  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Having  thus  briefly  outlined  the  large  steps  of  the  race  during 
which  government  has  had  its  slow  evolution,  suppose  we  try  for 
a  definition  of  our  own  for  this  word.  Suppose  we  say  "  Govern- 
ment is  the  condition  resulting  from  an  attempt  to  live  together 
under  some  rule  or  order." 

As  to  its  origin,  some  scholars  consider  the  family  as  the  germ 
of  it,  though  some  find  it  rather  difficult,  when  considering  how 
promiscuous  were  the  relations  of  the  sexes  in  the  early  days  of 
the  race,  to  say  with  certainty  that  government  developed  from 
the  family.  Indeed,  the  opposite  has  been  ably  maintained,  that 
family,  as  we  understand  it  now,  developed  from  government  and 
the  sense  of  property.^  The  weight  of  likelihood,  however,  seems 
to  be  on  the  side  of  those  who  regard  the  family  as  the  germ, 
and  this  being  so  it  becomes  necessary  to  consider  how  many  kinds 
of  family  relations  have  been  invented  or  accepted  by  the  human 
race. 

Firet  is  the  Consanguine  family,  in  which  brothers  and  sisters 
freely  intermarried.  This  form  to-day  seems  to  us  a  most  horrible 
thing  and  is.  punished  by  the  laws  of  every  civilized  State. 
Nevertheless  it  lingered  so  long  in  the  minds  of  men  that  the 
great  empire  of  Egypt,  which  was  in  the  dawn  of  civilization  and 
not  hi  the  scientific  period  of  barbarism,  not  only  countenanced  it, 
but  made  it  conspicuous  by  the  example  of  the  royal  family. 

The  Second  form  of  the  family,  or  of  the  married  relation,  has 
been  called  the  Punaluan,  and  was  extant  until  recently  in  the 
Hawaiian  Islands.  The  missionaries,  in  1820,  found  it  prevalent, 
and  not  being  scientists  or  philosophers  were  disproportionately 
shocked  by  it.  This  consists  in  all  the  brothel's  of  a  family  being 
the  husbands  of  each  other's  wives,  or  in  the  sisters  being  the 
wives  of  each  sister's  husband;  and  brothei*s  was  a  tenn,  with 
them,  of  wide  significance,  comprehending  cousins  to  the  third  or 
fourth  degree. 

CaBsar,  the  maker  of  so  much  history,  and  the  historian  of  his 
own  creations,  the  profound  observer  as  well  as  the  practical 
statesman,  makes  a  note  of  finding  Punaluan  marriage  among 
the  ancient  Britons  in  groups  of  ten  or  twelve. 


*  Some  scholars  hold  that  Government,  modelled  after  the  exercise  of  authority  in  the 
family  unit,  is  made  necessary  by  the  existence  of  proi)erty. 


THE  ORIGIN   OP   GOVERNMENT   WITH   MAN. 


AmoiigtlieCio\\ 
Indians,also  a  relit, 
of    this    Punaluin 
marriage    still  lui 
gere,  —  a  man  «  ho 
marries   the  eldest 
daughter    hi\ing   i  iigl  t   t 
all  her  sisters,  if  lie   \i  aliLs 
to  support   them      But  it  a, 
hardly  necessary  to  add  tlwt  sueli 
exhibitions    of    amorous    iiidusti  i 
are  exceedingly  rare  among  tl  e  (  i 

THE   BOW   AND   AUBOW  Olt   BK(. 


44  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

In  South  America,  likewise,  among  certain  tribes  where  women 
are  not  regarded  as  mere  beasts  of  burden  traces  of  a  similar 
practice  still  exist. 

The  Thiid  form  of  family  which  has  been  called  the  Syndyas- 
mian,  still  extant  among  some  of  the  Indian  tribes  on  this  conti- 
nent, is  a  step  upward  in  morals  as  we  regard  them.  It  consists 
in  the  pairing  of  one  woman  and  one  man,  not,  however,  with  the 
intent  or  with  the  absolute  promise  of  continuity,  because  divorce 
at  will  ^vas  a  right  felt  to  be  inherent  in  both  parties.  This 
form  of  family  has  almost  entirely  vanished  from  the  world  as 
a  national  or  tribal  characteristic,  though  it  crops  up  quite 
frequently  in  individual  cases. 

The  Fourth  kind  of  family  has  been  styled  the  Patriarchal. 
This  is  the  marriage  of  one  man  to  several  women,  or  polygamy^ 
and  still  flourishes  among  some  Asiatic  nations,  yet  by  no  means 
to  the  extent  that  it  once  did ;  and  the  attempt  to  revive  it  in  our 
occidental  civilization  has  proved  a  priestly  failure,  although  the 
Mormon  colony  of  Utah,  perhaps  because  of  its  co-operative 
features,  has  been  conspicuous  as  a  commercial  success. 

The  converse  of  Polygamy,  or  Polygjmy  as  it  should  be  called 
—  that  is  Polyandry,  or  the  marriage  of  one  woman  to  several 
men,  though  existent  to-day  in  Ceylon,  Australasia  and  Tibet, 
appears  to  be  rather  an  exceptional  sidegro^vth  than  a  regular 
grade  of  development. 

The  Fifth  form  of  family,  or  the  Monogamic,  is  that  which 
flourishes  to-day  among  all  civilized  races,  and  that  seems  to  be 
the  ultimate,  the  last  word  of  advice  which  nature  has  to  give 
concerning  human  happiness ;  for  nearly  all  the  higher  animals, 
as  well  as  man,  develop  to  the  having  of  only  one  mate. 

Does  it  not  seem,  on  the  whole,  rather  a  reasonable  inference 
that  the  moment  when  absolute  promiscuity  in  the  fundamentally 
necessary  and  fundamentally  righteous  relations  of  the  sexes 
ceased  to  prevail,  and  the  idea  ensued  of  limiting  marriage  to 
certain  members  of  a  clan  or  aggregation  of  human  individuals, 
the  idea  of  rule  and  order  arose  from  such  instinctive  limitation 
and  then  the  idea  of  authority^  to  enforce  rule  or  order,  dawned 
on  the  dull  brain  of  the  primeval  savage  ? 

We  thus  grasp  the  ideas    of  order  and  of  authority,  as    twin 


THE  ORIGIN   OF  GOVERNMENT   WITH   MAN.  45 

elements  of  a  concrete  concept  of  government :  order  desired  by 
the  general  mind,  and  authority  devised  and  then  lodged  some- 
where to  maintain  and  increase  it. 


ilHil^  '1^ 

p 

IHr'^M  ^M 

y 

'"  •  >Mj0# 

■P'f 

1 

t^l 

Bfi'-at 

p 

^^^ 

Imp  ^fw|t^^HH 

m 

^^^^', 

m^\  1  fft»^^^ 

^^m 

BS^^^^^w 

m'J/^r^^^^,% 

\  '^M 

IBg^i^^f^^^Tj^^ 

mmtWi 

m 

^H 

HriflHuHS 

g 

fe' raK 

5 

*f3 

Starting,  then,  with  the  single  family,  we  arrive  at  the  Gens>  o 

•Oeru,  LMtn  j  fAiOi,  Greek  ;  (mnaa,  S»iMcrit;  oar  word  JMn  belag  tbe  sauie  root. 


46  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

kindred,  a  small  body  of  blood-relations  living  together,  bearing 
the  same  name.  This  gens,  as  it  throws  out  branches  that  settle 
in  adjacent  places,  keeps  itself  connected  with  these  branches  by 
ceilain  customs. 

The  inter-associations  which  practise  these  customs  are  scien- 
tifically called  Phratries,  from  a  word  of  Greek  origin,  signifying 
brotherhood,  and  indicating  their  relationship  to  the  nucleus-gens. 
As  others  at  a  distance  come  into  the  same  relationship,  either 
by  extension  of  the  original  family  or  by  juncture  with  other  fam- 
ilies, the  tribe  is  fonned ;  and  after  the  tribe,  the  confederacy, 
which  was  the  nearest  approach  the  barbaric  mind  made  to  our 
present  idea  of  a  nation. 

The  phratry  is  a  brotherhood  and  an  organic  growth  from  the 
gens,  and  among  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  as  among  the  Iroquois, 
it  was  generally  an  association  for  certain  religious  or  social 
objects  of  two  or  more  gentes  of  the  same  tribe.  The  Roman 
curia,  or  cury,  was  the  analogue  of  the  Indian  and  Grecian 
phratry.  There  were  ten  gentes  in  each  curia,  and  ten  curiae 
in  each  of  the  three  Roman  tribes,  making  three  hundred  gentes 
among  the  Romans.  The  governmental  functions  of  the  Roman 
curia  became  much  more  complex  and  political  than  those  of  the 
Greek  or  Indian,  but  the  primary  principle  of  association  for  social 
or  religious  purposes  was  identical.  And  this  tendency  to  asso- 
ciate in  phratries  or  lodges  appears  to  be  as  strong  in  the  masculine 
mind  of  to-day  as  it  ever  was ;  of  which  statement  abundant 
testimony  offers  itself  in  the  shape  of  our  numerous  fraternities, 
such  as  Masonry,  Pythian,  and  other  societies. 

All  these  phratries  and  tribes  and  confederacies  are  evolutions 
of  the  family,  and  their  status  is  founded  on  a  social  rather  than 
a  territorial  and  property  relation.  A  separate  and  sharply-marked 
domain,  and  the  possession  of  property,  were  ideas  that  only  took 
root  in  the  minds  of  men  in  the  very  latest  dtiys  of  barbarism, 
and  to  enter  upon  the  second  plan  of  government  it  was  necessary 
to  supersede  the  gentes  and  phratries  by  townships  and  city 
wards. 

The  decline  of  the  gens  and  the  rising  of  the  organized  town 
make  the  dividing  line  between  barbarism  and  civilization,  between 
ancient  and  modem  society. 


48  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

It  is  well  established,  though  but  recently,  that  Man  all  over 
the  world  has  a  common  scientific  evolution ;  the  story  of  one  race 
is  the  story  of  all.  Humanity  is  a  unit  in  source,  in  experi- 
ence, in  progress;  and,  in  the  faith  of  science  we  may  add, 
one  also  in  the  certainty  of  an  immortal  and  imperial  destiny. 
So,  if  we  take  the  condition  of  development  shown  by  a  tribe 
of  American  Indians,  we  shall  have  a  fairly  approximate  picture 
of  just  how  the  beautiful  civilization  of  Greece,  or  the  majestic 
empire  of  Rome  under  Augustus,  developed  through  the  gens, 
phratry,  and  tribe. 

Too  many  of  us  derive  our  idea  of  an  Indian  from  Buffalo  Bill's 
Wild  West  Show,  or  from  the  straggling  specimens  that  sell 
baskets  and  beadwork  in  the  summer.  But  these  bear  no  more 
real  resemblance  to  the  Indian  as  he  is  historically  than  do  the 
fawning,  flattering,  fortune-telling  gypsies  to  the  ancient  Egyptian 
coui*tiers  who  exchanged  elegant  compliments  amid  the  roseate 
shadows  of  the  perfumed  audience  chamber  of  Cleopatra. 

Nationally,  we  have  done  great  material  wrong  to  the  original 
possessors  of  this  country.  Is  it  not  becoming  then  that  we 
should  at  least  make  some  attempt  to  do  justice  to  them  histori- 
cally, since  we  have  never,  or  rarely,  done  it  to  the  living 
individuals  ? 

Moreover,  our  ideas  of  the  Indian  have  always  been  colored  by 
conflict.  We  have  inherited  a  distrust  of  him,  and  it  is  only  of 
late  that  scholars  generally  have  begun  to  appreciate  his  virtues. 
Even  large-hearted  ti-avellers  like  Dickens  have  been  misled  into 
regarding  him  as  merely  a  dirty  and  drunken  ruflian,  glad  to  live 
in  laziness  and  be  supported  by  the  government.  The  trouble  is 
we  are  looking  upon  the  Indian,  not  as  God  made  him,  not  as 
he  developed  under  the  kindly  eye  of  nature,  but  as  we  white 
men  have  unmade  him  by  the  almost  off-setting  brutality  that 
accompanies  our  present  civilization.  The  American  Indian, 
sitting  in  council  near  the  banks  of  some  winding  water,  under 
the  mellow  harvest  moon,  was  a  very  different  being  from  those 
we  see  to-day,  who  have  exchanged  the  virtues  of  barbarism  for 
the  vices  of  civilization;  those  to  whom  we  have  given  of  our 
Morst  instead  of  our  best. 

Metacom  and  Wamsutta,  the  last  Indian  kings  of  prominence 


THE  ORIGIN   OP  GOVERNMENT   WITH   MAS. 


4& 


in  Ifew  England,  were  t^^s,  it  is  true,  of  the  third  Btage  of 
barbarism.  They  were  birbarians,  but  they  were  gentlemen.  In 
fiueneas  of  feeling,  in  regard  for  the  rights  of  others,  in  statesmanr 


like  qnallties,  anil  netsdlesa  to  say  in  daring,  they  would  compare 
with  any  of  the  early  Saxon  chiefa  except  possibly   Alfred  the 


48  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERXMENT. 

It  is  well  established,  though  but  recently,  that  Man  all  over 
the  world  has  a  common  scientific  evolation ;  the  story  of  one  race 
is  the  story  of  all.  Humanity  is  a  unit  in  source,  in  experi- 
ence, in  progress;  and,  in  the  faith  of  science  we  may  add, 
one  also  in  the  certainty  of  an  immortal  and  imperial  destiny. 
So,  if  we  take  the  condition  of  development  sliown  by  a  tribe 
of  American  Indians,  we  shall  have  a  fairly  approximate  picture 
of  just  how  the  beautiful  civilization  of  Greece,  or  the  majestic 
empire  of  Rome  under  Augustus,  developed  through  the  gens, 
phratrj-,  and  tribe. 

Too  manv  of  us  derive  our  idea  of  an  Indian  from  Buffalo  BlU's 
WQd  West  Show,  or  from  the  straggling  specimens  that  sell 
baskets  and  beadwork  in  the  summer.  But  these  bear  no  more 
real  resemblance  to  the  Indian  as  he  is  historically  than  do  the 
fawning,  flattering,  fortune-telling  gypsies  to  the  ancient  Egyptian 
courtiers  who  exchanged  elegant  compliments  amid  the  roseate 
shadows  of  the  perfumed  audience  chamber  of  Cleopatra. 

Nationally,  we  have  done  great  material  wrong  to  the  original 
possessors  of  this  country.  Is  it  not  becoming  then  that  we 
should  at  least  make  some  attempt  to  do  justice  to  them  histori- 
cally, since  we  have  never,  or  rarely,  done  it  to  the  living 
individuals  ? 

Moreover,  our  ideas  of  the  Indian  have  always  been  colored  by 
conflict.  We  have  inherited  a  distrust  of  him,  and  it  is  only  of 
late  that  scholars  generally  liave  begun  to  appreciate  his  "virtues. 
Even  large-hearted  titivellers  like  Dickens  have  been  misled  into 
regai-ding  him  as  merely  a  dirty  and  drunken  ruffian,  glad  to  live 
in  laziness  and  be  supported  by  the  government.  The  trouble  is 
we  are  lookmg  upon  the  Indian,  not  as  God  made  him,  not  as 
he  developed  under  the  kindly  eye  of  nature,  but  as  we  white 
men  have  unmade  him  by  the  almost  off-setting  brutality  that 
atcorapanies  our  present  civilization.  The  American  Indian, 
sitting  in  council  near  the  banks  of  some  winding  water,  under 
the  mellow  harvest  moon,  i^-as  a  very  different  being  from  those 
we  see  to-day,  who  have  exchanged  the  virtues  of  barbarism  for 
the  vices  of  civilization;  those  to  whom  we  have  given  of  our 
Morst  instead  of  our  best. 

Metacom  and  Wamsutta,  the  last  Indian  kings  of  prominence 


THB   ORIGIN   OF  GOVERNMENT   WITH   MAN. 


4& 


in  New  England,  were  types,  it  is  true,  of  the  third  stage  of 
bftrbarism.  They  were  barbarians,  but  they  were  gentlemen.  In 
JinenesB  of  feeling,  in  regard  for  the  rights  of  others,  in  statesman- 


|l:'j#^|g||^SM| 

H|f>"ll^         J 

ii|||M^^Sij 

SM    1 

mmf^m 

ml 

M^**^ 

^K^^X 

m 

R*^^ 

*i--:|^S 

'^^^m 

'■■"-;-  ;a.ta3.ii 

like  qaalities,  anjl  neesUess  to  say  in  daring,  they  would  compare 
with  any  of  the  early  Saxon  chiefs  except  possibly  Alfred  the 


50  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Great.     For  instance,  what  could  be  finer  than  the  feeling  shown 
in  the  following  incident  ? 

Wamsutta  was  the  chief  king  of  Eastern  New  England  during 
the  early  colonial  days.  His  father,  Massasoit,  had  heaped  kind- 
nesses on  the  Pilgrims,  fed  them  when  starving,  saved  them  from 
the  assaults  of  other  tribes.  After  his  death,  Wamsutta  was  one 
day  at  breakfast  in  one  of  his  many  hunting  lodges,  with  several 
of  his  nobles  and  their  wives.  A  party  of  Pilgrims  surprised 
them,  seized  their  weapons  that  had  been  stacked  outside,  and  told 
the  king  that  he  was  under  arrest  and  must  come  to  Plymouth 
to  answer  certain  charges.  The  leader  of  this  party  offered  the 
outraged  monarch  a  horse  to  ride  on,  but  the  king  refused  with 
these  words :   "  I  could  not  ride  and  let  these  women  walk." 

This  is  but  one  of  the  many  incidents  which  a  certain  un- 
conscious or  subconscious  candor  lias  forced  unfriendly  historians 
to  record.  Wamsutta  died  from  the  effect  on  his  proud  nature  of 
the  indignity  done  him  by  this  arrest,  and  his  brother,  Metacom, 
or  Philip,  as  he  was  called  by  the  Pilgrims,  for  years  nursed  plans 
pf  vengeance  against  the  race  who  had  been  the  cause  of  his 
brother's  early  death,  who  had  spoiled  him  of  his  lands,  wantonly 
burned  many  of  his  hunting-lodges,  and  tried  even  in  his  own 
home  to  curtail  his  powers. 

Philip  made  war  on  our  English  ancestoi-s  during  the  fall  of 
1675  and  the  following  winter  and  spring;  and  though  like 
Napoleon,  a  personal  failure  finally,  the  results  of  his  well-planned 
war  on  our  ancestors  were  felt  for  fifty  years  after  his  death,  or,  as 
their  writers  agreed,  he  retarded  the  development  of  New  England 
for  that  space. 

Yet  he,  too,  with  every  reason  to  detest  our  race,  was  not  only  kind 
in  many  instances  to  the  prisoners  he  captured,  but  was  uniformly 
courteous.  Mrs.  Richardson,  who  lived  as  his  prisoner  for  many 
months  before  she  was  finally  restored  to  her  husband,  tells  us  that 
this  great  soldier  (even  his  enemies  admitted  his  military  genius) 
was  a  most  kindly  captor.  He  asked  her  one  day  to  make  a  shirt 
for  his  little  son,  and  when  she  had  made  it,  expressing  his 
pleasure,  he  not  only  thanked  her,  but  paid  her  an  English  shillmg 
for  it. 

Our  tardy  scholarship  is  beginning  to  see  that  such  conduct 


THE   ORIGIN   OP  GOVEltNMENT   WITH  MAN. 


more  fairly  represents  the  Indian  character  as  it  was  at  the  best 
period  of  development  than  the  ravages  occasionally  committed  by 


the  degenerate  tribes  of  to-day,  too  often  goaded  to  fury  by  dis- 
honest goTemment  agents. 

It  is  a  pity  that  we  have  not  sufficient  data  concerning  the 


62  THE   STORY   OF   GOVEKNMENT. 

political  condition  of  the  New  England  Indians  to  show  how  they 
developed  to  the  production  of  such  men  as  those  just  named,  but 
by  examining  another  Indian  tribe,  the  Seneca-Iroquois,  we  shall 
see  the  evolution  of  government  among  barbarians  up  to  hereditary 
monarchy  as  clearly  as  if  we  went  through  a  long  course  of  Greek 
or  Roman  history. 

The  Seneca-Iroquois  were  divided  into  gentes,  phratries,  and 
tribes.  The  chiefs  in  each  gens  were  usually  proportioned  to  the 
membei-s.  Among  the  Iroquois  there  is  one  to  about  every  fifty 
persons.  The  Iroquois  in  New  York  now  number  three  thousand, 
and  have  eight  sachems  and  about  sixty  chiefs. 

The  first  question,  then,  that  suggests  itself  is,  what  were  the  politi- 
cal rights  of  the  gens.  First  of  all,  with  the  basic  right  of  having 
a  council  of  its  own,  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  its  sachem 
and  its  chiefs.  Here  we  have  at  once  a  fact  that  contradicts  the 
old  historical  assumption  that  the  democratical  form  of  govern- 
ment is  a  late  invention,  and  that  the  monarchical  was  the  one 
most  natural  and  most  adapted  to  the  evolution  of  human  society. 
For  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  the  head  of  the  gens 
shows  that  man  started  in  a  rude  way  to  have  what  we  are  trying 
to-day  to  have  in  a  complete,  though  perhaps  too  complex,  way ; 
namely,  a  government  of  the  people. 

Another  right  of  the  gens  was  the  inheritance  of  property.  If 
a  man  died  his  property  would  not  descend  to  his  son  or  his 
daugliter,  but  to  the  gens  in  common.  The  feeling  here  seems  to 
be  identical  with  that  which  our  most  republican  millionnaire, 
Andrew  Carnegie,  has  recently  expi-essed,  that  a  man's  material 
acquisitions,  being  largely  the  result  of  the  co-operation  of  others, 
should  at  his  death  revert  to  whence  they  came.  Mr.  Carnegie's 
mind,  however,  has  expanded  since  his  firet  declaration,  for  he  now 
maintains  that  a  rich  man  in  his  life-time  should  restore  to  the 
people,  in  the  shape  of  libraries,  parks,  and  hospitals,  the  money 
he  has  made  out  of  them. 

Of  course,  another  right  of  the  gens  was  that  of  bestowing 
names  on  its  members,  and  of  adopting  strangers  by  naming  them. 
There  were  obligations,  likewise,  of  help  and  defence  and  redress 
of  injuries,  and,  in  time,  an  obligation  among  most  not  to  marry 
in  the  gens.     Common  religious  rites,  a  common  burial  place  and, 


THE  ORIGIN   OF   GOVERNMENT   WITH  UAN.  58 

as  a  necessary  basis  for  the  election  of  a  sachem,  the  right  to  call 
a  council,  were  dbtinctive  marks  of  the  Iroquois  gens. 

As  to  the  election  of  sachems  and  chiefs,  it  is  probably  a  new 
fact  to  most  readers  that  neirly  ill  tlie  American  Indiin  tribes  as 
well  as  tie  Seueca-Iroquois  hid  t  vo  grades  of  cl  eftainsl  ip  u 
other  words,  thej  had  a  pea  e  go\e  no    and  a     a    ch  ef 


The  sachem,  or  wise-man,  was  elected  in  each  gens  fi-om  among 
its  membere.  A  son  could  not  be  chosen  to  succeed  his  father  if 
descent  was  in  the  female  line,  which  made  the  son  belong  to  a 
different  gens. 

The  duties  of  a  sachein  were  confined  to  the  affairs  of  peace. 
He  settled  disputes,  advised  the  time  of  planting  corn,  or  the 
location  of  the  camp,  or  any  matter  that  demanded  personal 
adviceior  sympathy.    It  was  analogous  in   some  respects  to  the 


64  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

post  of  father  confessor,  though  among  many  of  the  tribes  this 
function  was  rudimentary  in  spite  of  the  semi-religious  character 
with  which  the  sachem  was  invested.  The  relation  of  the  sachem 
was  primarily  to  the  gens  of  which  he  was  the  official  head,  while 
that  of  the  chief,  who  was  chosen  for  personal  bravery  or  for 
eloquence,  was  primarily  to  the  tribe  or  large  organization  of  the 
council  of  which  he  as  well  as  the  sachem  were  members.  The 
sachem  was  so  much  an  officer  of  peace  that  he  could  not  go  to 
war  as  a  sachem,  but  simply  as  a  private  individual  in  the  ranks 
under  the  leaderships  of  the  cliiefs,  whose  functions  were  purely 
military  or  advisory  in  military  matters  in  the  general  council  of 
the  tribe. 

The  office  of  sachem  was  hereditary  in  the  sense  that  it  was 
filled  from  the  same  gens  as  often  as  a  vacancy  happened,  but  it 
was  filled  by  election  from  different  relatives  of  the  deceased  or 
deposed  chieftain.  Though  the  office  was  nominally  for  life,  it 
was  practically  for  good  behavior,  because  of  the  power  to  depose. 
The  ceremony  of  installing  a  sachem  was  very  picturesque.  It 
was  accompanied  by  song  and  dance  and  the  final  act  was 
symbolized  by  the  putting  on  a  headdress  of  buffalo  horns,  as  his 
deposition  was  symbolized  by  taking  off  the  horns. 

It  is  one  of  the  little  facts  that  cumulate  to  show  the  substan- 
tial relativity  of  mankind  that,  even  among  tribes  widely  separated, 
horns  have  been  made  emblems  of  office  and  authority  from  time 
immemorial,  and  even  of  sanctity,  as  in  the  Catholic  church  we 
have  the  horns  of  the  altar,  which  were  invested  with  a  peculiar 
siicrediiess.  The  killing  of  Thomas  k  Becket,  for  instance,  in  the  age 
of  Henry  II.  of  England,  when  assassination  wiis  a  common  crime, 
was  accounted  especially  heinous  because  the  victim  was  not  only 
a  priest,  but  was  killed  while  holding  one  of  the  horns  of  the  altar. 

Horns,  also,  by  tlie  imagination  of  the  middle  ages,  are  assigned 
to  his  Satanic  Majesty,  probably  as  a  token  of  his  power,  and  the 
horn  as  a  sign  of  plenty  is  another  emblem,  derived  possibly  from 
the  Scandinavian  drinking-horn,  though  it  is  also  credited  with  a 
Roman  and  Greek  derivation.  Tylor  intimates  that  the  command- 
ing appearance  of  buffalos  and  such  animals  as  wear  horns  may 
have  suggested  to  the  general  mind  this  thing  as  a  token  of 
dignity  and  authority.  i 


48  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

It  is  well  established,  though  but  recently,  that  Man  all  over 
the  world  has  a  common  scientific  evolution ;  the  story  of  one  race 
is  the  story  of  all.  Humanity  is  a  unit  in  source,  in  experi- 
ence, in  progress;  and,  in  the  faith  of  science  we  may  add, 
one  also  in  the  certainty  of  an  immortal  and  imperial  destiny. 
So,  if  we  take  the  condition  of  development  shown  by  a  tribe 
of  American  Indians,  we  shall  have  a  fairly  approximate  picture 
of  just  how  the  beautiful  civilization  of  Greece,  or  the  majestic 
empire  of  Rome  under  Augustus,  developed  through  the  gens, 
phratiy,  and  tribe. 

Too  many  of  us  derive  our  idea  of  an  Indian  from  Buffalo  Bill's 
Wild  West  Show,  or  from  the  straggling  specimens  that  sell 
baskets  and  beadwork  in  the  summer.  But  these  bear  no  more 
real  resemblance  to  the  Indian  as  he  is  historically  than  do  the 
fawning,  flattering,  fortune-telling  gypsies  to  the  ancient  Egyptian 
courtiers  who  exchanged  elegant  compliments  amid  the  roseate 
shadows  of  the  perfumed  audience  chamber  of  Cleopatra. 

Nationally,  we  have  done  great  material  wrong  to  the  original 
possessors  of  this  country.  Is  it  not  becoming  then  that  we 
should  at  least  make  some  attempt  to  do  justice  to  them  histori- 
cally, since  we  have  never,  or  rarely,  done  it  to  the  living 
individuals  ? 

Moreover,  our  ideas  of  the  Indian  have  always  been  colored  by 
conflict.  We  have  inherited  a  distrust  of  him,  and  it  is  only  of 
lata  that  scholars  generally  have  begun  to  appreciate  his  virtues. 
Even  large-hearted  ti-avellers  like  Dickens  have  been  misled  into 
regarding  him  as  merely  a  dirty  and  drunken  ruflian,  glad  to  live 
in  laziness  and  be  supported  by  the  government.  The  trouble  is 
we  are  looking  upon  the  Indian,  not  as  God  made  him,  not  as 
he  developed  under  the  kindly  eye  of  nature,  but  as  we  white 
men  have  unmade  him  by  the  almost  off-setting  brutality  that 
atcompanies  our  present  civilization.  The  American  Indian, 
sitting  in  council  near  the  banks  of  some  winding  water,  under 
the  mellow  harvest  moon,  was  a  very  different  being  from  those 
we  see  to-day,  who  have  exchanged  the  virtues  of  barbarism  for 
the  vices  of  civilization;  those  to  whom  we  have  given  of  our 
M'oret  instead  of  our  best. 

Metacom  and  Wamsutta,  the  last  Indian  kings  of  prominence 


THE  ORIGIN   OF   OOVERNHENT   WITH  HAN. 


49 


in  New  England,  were  t^pes,  it  is  true,  of  the  third  stage  of 
barbarism.  They  were  barbarians,  but  they  were  gentlemen.  In 
fineness  of  feeling,  in  regard  for  the  rights  of  others,  in  statesman^ 


lite  qualities,  aod  needless  to  say  in  daring,  tliey  would  compare 
with  any  of  the  early  Saxon  chiefs  except  possibly  Alfred  the 


60  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNT^IENT. 

Great.     For  instance,  what  could  be  finer  than  the  feeling  shown 
in  the  following  incident  ? 

Wamsutta  was  the  chief  king  of  Eastern  New  England  during 
the  early  colonial  days.  His  father,  Massasoit,  had  heaped  kind- 
nesses on  the  Pilgrims,  fed  them  when  starving,  saved  them  from 
the  assaults  of  other  tribes.  After  his  death,  Wamsutta  was  one 
day  at  breakfast  in  one  of  his  many  hunting  lodges,  with  several 
of  his  nobles  and  their  wives.  A  party  of  Pilgrims  surprised 
them,  seized  their  weapons  that  had  been  stacked  outside,  and  told 
the  king  that  he  was  under  an-est  and  must  come  to  Plymouth 
to  answer  certain  charges.  The  leader  of  this  party  offered  the 
outiuged  monarch  a  horee  to  ride  on,  but  the  king  refused  with 
these  words :   "  I  could  not  ride  and  let  these  wonjen  walk." 

This  is  but  one  of  the  many  incidents  which  a  certain  un- 
conscious or  subconscious  candor  has  forced  unfriendly  historians 
to  record.  Wamsutta  died  from  the  effect  on  his  proud  nature  of 
the  indignity  done  him  by  this  arrest,  and  his  brother,  Metacom, 
or  Philip,  as  he  was  called  by  the  Pilgrims,  for  years  nursed  plans 
pf  vengeance  against  the  race  who  had  been  the  cause  of  his 
brother's  early  death,  who  had  spoiled  him  of  his  lands,  wantonly 
burned  many  of  his  hunting-lodges,  and  tried  even  in  his  own 
home  to  curtail  his  powers. 

Philip  made  war  on  our  English  ancestoi-s  during  the  fall  of 
1675  and  the  following  winter  and  spring;  and  though  like 
Napoleon,  a  personal  failure  finally,  the  results  of  his  well-planned 
war  on  our  ancestors  were  felt  for  fifty  years  after  his  death,  or,  as 
their  writers  agreed,  he  retarded  the  development  of  New  England 
for  that  space. 

Yet  he,  too,  with  every  reason  to  detest  our  race,  was  not  only  kind 
in  many  instances  to  the  prisoners  he  captured,  but  was  uniformly 
courteous.  Mrs.  Richardson,  who  lived  as  his  ^Drisoner  for  many 
months  before  she  was  finally  restored  to  her  husband,  tells  us  that 
this  great  soldier  (even  his  enemies  admitted  Iiis  military  genius) 
was  a  most  kindly  captor.  He  asked  her  one  day  to  make  a  shirt 
for  his  little  son,  and  when  she  had  made  it,  expressing  his 
pleasure,  he  not  only  thanked  her,  but  paid  her  an  English  shilling 
for  it. 

Our  tardy  scholarship  is  beginning  to  see  that  such  conduct 


THE   ORIGIN   OF   GOVEiENMENT   WITH   MAN. 


more  &irly  represents  the  Indian  character  as  it  was  at  the  best 
period  of  development  than  the  ravages  occasionally  committed  by 


the  degenerate  tribes  of  to-day,  too  often  goaded  to  fury  by  dis- 
honest government  agents. 

It  is  a  pity  that  we  have  not  sufficient  data  concerning  the 


60  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Great.     For  instance,  what  could  be  finer  than  the  feeling  shown 
in  the  following  incident  ? 

Wanisutta  was  the  chief  king  of  Eastern  New  England  during 
the  early  colonial  days.  His  father,  Massasoit,  had  heaped  kind- 
nesses on  the  Pilgrims,  fed  them  when  starving,  saved  them  from 
the  assaults  of  other  tribes.  After  his  death,  Wanisutta  was  one 
day  at  breakfast  in  one  of  his  many  hunting  lodges,  with  several 
of  his  nobles  and  tlieir  wives.  A  party  of  Pilgrims  surprised 
them,  seized  their  weapons  that  had  been  stacked  outside,  and  told 
the  king  that  he  was  under  an-est  and  must  come  to  Plymouth 
to  answer  certain  charges.  The  leader  of  this  party  offered  the 
outraged  monarch  a  horse  to  ride  on,  but  the  king  refused  with 
these  words :   "  I  could  not  ride  and  let  these  wonjen  walk." 

This  is  but  one  of  the  many  incidents  which  a  certain  un- 
conscious or  subconscious  candor  has  forced  unfriendly  historians 
to  record.  Wamsutta  died  from  the  effect  on  his  proud  nature  of 
the  indignity  done  him  by  this  anest,  and  liis  brother,  Metacom, 
or  Philip,  as  he  was  called  by  the  Pilgrims,  for  years  nursed  plans 
pf  vengeance  against  the  race  who  had  been  the  cause  of  his 
brother's  early  death,  who  had  spoiled  him  of  his  lands,  wantonly 
burned  many  of  his  hunting-lodges,  and  tried  even  in  Ids  own 
borne  to  curtail  his  powers. 

Pliilip  made  war  on  our  English  ancestoi-s  during  the  fall  of 
1675  and  the  following  winter  and  spring;  and  though  like 
Napoleon,  a  personal  failure  finally,  the  results  of  his  well-planned 
war  on  our  ancestors  were  felt  for  fifty  years  after  his  death,  or,  as 
their  writers  agreed,  he  reta,rded  the  development  of  New  England 
for  that  space. 

Yet  lie,  too,  with  every^  reason  to  detest  our  race,  was  not  only  kind 
in  many  instances  to  the  prisoners  he  captured,  but  was  uniformly 
courteous.  Mrs.  Richardson,  who  lived  as  his  prisoner  for  many 
months  before  she  was  finally  restored  to  her  husband,  tells  us  that 
this  great  soldier  (even  his  enemies  admitted  his  military  genius) 
was  a  most  kindly  captor.  He  asked  her  one  day  to  make  a  shirt 
for  his  little  son,  and  when  she  had  made  it,  expressing  his 
pleasure,  he  not  only  thanked  her,  but  paid  her  an  English  shilling 
for  it. 

Our  tudy  tftllMlllfffrlP.  J*  |)fgin][jipg  to  see  that  such  conduct 


THE   ORIGIN  OP  GOVBitSMENT   WITH   MAN. 


more  fairly  represents  the  Indisn  character  as  it  waa  at  the  best 
period  of  development  than  the  ravages  occasionally  committed  by 


the  degenerate  tribes  of  to-day,  too  often  goaded  to  fury  by  dis- 
honest government  agents. 

It  is  a  pity  that  we  have  not  sufBcient  data  concerning  the 


62  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

political  condition  of  the  New  England  Indians  to  show  how  they 
developed  to  the  production  of  such  men  as  those  just  named,  but 
by  examining  another  Indian  tribe,  the  Seneca-Iroquois,  we  shall 
see  the  evolution  of  government  among  barbarians  up  to  hereditary 
monarchy  as  clearly  as  if  we  went  through  a  long  course  of  Greek 
or  Roman  history. 

The  Seneca-Iroquois  were  divided  into  gentes,  phratries,  and 
tribes.  The  chiefs  in  each  gens  were  usually  proportioned  to  the 
members.  Among  the  Iroquois  there  is  one  to  about  every  fifty 
persons.  The  Iroquois  in  New  York  now  number  three  thousand, 
and  have  eight  sachems  and  about  sixty  chiefs. 

The  first  question,  then,  that  suggests  itself  is,  what  were  the  politi- 
cal rights  of  the  gens.  First  of  all,  with  the  basic  right  of  having 
a  council  of  its  own,  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  its  sachem 
and  its  chiefs.  Here  we  have  at  once  a  fact  that  contradicts  the 
old  historical  assumption  that  the  democratical  form  of  govern- 
ment is  a  late  invention,  and  that  the  monarchical  was  the  one 
most  natural  and  most  adapted  to  the  evolution  of  human  society. 
For  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  the  head  of  the  gens 
shows  that  man  started  in  a  rude  way  to  have  what  we  are  trying 
to-ilay  to  have  in  a  complete,  though  perhaps  too  complex,  way ; 
namely,  a  government  of  the  people. 

Another  right  of  the  gens  was  the  inheritance  of  property.  If 
a  man  died  his  property  would  not  descend  to  his  son  or  his 
daughter,  but  to  the  gens  in  common.  The  feeling  here  seems  to 
])G  identical  with  that  which  our  most  republican  millionnaire, 
Andrew  Carnegie,  has  recently  expi-essed,  that  a  man's  material 
acquisitions,  being  largely  the  result  of  the  co-operation  of  others, 
should  at  his  death  revert  to  whence  they  came.  Mr.  Carnegie's 
mind,  however,  has  expanded  since  his  fii*st  declaration,  for  he  now 
maintains  that  a  rich  man  in  his  life-time  should  restore  to  the 
people,  in  the  shape  of  libraries,  parks,  and  hospitals,  the  money 
he  has  made  out  of  them. 

Of  course,  another  right  of  the  gens  was  that  of  bestowing 
names  on  its  members,  and  of  adopting  strangers  by  naming  them. 
There  were  obligations,  likewise,  of  help  and  defence  and  redress 
of  injuries,  and,  in  time,  an  obligation  among  most  not  to  marry 
in  the  gens.     Common  religious  rites,  a  common  burial  place  and. 


THE   OBIGIN    OF    GOVERNMENT    WITH   MAN, 


5S 


as  a  neceseaiy  baats  for  the  election  of  a  sachem,  the  right  to  call 
a  council,  were  distinctive  maiks  of  the  Iroquois  gens. 

As  to  the  election  of  sachems  and  chiefs,  it  is  piohably  a  new 
fact  to  most  readers  that  neaily  all  tl  e  Ameiican  Indiin  tribes  as 
well  as  the  Seneca-lroquois  hid  tvo  grades  of  chieftainship  m 
other  words  they  had  a  pc  ice  governor  and  a  w  ii  chief 


The  sachem,  or  wise-man,  was  elected  in  each  gens  fi-oni  among 
its  members.  A  son  could  not  be  chosen  to  succeed  hiH  father  if 
descent  waa  in  the  female  line,  whicii  made  the  son  belong  to  a 
different  gens. 

The  duties  of  a  sachein  were  confined  to  the  affaii-s  of  peace. 
He  settled  disputes,  advised  the  time  of  planting  corn,  or  the 
location  of  the  camp,  or  any  matter  that  demanded  personal 
advice,  or  sympathy.    It  was  analogous  in  some  respects  to  the 


64  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

post  of  father  confessor,  though  among  many  of  the  tribes  this 
function  was  rudimentary  in  spite  of  the  semi-religious  character 
with  which  the  sachem  was  invested.  The  relation  of  the  sachem 
was  primarily  to  the  gens  of  which  he  was  the  oflScial  head,  while 
that  of  the  chief,  who  was  chosen  for  personal  bravery  or  for 
eloquence,  was  primarily  to  the  tribe  or  large  organization  of  the 
council  of  which  he  its  well  as  the  sachem  were  members.  The 
sachem  was  so  much  an  oflBcer  of  peace  that  he  could  not  go  to 
war  as  a  sachem,  but  simply  as  a  private  individual  in  the  ranks 
under  the  leaderships  of  the  chiefs,  whose  functions  were  purely 
military  or  advisory  in  military  matters  in  the  general  council  of 
the  tribe. 

The  office  of  sachem  was  hereditary  in  the  sense  that  it  was 
filled  from  the  same  gens  as  often  as  a  vacancy  happened,  but  it 
was  filled  by  election  from  different  relatives  of  the  deceased  or 
deposed  chieftain.  Though  the  office  was  nominally  for  life,  it 
was  practically  for  good  behavior,  because  of  the  power  to  depose. 
The  ceremony  of  installing  a  sachem  was  very  picturesque.  It 
was  accompanied  by  song  and  dance  and  the  final  act  was 
symbolized  by  the  putting  on  a  headdress  of  buffalo  horns,  as  his 
dei)osition  wjis  symbolized  by  taking  off  the  horns. 

It  is  one  of  the  little  facts  that  cumulate  to  show  the  substan- 
tial relativity  of  mankind  that,  even  among  tribes  widely  separated, 
horns  have  been  made  emblems  of  office  and  authority  from  time 
immemorial,  and  even  of  sanctity,  as  in  the  Catholic  church  we 
liave  the  horns  of  the  altar,  whicli  were  invested  with  a  peculiar 
siicredness.  The  killing  of  Thomas  k  Becket,  for  instance,  in  the  age 
of  Henry  II.  of  England,  when  assassination  was  a  common  crime, 
was  accounted  especially  heinous  because  the  victim  was  not  only 
a  priest,  but  was  killed  while  holding  one  of  the  horns  of  the  altar. 

Horns,  also,  by  the  imagination  of  the  middle  ages,  are  assigned 
to  his  Satanic  Majesty,  probcably  as  a  token  of  his  power,  and  the 
horn  as  a  sign  of  plenty  is  another  emblem,  derived  possibly  from 
the  Scandinavian  drinking-horn,  though  it  is  also  credited  with  a 
Roman  and  Greek  derivation.  Tylor  intimates  that  the  command- 
ing appearance  of  bufifalos  and  such  animals  as  wear  horns  may 
have  suggested  to  the  general  mind  this  thing  as  a  token  of 
dignity  and  authority.  » 


64  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

post  of  father  confessor,  though  among  many  of  the  tribes  this 
function  was  rudimentary  in  spite  of  the  semi-religious  character 
with  which  the  sachem  was  invested.  The  relation  of  the  sachem 
was  primarily  to  the  gens  of  which  he  was  the  oflScial  head,  while 
that  of  the  chief,  who  was  chosen  for  personal  bravery  or  for 
eloquence,  was  primarily  to  the  tribe  or  large  organization  of  the 
council  of  which  he  as  well  as  the  sachem  were  members.  The 
sachem  wiis  so  much  an  officer  of  peace  that  he  could  not  go  to 
war  as  a  sachem,  but  simply  as  a  private  individual  in  the  ranks 
under  the  leaderships  of  the  chiefs,  whose  functions  were  purely 
military  or  advisory  in  military  matters  in  the  general  council  of 
the  tribe. 

The  office  of  sachem  was  hereditary  in  the  sense  that  it  was 
filled  from  the  same  gens  as  often  as  a  vacancy  happened,  but  it 
was  filled  by  election  from  different  relatives  of  the  deceased  or 
deposed  chieftain.  Though  the  office  was  nominally  for  life,  it 
was  practically  for  good  behavior,  because  of  the  power  to  depose. 
The  ceremony  of  installing  a  sachem  was  very  picturesque.  It 
was  accompanied  by  song  and  dance  and  the  final  act  was 
symbolized  by  the  putting  on  a  headdress  of  buffalo  horns,  as  his 
deposition  was  symbolized  by  taking  off  the  horns. 

It  is  one  of  the  little  facts  that  cumulate  to  show  the  substan- 
tial relativity  of  mankind  that,  even  among  tribes  widely  separated, 
horns  have  been  made  emblems  of  office  and  authority  from  time 
immemorial,  and  even  of  sanctity,  as  in  the  Catholic  church  we 
liave  the  horns  of  the  altar,  which  were  invested  with  a  peculiar 
sacredness.  The  killing  of  Thomas  k  Becket,  for  instance,  in  the  age 
of  Henry  II.  of  England,  when  assassination  was  a  common  crime, 
was  accounted  especially  heinous  because  the  victim  was  not  only 
a  priest,  but  was  killed  while  holding  one  of  the  horns  of  the  altar. 

Horns,  also,  by  the  imagination  of  the  middle  ages,  are  assigned 
to  his  Satanic  Majesty,  probably  as  a  token  of  his  power,  and  the 
horn  as  a  sign  of  plenty  is  another  emblem,  derived  iK)ssibly  from 
the  Scandinavian  drinking-horn,  though  it  is  also  credited  with  a 
Roman  and  Greek  derivation.  Tylor  intimates  that  the  command- 
ing ai:)pearance  of  buffalos  and  such  animals  as  wear  horns  may 
have  suggested  to  the  general  mind  this  thing  as  a  token  of 
dignity  and  authority.  » 


48  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

It  is  well  established,  though  but  recently,  that  Man  all  over 
the  world  has  a  common  scientific  evolution ;  the  story  of  one  race 
is  the  story  of  all.  Humanity  is  a  unit  in  source,  in  experi- 
ence, in  progress;  and,  in  the  faith  of  science  we  may  add, 
one  also  in  the  certainty  of  an  immortal  and  imperial  destiny. 
So,  if  we  take  the  condition  of  development  shown  by  a  tribe 
of  American  Indians,  we  shall  have  a  fairly  approximate  picture 
of  just  how  the  beautiful  civilization  of  Greece,  or  the  majestic 
empire  of  Rome  under  Augustus,  developed  through  the  gens, 
phratrj^  and  tribe. 

Too  many  of  us  derive  our  idea  of  an  Indian  from  Buffalo  Bill's 
Wild  West  Show,  or  from  the  straggling  specimens  that  sell 
baskets  and  beadwork  in  the  summer.  But  these  bear  no  more 
real  resemblance  to  the  Indian  as  he  is  historically  than  do  the 
fawning,  flattering,  fortune-telling  gypsies  to  the  ancient  Egyptian 
couitiers  who  exchanged  elegant  compliments  amid  the  roseate 
shadows  of  the  perfumed  audience  chamber  of  Cleopatra. 

Nationally,  we  have  done  great  material  wrong  to  the  original 
possessors  of  tliis  country.  Is  it  not  becoming  then  that  we 
should  at  least  make  some  attempt  to  do  justice  to  them  histori- 
cally, since  we  have  never,  or  rarely,  done  it  to  the  living 
individuals  ? 

Moreover,  our  ideas  of  the  Indian  have  always  been  colored  by 
conflict.  We  have  inherited  a  distrust  of  him,  and  it  is  only  of 
late  that  scholars  generally  have  begun  to  appreciate  his  virtues. 
Even  large-hearted  ti-avellers  like  Dickens  have  been  misled  into 
regarding  him  as  merely  a  dirty  and  drunken  ruffian,  glad  to  live 
in  laziness  and  be  supported  by  the  government.  The  trouble  is 
we  are  looking  upon  the  Indian,  not  as  God  made  Iiim,  not  as 
he  developed  under  the  kindly  eye  of  nature,  but  as  we  white 
men  have  unmade  him  by  the  almost  off-setting  brutality  that 
accompanies  our  present  civilization.  The  American  Indian, 
sitting  in  council  near  the  banks  of  some  winding  water,  under 
the  mellow  harvest  moon,  was  a  very  different  being  from  those 
we  see  to-day,  who  have  exchanged  the  virtues  of  barbarism  for 
the  vices  of  civilization;  those  to  whom  we  have  given  of  our 
M'oret  instead  of  our  best. 

Metacom  and  Wamsutta,  the  last  Indian  kings  of  prominence 


THB  ORIGIN   OP  GOVERNMENT   WITH   MAN. 


in  New  England,  were  types,  it  is  true,  of  the  third  stage  of 
barbarism.  They  were  barbarians,  but  they  were  gentlemen.  In 
a  of  feeling,  in  regard  for  the  rights  of  others,  in  statesman!- 


^-'ili 

|K^ 

Ir 

^«  "'-. 

wR 

HKSSlS^^^^^k 

^^V     v! 

IS 

^m 

^M 

^H  ^<'.^^9&^J^ 

\mk;' 

M 

yS|^^^^^ 

^sl. 

m 

^^m 

m 

^H 

like  qualities,  and  needleas  to  say  in  daring,  they  would  compare 
with  any  of  the  early  Saxon  chiefs  except  pobsibly  Alfied  the 


60  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Great.     For  instance,  what  could  be  finer  than  the  feeling  shown 
in  the  following  incident  ? 

Wamsutta  was  the  chief  king  of  Eastern  New  England  during 
the  early  colonial  days.  His  father,  Massasoit,  had  heaped  kind- 
nesses on  the  Pilgrims,  fed  them  when  starving,  saved  them  from 
the  assaults  of  other  tribes.  After  his  death,  Wamsutta  was  one 
diiy  at  breakfast  in  one  of  his  many  hunting  lodges,  with  several 
of  his  nobles  and  their  wives.  A  party  of  Pilgrims  surprised 
them,  seized  their  weapons  that  had  been  stacked  outside,  and  told 
the  king  that  he  was  under  arrest  and  must  come  to  Plymouth 
to  answer  certain  charges.  The  leader  of  this  party  offered  the 
outraged  monarch  a  horse  to  ride  on,  but  the  king  refused  with 
these  words :   "  I  could  not  ride  and  let  these  wonjen  walk." 

This  is  but  one  of  the  many  incidents  which  a  certain  un- 
conscious or  subconscious  candor  has  forced  unfriendly  historians 
to  record.  Wamsutta  died  from  the  effect  on  his  proud  nature  of 
the  indignity  done  him  by  this  an-est,  and  his  brother,  Metacom, 
or  Philip,  as  he  was  called  by  the  Pilgrims,  for  years  nursed  plans 
pf  vengeance  against  the  race  who  had  been  the  cause  of  his 
brother's  early  death,  who  had  spoiled  him  of  his  lands,  wantonly 
burned  many  of  his  hunting-lodges,  and  tried  even  in  liis  own 
home  to  curtail  his  powers. 

Philip  made  war  on  our  English  ancestoi-s  during  the  fall  of 
1675  and  the  following  winter  and  spring;  and  though  like 
Napoleon,  a  personal  failure  finally,  the  results  of  his  well-planned 
war  on  our  ancestors  were  felt  for  fifty  years  after  his  death,  or,  as 
their  writers  agreed,  he  retarded  the  development  of  New  England 
for  that  space. 

Yet  he,  too,  with  every  reason  to  detest  our  race,  was  not  only  kind 
in  many  instances  to  the  prisoners  he  captured,  but  was  uniformly 
courteous.  Mrs.  Richardson,  who  lived  as  his  prisoner  for  many 
months  before  she  was  finally  restored  to  her  husband,  tells  us  that 
this  great  soldier  (even  his  enemies  admitted  his  military  genius) 
was  a  most  kindly  captor.  He  asked  her  one  day  to  make  a  shirt 
for  his  little  son,  and  when  she  had  made  it,  expressing  his 
pleasure,  he  not  only  thanked  her,  but  paid  her  an  English  shilling 
for  it. 

Our  tardy  scholarship  is  beginning  to  see  that  such  conduct 


THE   ORIGIN   OP   GOVBRNSIENT  WITH   MAN. 


more  fairly  represents  the  Indian  character  as  it  waa  at  tlie  beat 
period  of  development  than  the  ravages  occasionally  committed  by 


the  degenerate  tribes  of  to-day,  too  often  goaded  to  fury  by  dis- 
honest  government  agents. 
It  is  a  pity  that  we  have  not  sufficient  data  concerning  the 


60  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Great.     For  instance,  what  could  be  finer  than  the  feeling  shown 
in  the  following  incident  ? 

Wamsutta  was  the  chief  king  of  Eastern  New  England  during 
the  early  colonial  days.  His  father,  Massasoit,  Iiad  heaped  kind- 
nesses on  the  Pilgrims,  fed  them  when  starving,  saved  them  from 
the  assaults  of  other  tribes.  After  his  death,  Wamsutta  was  one 
day  at  breakfast  in  one  of  his  many  hunting  lodges,  with  several 
of  his  nobles  and  their  wives.  A  party  of  Pilgrims  surprised 
them,  seized  their  weapons  that  had  been  stacked  outside,  and  told 
the  king  that  he  was  under  arrest  and  must  come  to  Plymouth 
to  answer  certain  charges.  Tlie  leader  of  this  party  offered  the 
outraged  monarch  a  hoi-se  to  ride  on,  but  the  king  refused  with 
these  words :   "  I  could  not  ride  and  let  these  women  walk.** 

This  is  but  one  of  the  many  incidents  which  a  certain  un- 
conscious or  subconscious  candor  has  forced  unfriendly  historians 
to  record.  Wamsutta  died  from  the  efifect  on  his  proud  nature  of 
the  indignity  done  him  by  this  arrest,  and  his  brother,  Metacom, 
or  Philip,  as  he  was  called  by  the  Pilgrims,  for  years  nursed  plans 
pf  vengeance  against  the  race  who  had  been  the  cause  of  his 
brother's  early  death,  who  had  spoiled  him  of  his  lands,  wantonly 
burned  many  of  his  hunting-lodges,  and  tried  even  in  liis  own 
tome  to  curtail  his  powers. 

Philip  made  war  on  our  English  ancestoi*s  during  the  fall  of 
1675  and  the  following  winter  and  spring;  and  though  like 
Napoleon,  a  personal  failure  finally,  the  results  of  his  well-planned 
war  on  our  ancestors  were  felt  for  fifty  years  after  his  death,  or,  as 
their  writers  agreed,  he  retarded  the  development  of  New  England 
for  that  space. 

Yet  he,  too,  with  every  reason  to  detest  our  race,  was  not  only  kind 
in  many  instances  to  the  prisoners  he  captured,  but  was  uniformly 
courteous.  Mrs.  Richardson,  who  lived  as  his  prisoner  for  many 
months  before  she  was  finally  restored  to  her  husband,  tells  us  that 
this  great  soldier  (even  his  enemies  admitted  his  military  genius) 
was  a  most  kindly  captor.  He  asked  her  one  day  to  make  a  shirt 
for  his  little  son,  and  when  she  had  made  it,  expressing  his 
pleasure,  he  not  only  thanked  her,  but  paid  her  an  English  shilling 
for  it. 

Our  tardy  scholarship  is  beginning  to  see  that  such  conduct 


THE   OBIGIN   OP  GOVERNMENT   WITH  MAN.  51 

more  fairly  represents  the  Inditui  character  as  it  was  at  the  best 
period  o£  development  than  the  ravages  occasionally  committed  by 


the  degenerate  tribes  of  to-day,  too  often  goaded  to  fury  by  dia. 
honest  government  agents. 

It  is  a  pity  that  we  have  not  sufficient  data  concerning  the 


62  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

political  condition  of  the  New  England  Indians  to  show  how  they 
developed  to  the  production  of  such  men  as  those  just  named,  but 
by  examining  another  Indian  tribe,  the  Seneca-Iroquois,  we  shall 
see  the  evolution  of  government  among  barbarians  up  to  hereditary 
monarchy  as  clearly  as  if  we  went  through  a  long  course  of  Greek 
or  Roman  history. 

The  Seneca-Iroquois  were  divided  into  gentes,  phratries,  and 
tribes.  The  chiefs  in  each  gens  were  usually  proportioned  to  the 
membere.  Among  the  Iroquois  there  is  one  to  about  every  fifty 
persons.  The  Iroquois  in  New  York  now  number  three  thousand, 
and  have  eight  sachems  and  about  sixty  chiefs. 

The  first  question,  then,  that  suggests  itself  is,  what  were  the  politi- 
cal rights  of  the  gens.  First  of  all,  with  the  basic  right  of  having 
a  council  of  its  own,  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  its  sachem 
and  its  chiefs.  Here  we  have  at  once  a  fact  that  contradicts  the 
old  historical  assumption  that  the  democratical  form  of  govern- 
ment is  a  late  invention,  and  that  the  monarchical  was  the  one 
most  natui-al  and  most  adapted  to  the  evolution  of  human  society. 
For  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  the  head  of  the  gens 
shows  that  man  started  in  a  rude  way  to  have  what  we  are  trying 
to-day  to  have  in  a  complete,  though  perhaps  too  complex,  way ; 
namely,  a  government  of  the  people. 

Another  right  of  the  gens  was  the  inheritance  of  property.  If 
a  man  died  his  property  would  not  descend  to  his  son  or  his 
daughter,  but  to  the  gens  in  common.  The  feeling  here  seems  to 
be  identical  with  that  wliich  our  most  republican  millionnaii'e, 
Andrew  Carnegie,  has  recently  expressed,  that  a  man's  material 
acquisitions,  being  largely  the  result  of  the  co-operation  of  others, 
should  at  his  death  revert  to  whence  they  came.  Mr.  Carnegie's 
mind,  however,  has  expanded  since  his  fii^t  declaration,  for  he  now 
maintains  that  a  rich  man  in  his  life-time  should  restore  to  the 
people,  in  the  shape  of  libraries,  parks,  and  hospitals,  the  money 
he  has  made  out  of  them. 

Of  course,  another  right  of  the  gens  was  that  of  bestowing 
names  on  its  members,  and  of  adopting  strangers  by  naming  them. 
There  were  obligations,  likewise,  of  help  and  defence  and  redress 
of  injuries,  and,  in  time,  an  obligation  among  most  not  to  marry 
in  the  gens.     Common  religious  rites,  a  common  burial  place  and, 


THE  OBIOIN   OF   GOVERNMENT   WITH  HAH.  68 

as  A  necessary  basis  for  the  election  of  a  sachem,  the  right  to  call 
a  council,  were  distinctive  marks  of  tlie  Iroquois  gens. 

As  to  the  election  of  sachems  and  chiefs,  it  is  probably  a  new- 
fact  to  most  readers  that  nea  ly    11  tl  e  Ame     a    I    V  n  tr'bes  as 
well  as  tl  e  Seneca-1  oquo  s  h   1  t   o  g  ■ades    f  cl  efta    ship 
other  words,  they  1  ad  a  pe    e  go  emo   and  a     a   el  ef 


The  sachem,  or  wise-man,  was  elected  in  each  gens  from  among 
its  members.  A  son  could  not  be  chosen  to  succeed  his  father  if 
descent  was  in  the  female  line,  which  made  the  son  belong  to  a 
different  gens. 

The  duties  of  a  sachem  were  confined  to  the  affaii-s  of  peace. 
He  settled  disputes,  advised  the  time  of  planting  corn,  or  the 
location  of  the  camp,  or  any  matter  that  demanded  personal 
adviceior  sympatiiy.     It  was  analogous  in  some  respects  to  the 


62  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

political  condition  of  the  New  England  Indians  to  show  how  they 
developed  to  the  production  of  such  men  as  those  just  named,  but 
by  examining  another  Indian  tribe,  the  Seneca-Iroquois,  we  shall 
see  the  evolution  of  government  among  barbarians  up  to  hereditary 
monarchy  as  clearly  as  if  we  went  through  a  long  course  of  Greek 
or  Roman  history. 

The  Seneca-Iroquois  were  divided  into  gentes,  phratries,  and 
tribes.  The  chiefs  in  each  gens  were  usually  proportioned  to  the 
membei*s.  Among  the  Iroquois  there  is  one  to  about  every  fifty 
persons.  The  Iroquois  in  New  York  now  number  three  thousand, 
and  have  eight  sachems  and  about  sixty  chiefs. 

The  first  question,  then,  that  suggests  itself  is,  what  were  the  politi- 
cal rights  of  the  gens.  First  of  all,  with  the  basic  right  of  having 
a  council  of  its  own,  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  its  sachem 
and  its  chiefs.  Here  we  have  at  once  a  fact  that  contradicts  the 
old  historical  assumption  that  the  democratical  form  of  govern- 
ment is  a  late  invention,  and  that  the  monarchical  was  the  one 
most  natural  and  most  adapted  to  the  evolution  of  human  society. 
For  the  right  of  electing  and  deposing  the  head  of  the  gens 
shows  that  man  started  in  a  rude  way  to  have  what  we  are  trying 
to-day  to  have  in  a  complete,  though  perhaps  too  complex,  way ; 
namely,  a  government  of  the  people. 

Another  right  of  the  gens  was  the  inheritance  of  property.  If 
a  man  died  his  property  would  not  descend  to  his  son  or  his 
daughter,  but  to  the  gens  in  common.  The  feeling  here  seems  to 
be  identical  with  that  which  our  most  republican  millionnaire, 
Andrew  Carnegie,  has  recently  expressed,  that  a  man's  material 
acquisitions,  being  largely  the  result  of  the  co-operation  of  others, 
should  at  his  death  revert  to  whence  they  came.  Mr.  Carnegie's 
mind,  however,  has  expanded  since  his  fii*st  declaration,  for  he  now 
maintains  that  a  rich  man  in  his  life-time  should  restore  to  the 
people,  in  the  shape  of  libraries,  parks,  and  hospitals,  the  money 
he  has  made  out  of  them. 

Of  course,  another  right  of  the  gens  was  that  of  bestowing 
names  on  its  members,  and  of  adopting  strangers  by  naming  them. 
There  were  obligations,  likewise,  of  help  and  defence  and  redress 
of  injuries,  and,  in  time,  an  obligation  among  most  not  to  marry 
in  the  gens.     Common  religious  rites,  a  common  burial  place  and, 


THE  OBIGIN  OP   GOVERNMENT   WITH  MAN. 


58 


as  a  necessaiy  basis  for  the  election  of  &  sachem,  the  right  to  call 
a  council,  were  distinctive  marks  of  the  Iroquois  gens. 

As  to  the  election  of  sachems  and  chiefs,  it  is  probably  a  new 
fact  to  most  readers  that  nearly  ivll  tlie  American  Indiin  tribe''  as 
well  as  the  Seieca-Iroquo  s   had  t    o  grades  of  cl  efta    slip     i 
other  words,  they  had  a  peace  go\ernor  and  a   vai  cl  ef 


ONE  OF  KINO 


The  sachem,  or  wise-man,  was  elected  in  each  gens  from  among 
its  members.  A  son  could  not  be  chosen  to  succeed  his  father  if 
descent  was  in  the  female  line,  which  made  the  son  belong  to  a 
different  gens. 

The  duties  of  a  sachem  were  coniined  to  the  affairs  of  peace. 
He  settled  disputes,  advised  the  time  of  planting  corn,  or  the 
location  of  the  camp,  or  any  matter  that  demanded  personal 
advice,  or  sympathy.    It  was  analogous  in  some  respects  to  the 


64  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

post  of  father  confessor,  though  among  many  of  the  tribes  this 
function  was  rudimentary  in  spite  of  the  semi-religious  character 
with  which  the  sachem  was  invested.  The  relation  of  the  sachem 
was  primarily  to  the  gens  of  which  he  was  the  official  head,  while 
that  of  the  chief,  who  was  chosen  for  personal  bravery  or  for 
eloquence,  was  primarily  to  the  tribe  or  large  organization  of  the 
council  of  which  he  as  well  as  the  sachem  were  members.  The 
sachem  was  so  much  an  officer  of  peace  that  he  could  not  go  to 
war  as  a  sachem,  but  simply  as  a  private  individual  in  the  ranks 
under  the  leaderships  of  the  chiefs,  whose  functions  were  purely 
military  or  advisory  in  military  matters  in  the  general  council  of 
the  tribe. 

The  office  of  sachem  was  hereditary  in  the  sense  that  it  was 
filled  from  the  same  gens  as  often  as  a  vacancy  happened,  but  it 
was  filled  by  election  from  different  relatives  of  the  deceased  or 
deposed  chieftain.  Though  the  office  was  nominally  for  life,  it 
was  practically  for  good  behavior,  because  of  the  power  to  depose. 
The  ceremony  of  installing  a  sachem  was  very  picturesque.  It 
was  accompanied  by  song  and  dance  and  the  final  act  was 
symbolized  by  the  putting  on  a  headdress  of  buffalo  horns,  as  his 
deposition  was  symbolized  by  taking  off  the  horns. 

It  is  one  of  the  little  facts  that  cumulate  to  show  the  substan- 
tial relativity  of  mankind  that,  even  among  tribes  widely  separated, 
horns  have  been  made  emblems  of  office  and  authority  from  time 
immemorial,  and  even  of  sanctity,  as  in  the  Catholic  church  we 
have  the  horns  of  the  altar,  which  were  invested  with  a  peculiar 
siicredness.  The  killing  of  Thomas  h  Becket,  for  instance,  in  the  age 
of  Henry  II.  of  England,  when  assassination  was  a  common  crime, 
was  accounted  especially  heinous  because  the  victim  was  not  only 
a  priest,  but  was  killed  while  holding  one  of  the  horns  of  the  altar. 

Horns,  also,  by  the  imagination  of  the  middle  ages,  are  assigned 
to  liis  Satanic  Majesty,  probably  as  a  token  of  his  power,  and  the 
horn  as  a  sign  of  plenty  is  another  emblem,  derived  possibly  from 
the  Scandinavian  drinking-horn,  though  it  is  also  credited  with  a 
Roman  and  Greek  derivation.  Tylor  intimates  that  the  command- 
ing appearance  of  buffalos  and  such  animals  as  wear  horns  may 
liave  suggested  to  the  general  mind  this  thing  as  a  token  of 
dignity  and  authority.  » 


66  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Among  the  Iroquois  Indians,  whose  attempt  at  government  we 
are  considering,  the  nomination  of  a  sachem  by  a  gens  was  not 
complete  until  it  had  received  the  assent  of  the  seven  remaining 
gentes.  If  these  gentes,  who  met  for  this  purpose  by  phratries, 
refused  to  confirm  it,  the  original  gens  had  to  make  another 
choice ;  and  even  when  they  had  confiimed  it,  it  was  still  neces- 
sary that  the  new  sachem,  to  use  their  own  peculiar  phrase,  should 
be  "  raised  up^*^  that  is,  should  be  inducted  into  his  office  by  a 
council  of  the  confederacy  before  he  could  enter  upon  his  duties. 
The  same  method  of  election  and  confirmation  applied  to  chiefs, 
yet  a  general  council  never  convened  to  "  raise  up  "  chiefs  below 
the  rank  of  a  sachem,  but  waited  for  some  time  when  a  sachem 
was  to  be  confirmed. 

The  principle  of  democracy  manifested  itself  here  in  the  reten- 
tion by  the  gent-i-les,^  or  members  of  each  gens,  of  the  right  of 
electing  their  most  immediate  rulers,  and  also  proved  itself  in 
the  safeguards  thrown  around  the  oflBces  to  prevent  usurpations 
by  the  check  on  the  election  which  the  other  gentes  held  in  their 
hands  and  by  the  additional  check  held  by  the  whole  tribe.  We 
can  see  in  this  ceremonial  of  "  raising  up "  by  the  tribe  an 
analogue  of  the  administration  to  our  President  of  the  oath  of 
office  by  some  one  else,  as  we  can  see  also  in  the  checks  devised 
by  the  Indian  mind  against  the  seizure  of  power  by  unscrupulous 
ambition  the  same  working  principle  that  led  the  founders  of  this 
republic  to  put  various  checks  on  the  power  of  individuals,  and 
even  of  popular  assemblies,  such  as  the  check  of  the  Senate  on  the 
House  of  Representatives. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  in  this  democratic  assembly,  or  coun- 
cil of  the  gens,  which  elected  a  sachem,  not  merely  every  man, 
but  every  married  woman,  had  a  voice  upon  great  questions, 
probably  in  many  cases  very  much  of  a  voice  on  little  ones,  like- 
wise. Thus  it  is  evident  that  the  great  ideas.  Liberty,  Equality, 
and  Fraternity,  which  were  the  torch-words  of  the  French  Revolu- 
tion, though  never  formulated  into  sounding  phrase  by  Indian 
orators,  were  cardinal  principles  of  their  system  of  government. 

Looked  at  carelessly,  a  council  of  Indian  chiefs,  scantily  clad, 

>  Oent-i-les  —  the  members  of  a  gens  or  family  group.    A  word  to  be  distinguished  from 
Gentiles  as  used  in  the  Bible. 


THE   OKIGIN   OP  GOVERNMENT   WITH  HAK.  67 

with  paint-daubed  faces,  armed  with  rude  weapons  and  amoking 
clumsy  pipes,  is  of  little  importance  except  as  a  ptctureijqueneBs 
of  the  past.  Studied  by  the  light  of  science,  it  is  seen  to  be  the 
germ  of  the  modern  congress,  and  thus  to  have  a  bearing  of  great 
importance  on  the  histoiy  of  mankind. 

The  first  st^ge  of  tribal  government  was  a  council  of  chiefs 
elected  by  the  gentes  and  may  be  styled  a  one-power  government  ■ 
—  not  a  one-raan  power,  for  that  was  to  come  later. 


,    -'^ 

^-A'^'/^H 

^^.„  '^  TEbs 

«S*>^0*!^ 

^^^hM^H 

Hg 

fii^^'^^^ 

bb^ 

^^9 

^ 

^%i: 

w^M 

^H 

^ 

r' 

■■^^F~^ 

pra^w 

^^1 

hH 

The  second  stage  was  a  govei'nment  divided,  or  balanced,  be- 
tween a  council  of  chiefs,  or  sncliems,  and  a  general ;  one  repre- 
senting the  civil,  and  ^he  other  the  military  necessities  of  the 
people. 

The  general,  called  War  Chief  among  the  Iroquois,  Rex  among 
the  Romans,  and  Basileus  among  the  Oreeks,  was  the  germ,  or 
suggestion,  of  a  chief  executive  magistrate.  King,  Emperor,  or 
President.  This  office  was  elective  and  not  hereditarj'  among  the 
Iroquois  and  other  Indians,  as  likewise  among  the  Romans,  and 
later  light  seems  to  show  that  the  Spaniards,  and  the  great 
historian  Prescott  following  their  lead,  were  mistaken  in  thinking 


68  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

that  among  the  Aztecs  the  office  was  hereditary.  It  is  also 
extremely  doubtful  whether  among  the  Greeks  of  the  traditionary 
period,  —  that  is,  those  who  figure  as  heroes  in  the  world's 
greatest  poems,  the  Iliad  and  Odyssey,  —  the  office  of  king  was 
not  elective,  instead  of  Iiereditary,  as  most  scholars  have  hitherto 
assumed. 

This  double  government  of  an  elective  council  and  elective 
general,  or  two-power  government,  naturally  unfolded  into  a  third 
stage:  a  tribal  government,  with  a  council  of  chiefs,  a  general 
commander,  and  an  assembly  of  the  people,  since  the  establishment 
of  tribes  in  walled  cities,  and  the  creation  of  wealth  in  lands, 
flocks  and  herds  and  in  private  property  necessitated  a  popular 
assembly. 

The  council  of  chiefs,  to  retain  their  power,  found  it  needful  to 
submit  the  most  important  measures  to  this  popular  assembly  for 
approval  or  the  reverse.  It  does  not  appear  that  this  assembly 
originated  measures,  but  was  content  to  let  the  chiefs  do  their 
thinking  for  them,  retaining  only  the  right  of  rejection  or  final 
action.  This  was  a  creation  then  of  a  three-power  government, 
namely  the  preconsidering  council,  the  popular  assembly  to  sanc- 
tion or  reject  the  plans  of  their  accepted  thinkers,  and  the  general 
to  carry  them  out,  if  called  upon. 

The  Iroquois  went  one  step  further  in  the  development  of  gov- 
ernment than  most  of  the  Indians,  for  one  of  tlieir  wise  men, 
Ha-yo-went-ha,  whom  our  poet  Longfellow  has  celebrated  as 
Hiawatha,  conceived  the  idea  of  uniting  their  different  tribes  and 
some  others  into  a  confederacy  mth  marked  limitations  of  territory 
which  was  almost  an  arrival  at  the  conception  of  a  nation.  The 
Iroquois  tradition  tells  us  that  the  council  for  this  purpose  met  on 
the  north  shore  of  the  beautiful  Onondaga  Lake  near  the  present 
site  of  Syracuse,  and  that  the  organization  was  perfected. 

The  great  Edinburgh  scholar.  Prof.  John  Stuart  Blackie, 
remarks  that  the  American  Indians  and  the  Greeks  of  the  Homeric 
poems  bear  to  each  otlier  in  sentiment  a  wonderfully  striking 
resemblance.  This  is  especially  true  as  to  the  basis  of  government 
indicated  by  their  political  or  official  titles.  The  Iroquois  name 
for  a  sachem  (Ilo-yar-na-go-war),  which  signifies  "  a  counsellor  of 
the  people,"  has  its  duplicate  in  many  Greek  names  for  military 


[  OBIQIN   OF   GOVEKNMENT   WITH   MAN. 


59 


leaders,  which  betokens  that  botli  barbaric  governraents  were  based 
on  the  people  (as  is  not  the  case  to-day  with  the  barbaric  govern- 
meots  of  Russia  and  of  China)  and  were,  indeed,  a  rude  kind  of 
free  democracy. 

Since  scientists  are  agreed  that  all  mtn  liave  developed  in  very 
nearly  similar  ways,  tliere  is  contained  in  this  jiarticular  picture  a 
general  one  also  of  the  way  in  which  all  races  probably  began, 
by  the  slow  adding  of  new  featnres  to  the  machinery  of  their 
social  system,  to  evolve  tlie  idea  of  government  from  the  family. 
What  is  averagely  true  of  the  American  Indian  applies  roundly, 


and  the  different  kinds  of  gfiveninicnt  wliicli  wo  chilli  bii  led  to 
study  further  on,  by  means  of  brief  historical  illustrations,  will  l>e 
seen  to  be  growths  upon  this  primal  stock  i>f  df/mncraticul  govern- 
ment, excrescences  caused  citlier  hy  tlio  cleverness  of  priests,  or 
the  ambition  of  individual  chiefs,  who,  tenii«>i-arily  clothed  with 
power  by  the  [leople,  managed  to  perpetuate  their  power  in  them- 
selves and  their  descendants.  But  these  excrescencfs^  on  the  fair 
growth  of  the  original  democratic  idea  are  gradually  losing  their 
vitality  and  must  before  long  drop  awa)-. 

■  It  1b  believeil  by  Gome  BtaJsnts  at  liintnry  tint  tlia  iiei>iilB  liave  Bimrrcly  itcvelojieil  die 
moDaTchiual  form  as  preferable  to  Oic  umiTtalnty.che  Hiictiiaiii  clmrai-ifr.cjf  an  <.lii-ar>:lii'!  '>r 
democratic  fomi.  PosbIUI;  nionaTcliy  it  part  or  a  natural  onlrr.  jiwt  as  a  dinorder  In  chilil- 
bood  may  be  a  Htfeguatd  againat  a  mure  dan^roua  disease  later— a  sort  of  unconscious 
■all'TSCcinaUon  on  Uie  part  of  a  people  •levelopin;;. 


60  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

We  have  now  had  a  brief  outline  of  the  simplest  form  of  tribal 
government,  a  form  adapted  to  meet  only  the  needs  of  barbarians. 
We  shall  see  in  a  later  chapter  how  perfect  in  its  mechanism, 
and  how  marvellous  in  its  power  has  been,  and  still  is,  the  theo- 
cratic, or  priestly  government,  which  the  great  French  scholar, 
Fustel  de  Coulanges,  seems  to  think  was  more  strong  in  the  begin- 
ning of  ancient  society  than  to-day.  For  de  Coulanges  maintains 
that  among  ancient  races  every  family  had  a  separate  religion ; 
that  every  hearth  was  the  altar  of  a  personal  god,  and  that  con- 
sequently every  attempt  at  closer  association  between  different 
families  for  the  pui^j^ose,  or  towards  the  end,  of  establishing  a 
joint  government  was  not  merely  colored,  but  controlled,  by  the 
theocratic  or  priestly  idea ;  was  dominated  always  by  the  shadow 
of  the  unseen  world. 

It  sometimes  happens,  however,  that  great  scholars  who  adopt 
certain  ideas  as  genei-al  explanations  of  any  problem  are  tempted 
to  twist  even  the  simplest  fact  into  an  apparent  substantiation  of 
their  theories.  For  example,  this  great  Frenchman  just  mentioned, 
whose  lust  book  had  the  extraordinary  honor  of  being  crowned 
three  times  by  the  French  Academy,  takes  a  very  simple  passage 
from  Homer's  beautiful  poem,  "  The  Odyssey."  Ulysses,  when 
offered  countless  treasures  and  immortality  likewise,  wishes  instead 
to  see  once  more  the  flame  of  his  own  hearth-fire.  The  scholar, 
often  too  eager  to  prove  his  case  and  so  tempted  into  becoming 
a  special  {^leader,  seems  to  see  in  this  a  proof  of  the  worship  of 
home  and  the  household  fire-god  rather  than  a  simple,  though 
profound,  idea  put  by  the  greatest  of  poets  into  the  mouth  of  his 
wisest  character. 

For  should  not  the  wise  man's  words  really  be  taken  as 
merely  an  outburst  of  the  charmingly  simple  and  profoundly  true 
feeling  that  human  affection  outshines  all  treasures,  and  that  to 
see  once  again,  after  long  separation,  one's  beloved  wife  and  child 
would  be  more  to  a  man  than  immoitality  away  from  them  ? 


II. 


f{udin)cr)is 


/Kn)or)^    /Kt)itr)clls^ 


THE  beginnings  of  human  government,  as  of  the  human 
family,  if  we  accept  tlie  doctrine  of  Darwin,  are 
unquestionably  found  among  the  lower  animals.  But 
whether  we  believe  the  Darwinian  theory  or  not,  which 
the  most  eminent  pathologist  Virchow  has  recently  declared  to  be 
still  far  from  final,  we  cannot  reasonably  refuse  to  admit  that 
"  instinct,"  as  a  mysterious  line  of  separation  between  man  and 
other  animals,  has  been  wiped  out.  The  word,  instinct,  comes 
from  the  Latin  verb,  instinguere^  to  excite  or  urge  on,  and  by 
logical  necessity  implies  a  conscious  exciter  behind  the  excitement 
exhibited.  Hence,  very  justly  from  this  point  of  view,  Ciesalpinus, 
an  ancient  author,  remarks  :  — "  Deus  est  anima  brutorum.^^  "  God 
is  the  mind  (or  moving  principle)  of  animals." 

Most  of  the  early  philosophers,  and  especially  the  Christian 
fathers  (who  were  almost  unanimous  in  regarding  all  animal 
life  as  something  necessarily  coarse,  gross  and  contemptible), 
assumed  that  animals  were  mere  automata.  In  the  middle  ages 
those  who  sought  an  explanation  for  the  manifold  manifestations 
of  reason  among  the  brutes  were,  however,  slightly  at  variance  in 
their  opinions,  for  some  attributed  such  tokens  to  the  all-powerful 
and  ever-ready  devil ;  while  others  referred  them  to  the  agency  of 
God,  through  the  medium  of  instinct  —  which  was  defined  as  a 


61 


62  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

guiding,  inborn,  unchangeable  and  irresistible  propensity,  inde- 
pendent of  experience  or  training  or  heredity,  and  acting  appro- 
priately without  consciousness  of  the  object  aimed  at. 

According  to  Descartes,  the  great  French  philosopher,  the 
feelings  and  emotions  of  animals  are  an  empty  show  — a  welcome 
bit  of  philosophy  for  animal  tormentors.  This  extreme  opinion, 
coming  from  a  man  so  famous,  had  a  great  vogue  in  its  time,  but 
some  voices  here  and  there  were  lifted  against  it,  and  even  the 
Jesuit  father,  Bonjeant,  who  found  so  much  intelligence  in  ani- 
mals that  he  thought  most  of  it  must  be  due  to  the  help  of  the 
devil  or  devils,  turned  against  Descartes  with  the  words :  "  All 
the  Cartesians  in  the  world  will  never  persuade  me  that  a  dog  is 
a  mere  machine.  Imagine  a  man  who  should  love  his  clock  as 
he  loves  his  dog,  and  who  should  pet  it  because  he  believed  it 
loved  him  and  was  of  opinion  that  it  struck  the  hours  con- 
sciously and  out  of  friendship  for  him.  Yet,  if  Descartes  be  right, 
that  is  exactly  the  absurdity  committed  by  all  those  who  believe 
that  their  dog  is  faithful  to  them  and  loves  them.  I  see  how  my 
dog  runs  to  me  when  I  call  him,  caresses  me  when  I  coax  him, 
trembles  and  runs  away  when  I  threaten  him,  obeys  when  I  order 
him,  and  how  he  exhibits  all  the  outward  signs  of  the  distinct 
emotions  of  joy,  grief,  pain,  fear,  desire,  love  and  hate.  And  if 
all  the  philosophers  in  the  world  should  try  to  convince  me,  I 
should  never  be  able  to  persuade  myself  that  an  animal  is  a 
machine." 

But,  in  contradiction  of  the  doctrine  that  animals  are  automatic, 
it  has  long  been  recognized  that  the  power  and  practice  of  organi- 
zation among  the  lower  animals  include  a  series  of  phenomena 
of  the  highest  interest  —  phenomena  that  involve  the  possession 
and  application  of  high  mental  and  even  moral  faculties.  For 
instance,  there  are  forms  of  government  and  respect  for  consti- 
tuted authority.  « If  men,"  wrote  the  pagan  Celsus  in  the  second 
century  after  Christ,  "  think  themselves  dilBferentiated  from  ani- 
mals, because  they  inhabit  towns,  make  laws  and  set  up  govern- 
ments, they  prove  themselves  in  error,  for  bees  and  ants  do  the 
same."  Celsus  also  noted  that  ants  talk  with  each  other  when 
they  meet,  and  offered  an  opinion,  which  recent  investigation  has 
confirmed,  that  they  had  regular  burying-grounds. 


EUDIMENTS   AMONG    ANIMALS.  68 

When  an  animal  is  very  minute,  people  are  apt  to  think  its 
oi^nization  must  be  very  simple  and  its  intelligence  very  small, 
for  the  influence  of  the  prejudice  of  mere  size  over  the  majority  is 
very  great.     The  gigantic  dimensions  of  a  whale,  or  a  reptile  of 

the  fossil  age,  attract  general  attention,  while   equal  attention  is 
not  easily  aroused  by  the  most  wonderful  phenomena  exhibited  in 


the  life  of  a  flea  or  an  ant.  Yet  the  exti-aordinary  capabilities  of 
an  apparently  lowly  creature  may  yield  to  a  philosopher  the  most 
valuable  results. 

The  cerebral  ganglia  of  the  ant  —  which  ganglia  in  invertebrate 
animals  take  tlie  place  of  tlie  bmin  proper  to  tlie  vertebrate  —  are 
no  larger  than  a  quarter  of  a  pin's  head.  "  Under  this  point  of 
view,"  as  Darwin  says,  "the  brain  of  the  ant  is  one  of  the  most 
wonderful  atoms  of  matter  in  the  world,  perliaps  more  so  than 
the  brain  of   a  man."     And  this  fact  shows  that  tliere  may  be 


64  THE   STORY  OF    GOYEBNHENT. 

marvellously  great  mentality  in.  a  maryellonslj  small  mass  of 
nervous  matter. 

Ants  live  in  a  republic,  in  the  fullest  sense  of  the  word,  that 
is,  in  a  state  on  the  widest  democratic  foundations ;  and  is  it  not 
significant  that  the  most  intelligent  family  among  socially  living 
insects  has  made  for  itself  a  polity  which  is  regarded  among  men 
as  the  relatively  best  and  most  ideal,  while  a  step  lower,  among 
bees,  there  is  a  distinct  inclination  to  the  form  of  so-called  consti- 
tutional monarchy  ?  Among  men,  even  among  many  college-bred 
Americans,  it  is  frequently  said  that  while  the  republican  form  of 
government,  from  a  theoretical  standpoint,  best  represents  the 
ideal  of  the  state  and  the  principles  of  justice,  nevertheless,  on 
account  of  the  ineradicable  weakness  of  human  nature,  and  the  con- 
sequent impossibility  of  self-government,  it  is  not  practically 
realizable. 

Were  this  true,  ought  we  not  to  look  up  to  and  regard 
with  profound  admiration  the  little  ant-nation  that  lives  at 
our  feet,  since  every  tribe  of  those  apparently  petty  creatures 
finds  itself  intelligent  and  civilized  enough  to  live  easily  and 
happily  under  the  principles  of  universal  equality  and  liberty? 
Shall  we  not  have  to  revise  Solomon's  saying,  "  Go  to  the  ant, 
thou  sluggard !  "  somewhat  after  this  fashion,  "  Go  to  the  ant, 
thou  political  economist,  or  college  professor  who  inculcatest 
monarchism  "  ? 

But  the  ant  republic  has  not  merely  political  equality ;  it  has 
gone  a  step  further  than  that  and  evolved  industrial  equality. 
It  has  developed  from  the  social  the  socialistic  republic,  and 
is  indeed  in  all  its  industrial,  though  not  in  all  its  social  features, 
what  our  most  idealistic  politiconsocial  refonners  are  wont  to  put 
forward  as  the  last  and  mightiest  aim  of  human  efforts  after 
governmental  perfection  ;  the  ideal  of  Plato,  and  Sir  Thomas  More, 
of  Edward  Bellamy  and  a  growing  host  of  thinkers  and 
workers  now  in  eveiy  place.  The  ant  state  is  a  "  Proletariat 
State  "  in  the  truest  sense  of  the  word,  since  only  the  wingless, 
sexless  worker-ants,  which  have  no  families  of  their  own  to  look 
after,  take  part  in  directing  the  business,  while  the  winged  males 
and  fertile  females  are  kept  as  prisoners  in  the  nest,  and  are  fed 
and  nurtured  for  the  sake  of  their  progeny. 


"^^.^  ^'Hb' L^W 


THE  POLICE  C 


66  THE    STORY    OF     GOVERNMENT. 

Tlje  expression  "  sexless  "  is  really  not  appropriate  to  the  men, 
or  rather  \vonien-workei*s,  for  these  are  really  undeveloped  feinalai^ 
so  that  the  state  is  truly  under  a  rule  completely  feminine. 
Huber  remarks  that  these  are  women  whose  moral  qualities 
have  been  developed  at  the  cost  of  their  physical, —  a  tiling  which 
ought  not  to  happen  among  mankind,  for  the  most  perfect  devel- 
opment of  a  human  being  is  that  wliich  is  symmetrical.  As  Alcott 
said,  Friendship  is  globular,  Love  is  spherical,  and  the  loss  or  de- 
pression of  any  element  of  God's  creation  is  not  a  superior  purity 
but  an  imperfection. 

The  individual  ant  does  not  possess  a  family,  for  the  principle 
of  public  and  state  training  of  children  —  such  as  the  philosopher 
Plato  is  known  to  have  desired  in  his  republic,  and  which  would 
be  necessary  in  a  fully  organized  "  Proletariat  State  "  —  is  thor- 
oughly carried  out  in  the  ant  republic. 

There  is  one  singular  contradiction  to  the  equality  regnant 
among  ants  and  this  is,  that  for  an  unknown  length  of  time  they 
have  had  a  politico-social  institution  which  has  played  and  still 
plays  a  great  part  in  the  history  of  human  nations  and  civilizations. 
This  institution,  indeed,  seems  at  first  sight  not  to  harmonize  with 
the  otherwise  social-democratic  arrangements  of  the  ant  republic ; 
but  when  we  remember  that  slavery  existed  in  the  republics  of 
antiquity,  and  not  only  well  agreed  with  the  rest  of  the  polity, 
but  was  even  an  essential  support  of  the  same,  we  can  scarcely 
deny  to  the  ant  republic  its  democratic  character  on  account  of 
slavery.  And  this  the  rather  since  slavery  among  ants  is  as  mild, 
if  not  milder,  than  it  was  in  Greece,  where  freed  slaves  were  often 
known  to  rise  to  the  highest  offices  and  dignities  of  the  State, 
or  even  than  in  Rome,  where  Greek  slaves  were  the  tutors  of  the 
young,  and  slavery,  odious  as  it  may  be  in  and  for  itself,  neverthe- 
less apparently  contributed  to  the  general  advance  of  civilization. 

Besides,  slavery  among  ants,  in  a  very  important  point,  is 
far  superior  to  that  among  men,  and  it  may  be  said  without 
question  that  in  this  resj^ect  ants  tliink  and  act  more  humanely 
than  men  themselves.  For  instance,  they  never  allow  grown-up 
membei"s  of  their  race,  who  have  come  to  their  full  antly 
consciousness,  to  l)e  enslaved,  whereas  human  slave-makers  are 
known  never  to  have  the  smallest  scruple  on  this  head.     For  the 


RODIMENTS   AMON(i   ANIMALS.  67 

ant-kidnappers  only  atea!  larvie  iind  pui)io,  which  tliey  bring  up  as 
regular  slaves  within  their  dwellings,  so  that  these  last  have  never 
tusted  the  sweetness  of  freedom.  Only  young  aiitH,  one  or  two 
days  old,  recognizable  by  their  clear  color,  which  are  not  yet  out 
of  their  long  clothes  ami  do  not  yet  know  what  is  "  manly  or 
wommily  pride  before  the  throne  of  a  king,"  are  sei/.ed  and  made 
into  slaves,  and  these  aceuatoni  themselves  <]nickly  and  easily  to 
their  new  position. 

The  slaves  of  tlie  ants,  moreover,  do  not  seem  to  lie  conscious 
of  the  lo.ss,  or  rather  of  the  absence  of  freediwn,  and,  as  a  rule, 
work  willingly  and  uncorapelled,  in  common  with  tlicir  masters 
at  all  the  tasks  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  the  colony,  such 


as  building  the  dwellings,  searching  for  plant-lice,  tendance  and 
feeding  of  larv-e  and  pupse,  and  so  on,  and  even  fight  against 
members  of  their  own  species  in  company  with  their  robber-lords. 
■They  are  regarded  more  as  frientls,  brothel's,  or  heljiei's  than  as 
real  slaves.  They  never  think  of  escaping  from  slavery  by  flight, 
although  the  naturalist,  Forel,  once  observed  a  revolt  among  them. 
This  rule  applies  at  least  to  the  Swiss  species  ohseiTed  by  Huber, 
while  in  the  south  of  England  colonies*  have  been  seen  in  which 
the  slavee  never  leave  or  venture  to  leave  the  nest,  and  are  thus, 
in  the  true  sense  of  the  word,  domestic  slaves. 

Ants  also  show  a  strong  resemblance  to  men  in  the  development 
of  their  character.  Their  great  attachment  and  self-sacrifice  for 
the  commonwealth  and  for  each  member  of  it  are  accompanied 


68  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

generally  by  a  hasty  temperament,  a  proneness  to  furious  anger, 
and  an  unquenchable  hatred  against  all  foreign  or  hostile  colonies. 
Therewith  are  blended  industry,  perseverance,  and  too  often 
cruelty.  Gluttony  also  is  one  of  their  chai-acteristics,  and  their 
love  for  a  good  meal  is  so  great  that  it  is  thus  possible  to  restrain 
their  otherwise  unconquerable  desire  to  fight.  Nothing  is  more 
interesting  than  to  watch  this  struggle  of  two  passions.  If  honey, 
of  wliich  ants  are  inordinately  fond,  and  for  which  they  will 
generally  leave  all  other  food,  be  placed  on  a  battlefield  between 
two  contending  parties,  as  for  instance  red  and  turf  ants,  some  of 
the  warriors  will  be  seen  approaching  and  tasting  it.  They  never 
stay  by  it  long,  but  quickly  return  to  the  fight.  Sometimes  these 
same  ants  will  turn  back  longingly  twice  or  thrice. 

Government  among  the  Termites,  who  are  wrongly  named 
ants,  has  some  highly  interesting  points.  They  belong  to  an 
entirely  different  order  of  the  Insecta,  the  Orthoptera,  are  related 
most  nearly  to  our  Blattae  or  cockroaches,  and  are  three  or  four 
times  as  large  as  our  black  ants.  Their  polity  seems  to  be  almost 
more  developed  than  that  of  the  ants,  and  their  architectural  talent 
is  also  superior.  They  raise,  in  Africa  at  least,  fine  buildings  of 
from  ten  to  twenty  feet  high,  out  of  the  earth,  clay,  pieces  of 
plants,  stones,  etc.,  fastening  together  these  materials  by  a  kind 
of  gummy  saliva. 

So  firm  does  this  make  their  towns,  built  in  the  shape  of  a  cone 
or  of  a  large  liaycock,  that  several  men  can  stand  on  tlieir  surface. 
Antelopes  and  buffaloes  are  wont  to  use  these  giant  ant-liills  for 
sentries  or  watchtowers  to  look  over  the  wide  plains  and  guard 
against  the  approach  of  enemies.  They  do  not  break  through 
even  under  the  tread  of  an  elephant  or  the  weight  of  a  heavily 
laden  wagon.  In  Senegal  their  size  and  number  are  often  so  large 
that  at  a  distance  they  frequently  resemble  human  dwellings,  the 
similarly  conical  huts  of  the  negro  villagei*s,  and  travellers  are 
sometimes  thereby  led  in  a  wi'ong  direction.  Jol)Son,  in  his 
''  History  of  Gambia,"  says  that  many  of  these  towns  are  twenty 
feet  high,  and  that  he  and  his  companions  often  hid  behind  them 
when  out  hunting. 

At  first  the  buildings  are  only  small,  and  resemble  pyramids 
scarcely  a  foot  high.     Gradually,  as  tlie  population  increases,  new 


RUDIMENTS    AMONG    ANIMALS. 


69 


and  similar  hills  lise  up  all  around.  The  partition  walla  are  then 
broken  througli,  t^e  new  dwellings  are  united  to  the  old,  a  dome 
is  added,  and  a  symmetrical  roof  is  built  over  all.  Tims  a  perfect 
objectrlesson  of  mankind's  greatest  principle,  co-operation,  is  con- 
tinually I'epeated,  until  the  mound  of  twelve  or  twenty  feet  high 
is  made.  The  outer  covering  consists  of  a  firm-domed  vaulted 
layer  of  clay,  which  is  exceedingly  strong,  so  as  to  withstand  in- 
juries from  weather,  attacks  of  enemies,  and  other  accidents. 


The  astonishment  felt  at  the  capabilities  of  these  creatures  who 
are  sometimes  a  scourge  to  the  human  inhabitants  of  the  countries 
where  they  live  becomes  even  greater  wlien  we  investigate  the 
interior  of  the  hills  that  .serve  as  their  dwellings.  Tliese  internal 
aiTvmgements  are  so  various  and  so  complicated  that  pages  of  des- 
cription might  be  written  about  tliem.  Tliere  are  myriads  of 
rooms,  cells,  nuraeries.  })rovisiou  i-hamltei-s,  guard-ninms,  passages. 
corridors,  vaults,  bridges,  subterranean  streets  and  vanals,  tunnels, 
arched  ways,  steiw,  smooth  inclines,  domes,  etc.,  etc.,  all  arranged 
on  a  definite,  coherent,  ami  well-considered  plan.  In  the  middle 
of  the  building,  sheltered  as  far  as  possible  fnim  outside  dangers, 
lies  the  stately  roj-al  dwelling,  resembling  an  arclied  oven,  in  which 


70  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

the  royjil  pair  reside,  or  rather  are  imprisoned,  for  the  entrances 
and  outlets  are  so  small  that  although  the  workei-s  on  service  can 
pass  easily  in  and  out,  tlie  queen  cannot,  for  during  the  egg-laying 
her  lx)dy  swells  out  to  an  enormous  size,  two  or  three  thousand 
times  the  size  and  weight  of  an  ordinary  worker. 

The  tjueen,  therefore,  never  leaves  her  dwelling,  and  dies  therein. 
Round  the  palace,  which  is  at  first  small,  but  is  later  enlarged  in 
proportion  as  tlie  queen  increases  in  size,  until  it  is  at  last  a  yard 
long  and  half  a  yard  high,  lie  the  nurseries  or  cells  for  the  eggs 
and  larvae  ;  next  these  the  servants'  rooms  or  cells  for  the  workers 
who  wait  on  the  queen  ;  then  special  chambers  for  the  soldiers  on 
guard,  and  between  these  are  numerous  store-rooms,  filled  with 
gums,  resins,  dried  plant-juices,  meal,  seeds,  fruits,  worked-up  wood, 
etc.  According  to  Bettziech-Beta,  there  is  always  in  the  midst 
of  the  town  a  large  common  room,  which  is  used  either  for 
popular  assembliei  or  as  the  meeting  and  starting  point  of  the 
countless  piissages  and  cliambers  of  the  town.  Other  naturalists 
believe  that  this  space  serves  for  purposes  of  ventilation. 

It  is  by  no  means  easy  to  investigate  accumtely  the  interior 
of  a  Termite  town,  owing  to  the  interdependence  of  the  several 
parts  —  tlie  destruction  of  one  room,  arch,  or  passage  causing  the 
breaking  down  of  many,  and  in  addition  to  tliis  the  energetic  resist- 
ance of  the  Termite  soldiers,  armed  with  very  sharp  and  strong 
mandibles,  puts  great  obstacles  in  the  way  of  the  observer.  "  They 
fight,"  says  tlie  English  traveller  Smeath man,  to  whom  we  owe  the 
fullest  information  about  these  creatures,  "  thev  figrht  to  the  last 
man,  and  they  defend  so  energetically  every  inch  of  their  projierty 
that  they  often  drive  away  the  unshod  negroes,  while  the  blood  of 
the  European  runs  through  his  stockings.  We  were  never  able  to 
itudy  the  interior  of  a  nest  in  peace ;  for  while  the  soldiei*s 
attacked  us,  the  workers  stopped  up  as  quickly  as  possible  the 
rooms  and  passages  laid  open."  They  do  this  especially  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  royal  dwelling,  for  which  they  show  the  great- 
est care,  and  that  so  cleverly  that  from  the  outside  it  only  looks 
like  a  formless  heap  of  clay  and  cannot  be  distinguished  from  its 
surroundings.  Nevertheless,  it  is  not  hard  to  iind,  partly  from  its 
situation  in  the  midst  of  the  building,  and  partly  because  it  is  sur- 
rounded by  great  crowds  of  workers  and  soldiei-s,  willing  to  risk 


KUDIMENTS    AMONG    ANIMALS. 


71 


their  lives  in  its  defence.  Tlie  interior  aUo,  besides  containing  the 
royal  pair,  is  found  filled  with  hundreds  of  tlie  workers  serving  the 
latter.  These  faithful  servants  do  not  desert  their  sovereigns  even 
in  utmost  need  and  peril.  "  For  wlien  I,"  says  Smeathman,  "  took 
out  such  a  royal  dwelling  and  kept  it  in  a  lai^e  glajss  vessel,  all  of 
the  servants  busied  themselves  witli  the  greatest  care  about  their 
sovereigns,  and  I  saw  some  of  them  engaged  about  the  head  of 
the  queen,  as  t)iough  they  wei-e  giving  her  something.     Then  they 


m 

M.W-^Af 

m 

^H 

s 

took  awav  from  her  abdomen  the  eggs  laid  by  her,  and  carried  tliem 
carefully  into  some  unbroken  parts  of  the  building,  or  hid  thein 
between  scraps  of  clay  as  well  as  they  could." 

The  Termites  shun  the  light  nf  day  :  "  having  light,  they  ]>i-cfer 
darkness  rather."  Thi;*  is  also  shown  to  some  extent  in  their  state 
polity,  which,  as  ahvaily  sjiid,  otherwise  much  resembles  the  Ant 
Republic,  except  that  it  favow  the  nionareliical  idea  by  passessing 


72  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

a  standing  army  and  having  genemlly  only  one  queen.  By  this 
possession  of  a  standing  army  the  Termites'  state  is  rendered 
more  monarchical  even  than  the  famous  Bee  polity,  so  often  re- 
garded as  the  prototype  of  a  monarcliy,  or  the  rule  of  one  indi- 
vidual. The  Bee  government,  indeed,  generally  has  only  one 
queen,  but  instead  of  a  standing  army  it  carries  out  to  the  fullest 
extent  the  purely  republican  or  democratic  principle  of  univei-sal 
national  arm-bearing  in  a  fashion  that  leaves  far  behind  it  all 
human  arrangements. 

Yet  not  in  this  alone,  but  in  all  its  affairs,  the  Bee  state  must  be 
characterized  as  a  monarchy  with  very  democratic  institutions.  It 
may,  indeed,  be  called  a  communistic  or  social-democratical  mon- 
archy—  such  as  Napoleon  III.  for  a  time,  while  coquetting 
with  the  working-classes,  appears  to  have  had  the  notion  of  intro- 
ducing in  France.  It  may  also  be  called  an  elective  monarchy,  for 
no  direct  hereditaiy  line  is  followed,  but  the  queen  is  in  each  case 
chosen  by  the  workers,  and  selected  or  rejected  as  they  please. 
The  queen  in  return  relies  wholly  upon  the  workers,  or  the  neuter 
working  bees,  who,  by  the  possession  of  their  terrible  poisoned  sting, 
unite  in  their  own  pereons  the  functions  of  workers  and  soldiers. 
The  privileged  condition  of  the  non-working,  pleasure-loving  males, 
or  drones,  is  only  suffered  by  the  worker  just  so  long  as  .their 
services  are  thought  necessary. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  monarchical  principle  is  very  plainly 
manifested  in  the  fact  that  the  whole  life  of  the  hive  revolves 
more  or  less  round  the  queen ;  where  she  is  wanting,  dies,  or  is 
not  succeeded  by  another,  the  hive  falls  into  disorder,  and  in  a 
longer  or  shorter  time  infallibly  perishes.  Single  members  of  the 
hive,  if  they  scatter,  cither  die  or  become  useless,  lazy  vagabonds 
and  mischievous  higliwaymen.  The  monarchical  principle  of  the 
Bee  nation  is  still  more  strikingly  manifested  in  comparison  with 
the  other  social  insects,  in  that  only  one  ruler  or  queen  is  permit- 
ted, and  that  where  several  accidentally  come  together  the  super- 
fluous ones  are  either  killed  or  are  compelled  to  go  out  and  found 
new  colonies. 

Nevertlieless  an  old  and  aMicated  queen,  no  longer  able  to  lay 
any  fertilized  eggs,  is  out  of  mercy  sometimes  suffered  to  remain 
for  a   while  in   the  hive  near   her   successor,  and   receive   some 


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li  THK    STORY    OF     GOVERNMENT. 

measure  of  tlu?  bread  of  charity.  Pfarrer  Calminius  observed  a 
case  ill  which  two  queens  lived  peaceably  and  well  tended  near 
each  other  on  two  tables  hanging  side  by  side.  But  these  are  rare 
exceptions.  The  workers  genemlly  sting  the  old  useless  queens 
unmei'ci fully  to  death,  or  suffocate  them  by  surrounding  them 
closely  on  all  sides.  Sometimes  they  are  merely  driven  out  of  the 
hive  and  left  to  perish. 

The  wond(Mful  ol)servation  has  been  made  that  a  queen  who, 
through  age  or  vsome  other  weakening  circumstances,  l)ecomes  con- 
scious of  her  exhaustion,  and  has  communicated  this  consciousness 
to  her  people,  provides  in  common  with  them  for  the  safe  succession 
to  the  throne,  and  soon  as  this  is  done  gives  back  the  throne  and 
sceptre  into  the  hands  of  the  people,  that  is,  either  voluntarily 
leaves  the  hive  in  order  to  die  outside,  or  is  killed  by  the  bees  and 
thrown  out. 

As  a  matter  of  fact  there  is  no  small  resemblance  between  the 
l)ee  system  and  that  of  constitutional  monarchy  in  so  far  as  the 
l>ees  appear  to  lay  no  stress  on  the  pei-son  of  their  queen,  and  are 
perfectly  contented  so  long  as  they  have  one,  that  is,  some  one 
capable  of  discharging  the  royal  or  rather  maternal  duties.  They 
change  the  sovereignty  as  a  rule  eiisily  and  quickly,  and  thoroughly 
practise  the  well-known  maxim  of  constitutional  royalty :  "  Le  roi 
est  mort  —  vive  le  roi.''  (The  king  is  dead  —  long  live  the  king !) 
A  hive  robbed  of  its  queen  either  doe«  homage  to  a  fresh  queen 
introduced  into  it  just  as  her  predecessor,  or  brings  up  a  sovereign 
by  its  own  efforts ;  while  a  hive  long  left  queenless  falls*  into  sloth 
and  riot,  and  sooner  or  later  perishes. 

The  queen,  since  all  revolves  round  her,  is  the  necessary  centre 
and  bond  of  the  hive,  but  without  herself  taking  any  personal  part 
in  the  business  and  proceedings.  She  therefore,  in  reality,  exactly 
answers  to  the  foundation-stone  of  constitutionalism,  and  is  what 
Napoleon  I.  declared  he  would  not  be,  in  reply  to  the  famous 
constitutional  reproach  of  Si(^yes  :  '*The  prize-pig  of  the  nation." 
She  is  indeed  widely  and  honorably  different  from  her  human 
antitype  in  that  she  is  not  simply  "representative,''  giving  to  high 
and  low  merely  an  empty  show,  but  really  discharges  actual  and 
essential  duties,  without  which  nothing  could  exist. 

Apart  from  this,  the  queen  in  the  simplicity  and  uniformity  of 


KUDINrENTS    AMONG    ANIMALS.  75 

her  work,  and  in  the  half,  though  respectful,  imprisonment  in 
which  she  is  kept,  is  a  complete  contrast  to  her  intellectually  and 
physically  developed  and  active  subjects,  so  that  here,  as  so  often 
among  men,  it  might  seem  fair  to  say  that  stupidity  or  narrowness, 
or  perhaps  only  mediocrity,  rules  over  reason. 

In  any  case  this  sovereignty  is  nuich  restricted  by  the  subjects 
who,  indeed,  seem  to  indemnify  tliemselves  for  the  compulsory 
endurance  of  a  monarchical  head  by  observing  otherwise  the 
maxims  of  the  most  extreme  democraciy,  of  the  widest  Socialism 
and  Comnuuiism.  For  among  l)ees  One  is  as  good  as  another  and 
the  beautiful  princi[)le  is  unconditionally  obeyed:  '^  Eacli  for  all 
—  all  for  each."  They  have  no  private  property,  no  family,  no 
private  dwelling,  but  liang  in  thick  clumps  within  the  common 
room  in  the  narrow  space  between  the  combs,  taking  turns  for 
brief  nightly  repose.  The  building,  cleansing,  and  working  are 
also  carried  on  partially  through  the  night.  All  stores  are  com- 
mon ;  there  is  only  the  state  magazine,  and  all  are  fed  from  this 
without  distinction  of  person.  If  want  and  hunger  enter,  all  die 
alike.  The  queen  here  is  an  exception  and  has  the  privilege  of 
dying  last.  The  bees  are,  however,  egotists  in  such  times  of  need, 
and  in  threatening  famine  from  continued  bad  weather,  throw  the 
larvie,  the  drone  larvje  first,  out  of  the  cells.  Tliis  also  happens 
likewise,  when  lack  of  place  for  storing  provisions  occurs,  owing 
to  very  successful  foraging.  The  larvie  are  then  thrown  out,  or 
the  nuraing  nairowed  down  to  the  uttermost. 

In  the  matter  of  labor  the  bees  have  realized  the  liiijhest  ideal 
of  Communism,  for  it  is  perfectly  free,  voluntary,  and  uncompul- 
soiy.  Each  does  its  much  or  as  little  as  seems  to  it  good ;  but 
there  are  no  sluggards  among  them,  for  the  universal  example  acts 
as  an  incitement ;  and  in  a  society  wherein  all  work,  idleness  is 
really  an  unthinkal)le  and  impossible  thing.  Wliereas,  on  the 
contmiy,  in  the  much-jHaised  opposite  condition  of  human  society 
the  idleness  of  the  few  is  not  onlv  favored  but  seems  to  be  abso- 
lutely  unavoidable. 

Truly,  in  a  communistic  foi-m  of  society  the  individual  must 
have  the  consciousness,  as  among  the  l)ees,that,  in  so  far  as  he  is  a 
member  of  the  whole,  he  is  not  working  for  otliers  but  for  the 
common   good    and     therewith   for  himself.     This  consciousness 


76  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

makes  the  bees  such  busy  and  eager  workers  that  many  of  them 
work  themselves  to  death  in  a  few  weeks  during  the  foragmg 
season,  whereas  working  bees  usually  reach  an  age  of  nine  or  ten 
months,  so  tliat  the  great  Roman  poet,  Virgil,  whose  genius  tlirew 
light  on  the  commonest  human  labors,  wrote  truly : 

**  Ofttimes  in  a  mistaken  fliglit  they  tear 
Their  wings,  and  even  generously  die 
Before  they  drop  the  precious  load,  so  high 
The  fame  of  getting  honey,  and  so  strong 
The  love  they  feel  for  flowers." 

The  "  instinct  "  philosopliers  will  probably  say  that  this  work- 
ing themselves  to  death  in  behalf  of  the  community  is  only  the 
result  of  an  inborn,  irresistible,  heaven-implanted  tendency  in  the 
little  bee  mind  from  which  the  insect  cannot  voluntarily  iree 
itself,  and  that  we  therefore  cannot  liere  speak  either  of  merit  or 
design.  But  in  the  first  place  is  it  believable  that  "  instinct " 
should  impel  an  animal  to  do  that  wliich  will  finally  lead  to  its 
destruction  ?  Secondly  that  opinion  does  not  agree  with  the 
already  often  mentioned  experience  that  the  inhabitants  of  a 
queenless  hive,  which  in  losing  their  queen  have  lost  the  object  of 
their  society,  cejuse  to  work  and  fall  into  idleness  and  riot. 

Now  the  same  form  of  government  which  by  one  naturalist  is 
termed  a  monarchy,  with  a  king  or  ([ueen  at  its  head,  is  by  another 
described  as  a  republic,  witli  a  male  or  female  president.  But  the 
essential  feature  —  one  of  importance  in  many  ways  —  is  the 
government  of  a  community  or  society,  of  a  band  or  troop, 
flock  or  herd,  family  or  other  group  of  individuals,  species  or 
genera,  large  or  small,  by  a  leader  or  chief. 

The  consideration  of  this  embraces  the  following  features  of 
interest :  —  1.  The  principle  of  selection  and  election  or  appoint- 
ment. 2.  Competition  and  ambition  for  rule  and  their  results. 
3.  The  subjection  of  the  weak  to  the  strong  in  body,  mind  and 
will.  4.  The  use  and  abuse  of  authority,  including  the  power 
of  command.  5.  The  appreciation  of  insignia  of  office  or  status. 
6.     The  value  attached  to  the  possession  of  power  and  place. 

In  various  forms  leaders,   governors,   chiefs,   commanders,  pa- 

triar<,^hs,  mastei-s,  rulers,  or  lieads,  are  to  be   found  in  many  social 

,'  "^TliJhnlil^l^d^'ecting  and  defending   tlie  groups  into  which  they  are 


r .: 


78  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

divided.  They  occur,  for  instance,  among  wild,  military-,  and 
pack  horses,  Eskimo  dog  teams,  or  dogs  in  Turkish  towns, 
beavers  who  build  villages,  camels,  deer,  oxen,  mules,  seals  who 
hold  conventions,  buffaloes,  kangaroos,  goats,  among  certain  sea- 
birds  which  appear  to  live  in  regular  cities  and  certain  of  the 
quadrumana  (such  as  the  siamang  gorilla,  spider,  howling,  araguata, 
guereza,  and  other  monkeys),  cranes,  swallows,  wild  geese,  cocks 
and  hens. 

These  leaders  are,  as  a  general  rule,  males  of  middle  age,  some- 
times elderly  or  old,  and  possessing  as  qualifications  for  office :  — 

1.  Physical  superiority  ;  being  frequently  above  the  average  in 
size  and  strength,  or  at  least  so  robust  and  active  that  they  have 
proved  themselves  successful  in  combat  and  otherwise. 

2.  Mental  superiority.  They  are  distinguished,  moreover,  for 
their  courage,  cautiousness,  sagacity,  power  of  command,  ability 
to  act  in  emergency,  so  as  to  protect,  defend,  or  direct  their  fol- 
lowers ;  for  their  experience  ;  special  knowledge  of  enemies  or 
of  ground ;  power  of  self-control,  especially  control  of  temper ; 
interest  in  the  common  weal ;  enterprise  ;  ingenuity  and  perae- 
vei*ance  in  the  overcoming  of  difficulties  —  in  other  words,  adapt- 
iveness.  Their  superiority  must  be  twofold,  physical  and  mental ; 
for  a  merely  huge,  strong  animal,  without  the  requisite  intelligence 
to  adapt  its  strength  to  circumstances,  would  be  useless  as  a  leader. 

Generally  speaking,  leadei*s  are  of  the  same  species  as  the  ani- 
mals they  command ;  belong,  perhaps,  to  tlie  same  small  family  or 
group,  as  in  the  case  of  certain  patriarchs  or  mere  heads  of  fam- 
ilies or  tribes.  But  in  other  cases  tlie  chief  belongs  to  a  diffei^ent 
species  or  genus.  Thus  the  axis  deer,  as  depicted  on  the  opposite 
I)age,  sometimes  leads  **•  mobs''  of  kangaroos  in  Australia.  The 
(lonkev  in  the  district  of  Smyrna,  in  Broussa,  and  the  Asiatic 
Olympus  in  Anatolia,  and  other  parts  of  Asia  Minor,  is  frequently 
employed  as  leader  of  a  caravan  of  camels;  for  contrary  to  the 
prejudices  of  the  West,  in  Oriental  lands  "Long  Eai-s"  enjoys  the 
reputation  of  being  the  most  intelligent  of  lioofed  betists.  Mares 
are  employed  as  leadei-s  of  droves  of  mules  in  Centrtil  America, 
the  latter  animals  having  a  liigh  respect  for  and  pride  in  the 
hoi-se  as  a  ^'distinguished  relative,"  and  thus  willingly  accepting 
a  mare  as  their  queen. 


BAHOAHODS  I.ED  BY  AN  J 


80  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Man  himself  frequently  becomes  the  leader  of  his  flocks  or  his 
herds,  as  in  the  case  of  shepherds  of  the  East,  who  literally 
"  lead,"  do  not  drive,  as  ours  do,  their  flocks.  Man  is  recognized 
literally  and  figuratively  as  its  "  governor  "  by  the  dog ;  his  right 
to  command  is  freely  acknowledged,  and  the  propriety  of  his 
orders  or  actions,  as  a  rule,  not  disputed.  Here  it  should  be 
noted  that  in  this  case  it  sometimes,  at  least,  happens  that  man 
gains  and  wields  his  wonderful  power  over  other  animals  by  the 
exercise  of  kindness,  not  of  terrorism ;  by  the  supremacy  of  love, 
not  of  fear;  by  the  greatest  of  all  forces,  a  patient  gentleness. 
Thus  the  command  of  the  shepherd  over  his  sheep  in  primitive 
countries,  where  the  use  of  the  sheefxlog  is  unknown  —  for 
instance,  in  Palestine  —  is  acquired  by  his  constant  association 
with  his  sheep,  by  his  habitual  kindly  usage,  whereby  confidence 
in,  and  attiicliment  to,  liis  person  or  pei-sonality  are  produced. 
King  Theodore  of  Abyssinia  with  his  pet  lions  was  an  excellent 
example  of  what  a  King  can  accomplish  by  gentleness  instead 
of  crueltv. 

The  principle  of  appointment  in  the  case  of  all  kinds  of  animal 
leadei's  is  that  the  strongest,  boldest,  best  in  every  way,  should  be 
called  to  the  front  and  invested  with  supreme  power ;  and  this 
principle  actuates  man  equally  with  other  animals  in  tlie  selection 
of  an  animal  chief  for  his  flocks  or  herds.  Man  chooses  and 
installs  a  leading  mule,  hoi*se,  dog,  or  i-am  on  the  very  same  prin- 
ciple that  makes  a  flock  or  herd  acquiesce  in  the  self-appointment 
of  some  victorious  young  male.  In  human  emergency  of  a  serious 
kind,  and  on  a  large  and  public  scale,  how  frequently  it  happens 
that  some  man  gf  marked  individuality,  but  previously  unknown, 
comes  to  the  fi*ont  as  a  volunteer  leader,  no  one  kno\\^  how,  and 
his  supremacy  is  at  once,  by  tacit  consent,  acknowledged.  Average 
people  feel  that  he  is  the  *'  right  man  for  the  right  place."  He 
has  the  requisite  force  of  character  and  the  ability  to  command 
universal  confidence.  Universal  confidence  is  forthwith  accorded 
for  the  time. 

The  man  of  the  time,  however,  is  as  liable  to  be  discarded  by  a 
fickle  2X)pulaee  i\s  the  proud  and  splendid  stallion,  when  he  begins 
to  lose  that  most  indefinable  of  all  qualities,  popularity.  So  in 
animal  panics,  for  instance,  some  pi-eviously  unobserved  or  undis- 


RUDtMENTS   AMONG   ANIMALS. 


81 


tinguisbed  individual  starts,  liteiully,  in  this  case,  to  tlie  front,  and 
is  followed,  for  weal  or  woe,  by  tlie  rest  of  a  troop,  herd  or  flock. 
There  is  ample  evidence  to  show  that  self-appointment  to  the 
leadership  is  common  among  social  aiiimaLj ;  that  the  ambition  of 


DOO   TOWN. 


some  young,  energetic,  vigorous  male  urges  it  to  challenge  and 
defeat  the  reigning  chief,  a  defeat  that  is  equivalent  to  the  com- 
pulsory deposition  of  the  one  and  the  self-instalment  of  the  other. 
Thia    new  appointment,    however,    is,    under   the   circumstances. 


82  THE   STOUY    OF   GOVERNMENT. 

ratified  by  the  general  assent,  so  that,  in  one  sense,  it  may  be 
deemed  a  unanimous  election.  There  is  a  practical  and  tacit 
acknowledgment  of  the  fitness  of  things,  the  excitement  being 
confined  mainly  to  the  combatants  themselves,  though  the  specta- 
tor, no  doubt,  look  on  with  a  varying  degree  of  interest. 

There  is,  liowever,  a  strong  probability,  although  no  direct 
evidence,  that,  in  eases  where  no  such  candidate  presents  himself 
and  takes  the  law  of  competition  and  succession  into  his  o^vn  hands, 
selection  is  made  by  universal  suffi-age  —  by  pushing  into  a  posi- 
tion of  command  that  individual  among  them  best  qualified  to 
exercise  the  supreme  power.  There  is  very  distinct  appointment, 
certainly,  and  by  a  kind  of  univereal  sufifrage,  in  the  street-dog 
republics  of  Constiintinople,  for  they  sometimes  select  as  their 
leader  some  animal  belonging  to  a  dififerent  quarter  of  the  town 
— -from  among  their  natural  enemies,  therefore — the  motive  of 
such  choice  being  signal  bravery  displayed  by  the  favored  individ- 
ual, either  in  attack  or  defence. 

The  usual  function  of  animal  leadei*s  seems  to  be  that  of  a  piT»- 
tector,  to  direct  meiisures  of  defence  in  assault,  of  extrication 
or  escape  in  danger.  But  there  are  other  Ciises  in  which  their 
duties  are  i-ather  those  of  regulatoi*s  of  the  civil,  social,  or  domes- 
tic economy  of  tlie  communities  over  which  they  preside.  Thus 
Houzeau  describes  mayors  of  toAvns  or  villages  among  prairie  dogs 
—  mayor's  who  grant  audiences,  receive  visits  as  to  administrative 
affairs,  —  in  sliort,  discharge  and  regulate  public  business  —  and  he 
tells  us,  moreover,  tliat  these  governors  or  presidents  of  commu- 
nities, ()C(^asionally,  at  least,  excel  their  fellows  in  size  and  strength, 
as  well  as  in  force  of  character.  In  the  case  of  animal  leaders  of 
all  kinds  tliere  is  a  distinct  specialization  of  duty,  work,  or  busi- 
ness, a  vcrv  de^'ided  division  of  labor.  But  this  division  of  labor 
occui-s  among  the  lower  animals  in  a  great  many  other  even  more 
familiar  forms.  Tims  it  is  illustrat^ul  in  the  appointment  from 
amont'  members  of  a  communitv  of 

1.  Sentinels,  sentries,  videttes,  outposts,  ])atrols,  guards,  or 
watchmen  of  all  kinds. 

2.  Soldiers,  laborei-s,  artisans,  nui'ses,  or  foragei"s. 

3.  Different  ninks  of  officers  among  their  soldiei*s,  including 
generals,  aides-de-camp  and  adjutants. 


84  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

4.  Delegates,  ambassadoi-s,  or  other  forms  of  representatives 
or  reportei"s,  spies,  scouts,  commissioners,  pioneei's. 

5.  Officers  of  justice — including  executioners,  advocates, 
judges,  and  jury. 

6.  Royal  personages,  with  their  officers  or  courtiei's,  body-guard, 
and  other  attendants. 

7.  As  well  as  in  the  relative  duties  or  occupations  of  male  and 
female  parents,  and 

8.  In  the  appropriate  and  harmonious  playing  of  its  part  by 
eacli  individual  of  the  group. 

Such  appointments  imply,  in  certain  cases,  at  least,  the  assigna- 
tion of  a  special  duty  to  each  of  a  group  of  animals,  there  being 
evidence  further  that  there  is  frequently  an  adaptation  of  the 
special  work  to  be  performed  to  the  special  ability  of  a  given  indi- 
vidual to  perform  it. 

Sentinels  or  guards  are  regularly  posted  at  appropriate  times 
and  places  by  a  large  number  of  animals,  such  as  the  prairie  dog, 
wild  horse,  swan,  cockatoo  of  Australia,  rooks,  and  many  other  birds, 
zebra,  moufilon,  and  other  sheep,  Alpine  marmot,  certain  monkeys, 
Greenland  and  otlier  seals,  wild  African  cattle,  chamois  and  other 
antelopes,  Texan  and  other  ants,  and  certain  wasps. 

These  guardians  of  the  public  safety  are  appointed  usually  for 
some  of  the  following  reasons,  or  under  some  of  the  following 
circumstances : 

At  night,  or  during  the  sleep  of  the  flock  or  herd,  to  guard 
against  surprise.  During  feeding,  rest  on  a  march,  or  pastimes. 
In  war,  on  the  march  or  halt,  in  camp  or  bivouac.  —  here  also  to 
prevent  surprise. 

In  connection  with  the  appointment  of  sentinels  the  following 
points  have  to  be  noticed:  that,  as  in  the  case  of  leaders,  the 
animals  selected  are  almost  invariably  males:  that  every  advan- 
tage is  taken  of  elevated  ground  commanding  a  view  on  all  sides : 
that  the  animal  appointed  is  implicitly  trusted  by  the  rest,  has 
a  specific  duty  to  discharge,  and  performs  it  conscientiously. 
Must  there  not,  therefore,  be  an  appreciation  of  the  different 
kinds  of  danger,  as  well  as  an  idea  of  duty  in  relation  to  that  danger? 

Certain  African  antelopes  place  sentries — generally  bulls  — 
while  they  are  grazing,  and  these  sentries  take  up  their  posts  on 


BODIMENTS  AMONG   ANIMALS.  85 

the  summits  of  the  huge  ant-hilla  which  we  mentioned  before  and 
which  form  the  only  heights  in  certain  parts  of  the  plains  of  tlie 
Nile.  The  occupancy  of  such  watch-towers  is,  however,  unfor- 
tunate for  themselves  in  presence  of  tlie  sportsman  to  whom  they 
thus  readily  become  a  shining  mark. 

Tlius,  in  a  great  variety  of  ways  many  of  the  lower  animals  rec- 
ognize and  act  upon   the  principle  that  union  is  strcngtli.     Tliey 


THE  wii.n  n 


form  combinations,  associations,  or  alliances,  teinponirv  or  i^n- 
manent,  for  a  great  number  of  very  specific  pnrpiises.  They  I'O- 
operate  willingly,  intelligently  and  successfully,  nut  only  with 
each  other,  but  with  man.  One  of  the  most  obvious  effects  ni 
such  union,  indeed  even  of  the  simplest  form  of  union,  that  of 
marriage,  is  the  inspii-ation  of  courage  and  confidence,  the  ability 
to  dare  and  do,  in  behalf  of  themselves  or  their  young,  things  that 
they  would  never  attempt  in    their   incUvidual   capacities.    Even 


86  THE   STOUY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

timid  sheep,  in  combination  under  a  leader,  do  boldly  what  they 
would  never  do,  individually  face  a  dog,  for  instance,  or  hav^e  even 
been  known  to  chase  it  ignominiously  from  a  pasture.  The  meek  cow 
and  many  gentle  peace-loving  birds  are  capable  of  similar  feats 
of  courage  under  similar  circumstances. 

Various  baboons  and  other  apes,  spider  and  other  monkeys 
apply  the  principle  of  co-operation  very  actively  and  picturesquely 
by  making  diains,  suspension  bridges,  and  laddei's  of  their  own 
bodies,  joining  hands  or  clinging  to  each  other  by  various  concat^ 
enations  of  paws  and  tails,  and  use  such  living  bridges  to  cross 
rivers.  Virtually  the  same  thing  mechanically,  and  a  greater  thing 
morally,  is  done  by  ants,  for  on  bridges  composed  of  the  bodies  of 
the  latter,  voluntarily  sacrificed  for  the  purpose,  whole  armies  of 
their  fellows  sometimes  cross  rivei-s  or  streams. 

Co-operation  on  a  large  scale  —  on  the  part  of  large  numbers  of 
individuals,  whether  of  the  same  or  of  different  species  and 
genera,  includes  the  convention,  at  special  times  and  places,  of 
convocations,  conferences,  congregations,  or  assemblies  for  the  fol- 
lowing or  other  specific  ends  :  —  1.  Judicial  —  for  the  trial  and 
punishment  of  the  offenders.  2.  Military  —  for  the  holding  of 
councils  of  war.  3.  Recreational  —  for  the  celebration  of 
pastimes,  sports,  or  games  of  various  times.  4.  Migrational  — 
for  conference  as  to  the  time  and  manner  of  migmtion.  5,  Defen- 
sive —  for  mutual  protection,  security,  or  safety.     6.     Industrial 

—  for  the  repair  of  damage  to   public  property.     7.     Marauding 

—  for  the  acquisition  of  plunder  or  booty.  8.  Food-seeking  or 
foraging.  9.  Emigration  and  colonization.  10.  Nuptial  — 
for  courtship  and  murriage.  11.  Hibernation.  12.  The  rescue 
of  their  fellows  from  captivity  or  danger. 

One  of  the  evidences  commonly  adduced  of  the  reign  of  law 
among  the  lower  animals,  as  in  man,  is  the  fact  that  certain  birds, 
have  what  are,  or  what  a[)pear  to  be,  regular  judicial  proceedings, 
regular  trials  by  judge  and  before  juiy  of  culprits  against  law. 

A  trial  among  rooks  in  England  has  been  thus  described  by  an 
eyewitness.  In  the  middle  of  the  assemblage  in  one  case  "  was 
one  bird  lookin<^  verv  downcast  and  wi'etched.  Two  more  rooks 
took  their  })lace  at  its  side,  and  then  a  vast  amount  of  chattering 
went  on.     Ultimately,  the  unfortunate   central  bird  was  pecked 


88  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

nearly  to  pieces  and  left  mangled  and  helpless  on  the  ground/* 
In  such  a  case,  we  are  led  to  infer,  though  our  conclusions  may  be 
erroneous,  that  the  spectacle  was  that  of  an  accused,  convicted, 
condemned  criminal,  official  accusers,  and  the  summary  execu- 
tion of  a  judicial  sentence. 

The  stork,  too,  is  represented  by  the  naturalist  Watson  as 
having,  or  holding,  trial  by  jury,  public  conventions  at  which 
harangues  or  speeches  are  delivered,  accusations  made,  defences 
offered,  by  public  oratoi-s  and  other  officials,  while  the  mass  of  the 
audience  takes  a  lively  interest  in  the  proceedings.  Consulta- 
tions are  held,  sentence  is  pronounced,  and  capital  punishment 
inflicted  for  such  supposed  crimes,  for  instance,  as  the  hatching 
of  a  gosling  instead  of  a  stork,  which,  of  course,  would  be  a 
shock  to  public  sentiment  in  storkdom.  The  sparrow  is  another 
bird  that  administer  public  punisliment  to  offenders,  after  holding 
general  councils  the  proceedings  of  which  are  marked  by  much 
agitation,  tumult  and  clamor ;  and  the  public  trial  of  a  prisoner 
before  a  court  by  the  aid  of  advocates  has  also  been  mentioned  as 
occurring  among  Barbary  apes. 

From  all  of  which  evidences  of  law  and  order,  of  family  and 
government  among  the  lower  animals,  is  it  not  clear  that  the 
higher  animal  might  take  a  few  lessons,  if  the  humility  and 
docility  of  Science  could  become  attributes  of  the  mass  or  could  be 
the  guiding  principles  of  politicians  or  statesmen  ?  For,  indeed, 

**  If  earnest  lives  in  search  of  truth  are  noble, 
If  sacrilice  of  self  to  swell  the  sum 
Of  human  knowledjre  and  cooperant  good 
Aro  very  noble,  Science  can  compare 
Her  warriors,  workers,  martyrs,  with  Religion's. 
Yet  Science  has  no  pride,  because  no  fear. 
She  stooi)s  to  learn  as  woman  yields  to  love, 
Instinctive  that  the  action  of  surrender 
Will  crown  her  empress  of  a  nobler  realm." 


Ill 


::^Mn=iiii=iiii=rr:i''=iHi=iiii=Hii=iiii='':i^iiii=iiii='!:^iiii=iiii=''::^^^^^ 


'W^'mry:^'J!'w 


Traces  /Kn}or)^  Qypsics^ 


Brigarjds  arjd  Tl;)icvcs. 


IN  singular  contrast  with  tlie  orderly  animals  deseril)ed  in 
the  ])recedinnr  chapter  are  the  people  usually  called  Gypsies, 
who  appear  to  l)e  not  only  opposed  to  any  idea  of  order 
or  authority  from  outside,  hut  to  have  among  themselves 
at  the  present  day  very  little  goverinnent  discoverahle  hy  students 
of  their  habits.  We  need  not  m)  far  in  search  of  tliese  Asiatic 
wanderei-s.  They  are  found  in  almost  every  European  coun- 
try, and  of  late  are  frequently  seen  in  the  United  States  and 
Australia. 

Wherever  sighted,  they  are  never  to  be  mistaken.  The  most 
untravelled  rustic  instinctively  knows  that  the  dark-skinned, 
black-haired,  snaky-eyed,  lithe  vagal)ond  whom  he  sees  in  front 
of  a  ragged  tent  on  a  connnon,  or  who  camj)s  hy  the  roadside 
to  boil  a  kettle,  which  it  is  prol):djle  contains  no  poultry  of  his 
own  mising,  is  not  a  child  of  the  land  in  which  he  seems  so 
much  at  liome. 

Once  seen,  a  typical  wandering  gyi>sy  is  as  marktMl  a  })ei'son- 
alitv  in  the  memorv  as  a  Jew  of  the  ])urer  caste,  or  a  meml)er  of 
any  other  nationality  which  has  preserved  itself  as  a  distinct 
element  in  the  surrounding  population.  His  brown  skin  stamps 
him  as  none  of  us,  wliile  his  dark,  glittering,  serpent-like  eye 
iiLstinctively  recalls  some  of  the  faces  one  meets  on  the  London 
Docks,  when  a  steamer  from  India  has  arrived.     The  small  hands 

89 


90  THE    SrOKY    OF    GOVERNMENT. 

and  feet  seem  out  of  keeping  with  the  finely  proportioned,  sinewy 
figures  to  which  they  are  attached,  while  the  aquiiine  nose, 
pearly,  regular  teeth,  high  cheek-bones,  strongly  marked  bniw, 
often  knit  as  if  in  thought,  and  general  air  of  secret! veness, 
are  features  of  gypsy  physiognomy  that  strike  the  least  observant. 
As  a  rule,  the  gypsies  are  not  a  tall  race,  though  men  and  women 
of  uncommon  stature  are  sometimes  met,  Tlie  young  female 
gypsy  has  quite  often  the  distinction  of  a  ])eauty  singularly  fine. 
But  the  beauty  is  short- 
lived. Like  all  Orien- 
tivls,  they  soon  fade ;  and 
grow  old,  so  far  as  the 
face  is  concerned,  when  a 
Northern  woman  is  in 
lier  prime.  The  hard 
work,  the  squalor  of 
their  habits,  their  expos- 
ure to  all  weathers,  and 
their  unsettled,  precari- 
ous—  in  brief,  "gypBy" 
—  life,  help  to  age  them 
iKjfoi-e  years  ought  to  tell 
OIL  a  healthy  person.  A 
i-emavkable  revenge  which 
Nature  takes  for  her  lav- 
ishness  at  the  outset  is 
the  siipeniatural  hideous- 
ncss  which  she  often 
l>estows  (111  tlu>  wiilii'rud  fiy|wy  crone  at  a  period  when  hercivilized 
sisU-'r  is  nu-llu\viiiir  into  the  comeliness  of  riiKt  matronhood,  or 
even  near  Ihv.  fated  llireescore  and  ten.  Still,  after  all  to  the 

contrary,  tlni  gypsy  must  indnbitidily  l)ear  the  jMilni  for  a  species 
of  wild  Ix'iiuly,  which  is  adniiralily  set  off  l)y  his  often  romantic 
surroundini;.-;  — liis  Tarlar-like  eneainpineiit.  Ills  stick  fire  and 
ragged  tent  —  wliicli  hiiiks  so  well  at  a  distance,  —  and  the  showy 
coloi's  in  wliii-li.  like  his  kindred  on  tlie  other  side  of  the  Hima- 
layas, he  takes  s.>  in<irdin;iti-  a  delight. 

lie"',    then,    is    a    )ieiiple    known   tn    Knr()]>eanK    for   at   least 


MAMAS    UVPSIES   DEliUIS"- 


92  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

eight  centuries,  yet  who  have  managed  to  conceal  many  of 
their  ways  and  modes  of  life  from  the  inquisitive  scrutiny  of  the 
hundreds  who  liave  made  these  aspects  of  their  cult  a  part  of  their 
life's  study\  who  are  to  this  day  the  pariahs  they  were  in  their 
earliest  homes,  wlio  have  in  their  roamings  picked  up  scraps  of 
tlio  hiJisxuagcs  religion,  and  civilization  of  the  countries  they 
have  passed  through,  but  yet  sijeak  a  tongue  unintelligible  to  the 
"  whites  "  around  them,  wlio  with  a  few  exceptions  are  vagabonds 
on  the  face  of  tlie  eartli,  despising  a  fixed  life,  a  roofti*ee,  or  any 
of   the  ordinary  i*estraints   of  well-ordered  society. 

When  they  fii-st  came  under  the  notice  of  civilized  people  they 
were  for  some  careless  cause  decided  to  be  Egyptians,  and  as 
such  were  described  by  the  earliest  wTiters,  and  this  name,  under 
various  forms,  exists  in  our  word,  gyi)sy,  and  in  the  designations 

attached  to  them  hv  manv  other  nations.     As  for  themselvas,  thev 

•  •  »• 

either  knew  nothing  alxiut  their  origin,  or  were  sharp  enough  to 
ehime  in  with  the  current  fancv  bv  stvlinij  themselves  "Dukes  of 
Little  Kgyi>t,"  ivs  did  a  lionle  who  ap{)eared  in  1418  at  Zurich, 
iissuming  the  rank  of  knights,  and,  among  other  ** marks  of 
nobility,"  carrying  with  them  s[Kirting  dogs  and  a  good  supply 
of  monev. 

The  fii-st  notice  of  them  whieh  we  {>ossess,  written  about  the 
year  112*2,  eharaoterizes  them  as  "  Ishmaelites^  who  go  -peddling 
thiough  the  wide  world,  Iwving  neither  house  nor  home,  cheating 
the  people  with  their  trieks,"  a  tleseription  whieh  might  l)e  fairly 
enouL^h  aj»;>lied  to  their  doseemlants  who  aiv  at  present  squatted 
untliT  ir.aiiv  a  hedin*. 

At  lii-st  these  wanden^rs  wen*  n^eeiveil  with  great  liospitality, 
their  supposi'd  orio^in  and  misfortunes  obtaining  for  them  an 
anunnii  of  svniuithv  o{  whieli  tlieir  own  n>sruen\  ratlier  than  Jinv 
km^wlediro   of    the   aetnal    state  of    mattei-s,    very  soon  deprived 


'  Mon*  :h.*n  :!:nv  hnntlntl  soimmto  Morks  lnvo  J«<H»n  urilten  on  the  gjp«ie9.  Some  of 
this  liirratnrt*  i-  ,.f  li:tlo  nui«.»r:;»n,v:  l»ui  anxono  >\:u>  imjijriDe<  lliat  the  pvpsies  can  be 
exluiuv:!'.!  in  .\  ;\w  |v\cos  h..,l  Ivror  ^nmi-^uIi  Potts'  stxip^ndoxts  ••Pi*'  Zi^reuner  in  Earoiia 
un.l  AMon.  *  or  l.u;  i,  h  >  "  l>io  Zij;vunor  in  T.mMu  Wosc'n  und  ihner  Sprache.'' 

»  TIio  r,i:.n:i  ,  r  /ini.ili  of  Siviin.  tho  ,loxk  of  AlhitniA,  the  Zinpini  of  lOUy,  the  Pharo 
noiM-k  l\Mr.»o:i  X  ,M«.-  K-  of  Hn:v-ir>.  tho  T,r.:,»r.»  of  S^^^ntlinaxidu  ::k^  IVthemiens  of  Pnmoe. 
:!>c  Zi^ounor  .^f  (;or:n.in>,  t^o  Tinklor  or  Tii.kor^  of  S^N^ilaml,  the  Fiiruwni  vPhormoites)  of 
Ti;rko>.  ::..>  i  u»-u»  ,m  s:  nonu*.  tlu*  Oiirany  of  Uo;n«;»ni.i,  tlie  t;u:«htor  of  Greece,  the  Hey- 
*Wti-  Hra:..,n^  ,«f  Uoll.ia.l.  .uul  >o  forth.  Thox  o,»U  thomsoUv*  ;?...H,thait  i».  Men,  people, 
oaa  their  l.»n.r«.»p\  .Vom  ,  .       tk^  .  -^...;  ,,j  ;;„,^  i^  ;;,„^^,^  ,1^  feminine  JRmmmi, 


TRACES   AMONG   GYPSIES,    BRIGANDS   AND   THIEVES.  93 

them.  They  wei*e  —  so  tliey  said,  or  some  one  having  said  it  for 
them,  they  echoed  the  agi-eeable  fiction  —  Egyptians,  four  thou- 
sand of  wliom,  in  passing  tlirough  Hungary,  had  been  compelled 
by  the  sovereign  of  that  countr}^  to  l)e  baptized,  and  were  con- 
demned to  seven  vears'  wandcTinn^s,  wliile  the  remainder  of  tlie 
travellers  had  l)een  slain.  Another  story  was  that  tliey  wei-e 
Egyptians,  wlio,  having  been  subdued  by  the  Saracens,  were 
forced  to  renounce  Clu'istianity ;  but  having  been  reconquered 
by  the  Christians,  tliey  were  doomed  by  l*opc  Martin  V.  to  a 
penance,  which  consisted  of  wandering  for  the  space  of  seven 
years,  by  which  time  their  renunciation  of  the  faith  having  l>een 
atoned,  thev  would  l)e  sent  into  a  fine  and  fertile  land. 

A  third  version  of  the  cause  of  this  vagal  windage  wjis,  that 
thev  had  l)een  sentenced  t^)  roam  the  world  for  their  want  of 
hospitality  to  Joseph  and  Mary,  when  to  save  the  young  child,  who 
was  to  save  the  world,  this  pair  fled  into  Egyi)t.  If  wi?  are  to  credit 
the  historians  of  the  period,  these  '"Egyptians  ''  travelled  in  great 
state,  headed  by  "  Counts  "  splenchdly  drcsscMl,  and  luuler  the  com^ 
mand  of  a  "Duke,"  who  bore  lettei*s  of  safe  conduct  from  the 
Emperor  Sigismund.  The  men  were  on  foot,  and  the  women  and 
children  brought  up  the  rear  in  wagons,  while  the  *' nobles"  rode 
on  horses  with  dogs  whicli  apparently  were  trained  to  trespass  on 
game  preserves.  They  camped  outside  the  walls  of  towns  during 
the  night  and  thieved  during  the  day,  the  consequence  being  that 
several  were  taken  and  slain.  It  would  appear  that  then,  as  now, 
they  were  fond  of  tickling  the  fancy  of  their  dupes  l)y  assuming 
grandiose  titles —  king,  duke,  earl,  and  count.  But,  except  that 
some  powerful  or  wealthy  individual  managed  to  gain  temporary 
or  j)ennanent  control  over  the  band  with  whicli  he  travelled,  it  is 
more  tlian  doubtful  whether  the  gypsies  have,  or  ever  had,  any 
oificial  in  tlie  remotest  way  deserving  theses  distinctions. 

In  the  iu»ws})apers  ^  we  occasionally  hear  of  the  death  of  a  gypsy 
"King"  (U*  "Queen,"  and  of  his  or  her  burial  with  pompous 
obsequies.  The  people  themselves  very  naturally  like  to  mystify  the 
public  by  keeping  up  the  belief  in  such  dignitaries,  and  possibly 


1  For  instance,  thi»  recent  despatch  to  the  Boston  Ilenild :  — 

Elizabctii,  N.  J.,  April  14, 18^2.  The  Iwdy  of  Annie  Lovell,  the  (Jypsy  Queen,  who  died 
in  St.  I»uij«on  Momlay,  vrill  lie  buried  in  the  same  prave  in  Mt.  Olivet  cemetery,  in  this  city, 
in  which  her  grandmother,  a  fonuer  queen,  was  burietl.  The  Oypnies  have  a  plot  an<l  impos- 
ing monument. 


94  THK    STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

having  so  often  lieiird  tliein  designated  by  royal  titles,  adopt 
the  name  and  idea.  Except,  however,  in  the  limited  sense  men- 
tioned, there  is  no  ground  for  the  popular  belief,  though  certain 
families,  like  the  Faas  and  Blyths  in  Scotland,  and  the  Stanleys 
and  Hemes  in  Enjrland,  liavinfj  always  been  i-egfarded  as  aristo- 
crats  among  them,  have  sometimes  been  elected  to  a  j>osition  of 
authority,  and  liave  even  received  a  kind  of  hereditarj'  respect, 
due  to  some  traditional  story  that  certain  sovereigns  had  recog- 
nized one  of  their  ancestoi^s  as  a  brother  monarch.  James  IV. 
of  Scotland  gave,  in  looO,  '*Anthonius  Gagino,  Count  of  Little 
Egypt,"  a  letter  of  recommendation  to  Christian  III.  of  Den- 
mark, wliile  James  V.  granted  a  writ  giving  "oure  louit  Johnne 
Faw,  lord  and  erle  of  Litill  Egipt"  authority  to  hang  find  other- 
wise discipline  "all  p]gyptians"  within  the  realm. ^  This,  how- 
ever, simply  means  tliat  the  Scottish  king,  like  so  many  other 
people,  had  l)een  deceived  regarding  the  origin  and  status  of  the 
vagalx)n(ls  whom  he  thus  recognized,  though  it  is  by  no  means 
proved  that  any  corresponding  dignities  were  known  before  he 
thus  conferred  on  the  leading  men  these  sweeping  powere. 

At  first,  "the  Egyptians  "  were  well  received,  as  the  facta  men- 
tioned clearly  show;  but  their  popularity  was  naturally  brief. 
Within  a  year  of  James  Y.  making  "Johnne  Faw"  and  his  son 
and  successor  refjea  in  rejuo^  an  act  of  the  Scottish  Parliament 
was  passed,  commanding  him  and  his  tribesmen  to  i)ass  "furth 
the  realm,"  under  pain  of  death.  Already,  indeed,  Germany, 
Spain,  Fi-ance,  England,  Denmark  and  Moravia,  had  found  it 
necessary  to  take  similarly  drastic  mccosures,  and  before  long  a 
perfect  hue  and  v.vy  was  raised  all  over  Eui*ope  against  the  ^un- 
baptized  heathens,"  who  had  so  recently  l)een  gulling  the  simple- 
minded  Westerns  with  tlie  fables  about  Joseph  and  Mary  and  the 
Saracens. 

The  glitter  of  the  romance  with  wliich  they  had  been  early 
invested  was  nipidlv  rul)l)e(l  off,  after  tlie  loixls  and  counts  of 
Little  Egypt  had  been  convicted  of  harrying  a  succession  of  hen- 
roosts, and  it  was  hard  to  j)reserve  confidence  in  the  penitence  of 
a  people  who  had  no  external  symbols  of  any  religion,  and  lived 


»  In  MalmoHlmrv  Ahhoy      hiil*'  by  siil»»  witli  Atllcl^tau  — lies  the  body  of  a  Ojpsy,  "King 
John  Huollo,"  ^aill  l«>  iiu\»'  boi'ii  hii.l  \\\vtv  ia  IC'.T. 


Mi 


96  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNldENT.  / 

a  life  about  as  bereft  of  morality  as  it  was  deficient  in  that  virtue 
which  then,  perhaps,  less  than  now,  was  rated  next  to  godliness. 
Worst  of  all,  "  the  Egyptians  "  were  discovered  to  have  none  of 
the  wealth  which  at  first  they  were  supposed  to  own,  and  were  there- 
fore a  people  who  could  neither  be  *' squeezed"  nor  cozened. 

After  this,  we  hear  little  about  their  pei'secution  in  Egypt,  or 
of  their  '"kings  "  carrying  any  letters,  except  the  summary  notices 
which  were  duly  served  on  them  by  tlie  constables  of  every  dis- 
trict. 

Edicts  out  of  number  were  fmmed  for  their  discomfort,  and  no 
more  humiliating  reading  exists  than  the  different  acts,  decrees 
and  writs,  which  were  hurled  at  these  brown-faced  wanderers, 
ostensibly  because  in  addition  to  being  "  diviners  and  wicked 
heathens"  they  plundered  fann-yards  and  had  oceult  "trafficke 
with  the  deville." 

Our  illustration  of  Zigani  pleading  to  Philip  III.  of  Spain, 
early  in  the  year  160C,  shows  how  the  church,  having  ceased  its 
futile  efforts  to  conveiij  them,  strove  to  have  them  banished.  The 
general  Spanish  heart,  however,  luis  always  had  a  kindly  comer 
for  this  joyous  race,  and  into  many  a  Spanish  song  and  story  the  i 
gypsy  entei-s  with  a  charm  of  pathos  and  mystery  that  always 
touches  a  responsive  popular  chord.  Our  great  romancer,  Walter 
Scott,  was  attracted  by  tliis  race,  and  into  three  of  his  most 
powerful  novels,  Guy  Mannering,  Quentin  Durward,  and  Peveril 
of  the  Peak,  he  introduced  a  strikingly  vivid  g}T)sy  character. 

In  the  middle  of  the  last  century  there  appears  to  have  been  a 
tendency  to  treat  the  gypsies  a  trifle  more  mildly,  though  in  1748 
Frederick  the  Great  renewed  the  law  that  every  gypsy  l)eyond  the 
age  of  eighteen,  found  within  the  Prussian  l)ounds,  should  be 
hanged  fortliwith,  and  to  this  day  it  is  in  Germany  ipso  facto  an 
indictable  offence  to  1^  one  of  the  prescribed  "zigeuner"  unless 
specially  licensed  as  such. 

Even  in  Roumania  —  where  they  swarm  —  the  condition  of 
serfdom  to  which  they  were  reduced  was  not  completely  abro- 
gated until  18oB,  though  both  Maria  Theresa  and  Joseph  II. 
tried  —  with  very  partial  success  —  to  settle  them  as  "New 
Peasants  "  on  lands  specially  set  aside  for  the  purpose. 

But   the   passion   for   wandering   is   so    innate,    that   just   as 


TRACES    ASIONG    GYPSIES,    IHtlGANDS    AND    THIEVES.  0  I 

wild  (lucks  hatched  by  a  bune  fitster-iiiothor  will  take  to  the 
lakes  as  soon  aa  they  can  fly,  so  a  joung  gyx'sy,  even  when  reared 
away  from  the  influence  of  the  tents  of  its  tril)e,  is  apt  sooner  or 
later  to  "kick  tlie  traces  "  of  culture,  and  esciqx;  to  the  squalor, 
the  liberty,  and  the  endless  skirmish  with  society  which  is  the 
nonnal  life  oi  its  ancestral  nomads. 

A  study  of  their  language  soon  confirms  their  Eastern  origin, 
for  though  mixed  with  words  from  almost  every  country  tln-ough 


wliich  they  have  [jassed 

i-i»rnii)ted,  it  is  an  East 

Indian   dialect   so 

marked  that,  as  one  of 

the  most  celebi-.ited   of 

its  titudent-t  says,   it  is 

]ilca.saiit    to   I)e    able    to 

study  a  Hindoo  tongue 
T  witliout  stining  out  of 
S  Eui-OjK'.  A  gypsy  talks, 
^  as  does  an  Oriental,  of 
111    his    "kismet"    (fate), 

and  when  he   uses   the 

word  "{inran"  (koi-an) 

he    I'l'fei'S    to    no    b<)t>k 

Siicred  or  otherwise,  but 

to  the  a<-t  of  taking  an 

oatli.      "Sliali    giv"  is 

in    Itoniany    "small 

grain-corn  ";    in  Ilindo- 

staui    "shaii"    means 

rice.  Tlie  Engli.sli  gypsies 

the  Hindoo  "shaster,"  the 

lx>oks. 

In   India  many  sects  reganl  a  cup  witl. 

Germany  tlie  gypsies  will  never   touch    a 

fallen    to  the  ground;    ever  after 


which  they  reside,  and  often  sadly 


■all  thelUble  "shaster,' 
word  thcv  use  to  descri 


which  is  simply 
« their  religious 


timihir 


ni. 


In 


a  cup  which  lias  once 
it  is  sacred;  and  in  I-higland 
many  of  them  can  never  l>e  induced  to  use  a  white  lx>\vl.  The 
same  antipathy  to  horse  flesh  is  exhibited  among  the  gypsies  that 
several  Indian  tribes  display,  amj^in  biiiyit,.^iere  can  lie  no  liesi- 


f&mAL^mti^\ 


98  THE   STORV   OF   (K)VERNMENT. 

tation  in  accepting  the  now  generally  received  opinion  of  their  com- 
paratively recent  Indian  origin.  The  gypsies  are  a  singularly 
secretive  race,  and  keep  their  language,  as  far  as  they  can,  con- 
cealed from  those  in  wliora  they  have  little  trust;  hut  in  course 
of  time,  partly  througli  intermarriage  with  vagabond  whites, 
or  through*  the  association  of  "travellers"  with  the  real  gy^Dsies 
a  host  of  Romany  words  have  gotten  mixed  up  with  English, 
slang.  For  example,  '*  jockey  is  derived  from  chuckni  (a  whip); 
jockeyism  really  meaning  the  scientilic  use  of  a  Avhip  in  speed- 
ing a  hoi"se;  "cove"  is  from  cava  (a  tiling),  thou^^h  tlie  term 
is  almost  indefinite  in  its  applicability;  "shindy"  is  probably 
from  chln{/areey  which  means  the  same;  "cliivy"  is  from  chiv^  one 
of  the  meanings  of  which  is  to  scold;  "shavers,"  as  applied  to 
little  children,  is  from  shavies  (children);  a  "rum'un"  is  from 
Jftiim  or  Rom  (a  gn)sy),  or  a  man  literally. 

In  regard  to  the  disposition  and  traits,  good  and  bad,  of  the 
gypsies,  there  is  alwa^'s,  of  couree,  a  wide  difference  of  opinion, 
according  to  the  prejudices  of  the  critics,  the  kind  of  gypsies 
with  whom  they  have  come  in  contact,  or  the  capability  of  the 
judges  for  arriving  at  an  opinion  on  the  subject.  Gypsies  are 
extremely  unwilling  to  betray  themselves  to  strangers,  though 
wlien  they  have  confidence  in  anyone  they  are  ready  enough 
to  answer  questions,  and  as  far  as  lies  in  their  power  to  shun 
the  ever-present  temptation  of  "humbugging"  the  questioner. 
Among  them,  as  among  every  other  body  of  people,  there  are 
good  and  bad,  though,  as  always  happens  when  a  pure  or  almost 
pure-blooded  race  is  concerned,  it  is  easier  to  arrive  at  some 
general  conclusions  regarding  their  disposition  and  abilities  than 
those  of  a  mixed  people;. 

Light-hearted  and  wonderfully  courteous  in  their  conduct 
towards  strangei*s,  and  even  towards  each  other,  they  are  capable 
of  violent  passions  and  cruel  vindictiveness.  At  the  same 
time,  they  are  ready  to  forgive,  their  childish  vanity  being  easily 
tickled  by  a  show  of  affability  or  an  ai)proach  to  renewed  friend- 
ship on  the  part  of  those  by  whom  they  have  been  offended.  The 
war  which  the  gypsy  has  for  ages  waged  against  society,  and 
society  against  him,  has  left  indelible  traces  on  his  character.  To 
protect  himself  from  the  vengeance  of  the  law  he  has  recourse  to 


A   UIU)I:P   of   TUKKI81I   OYI' 


ii"A^-;^i\ 


k 


100  THE  3rroRY  or  •4i>V 

that  profoiiii<l  irnnnin.g'  which.  hik-»  grown  to  be  with  him  a  second 
nature,  while  the  indolence  that  strike*  one  who  sees  him  asleep 
under  a  he<lgen>w.  more  than  anjr  «>cher  characteristic,  is  the  out- 
come of  a  life  without  ambitioOr  a  eareer  with4>ut  a  goal. 

It  is  an  article  «>f  almi:i6t  uniTersal  i^jreement  with  students  of 
^^grpsYoloj^^"  ih:\t  if  oQi.^c^  a  gypsy  gives  his  word  he  will  keep  it, 
and  that  they  huve  preserved  thn>ugh  many  centuries  the  old 
Oriental,  or  rather  the  ireneral  vasabi^nd  idea  of  inviolable  honor 
towards  the  wavfarer  within  their  tents.  Tlie  children  receive 
scarcely  any  training:  vet  no  {)et>ple  are  kinder  to  their  old  parents 
and  rebitives  than  the  gyjisies.  Jetsam  and  flotsam  of  society, 
they  find  tliat  unless  they  tie  ver}*  tightly  the  bonds  which  unite 
them,  they  would  l)e  {xiwerless  to  ht>ld  their  own.  Hence,  j)erhaps, 
the  warm  faniilv  affection  which  distini^uishes  these  nomads.  A 
parent  never  chastises  a  young  child,  yet  it  is  quite  common  f(»r 
a  gro\\ni-up  son  to  acv^pt  meekly  a  thrashing  fn>m  his  ;iged 
father. 

A  gyi»sy  entertains  no  s^-ruples  reganling  the  methml  in  which 
he  supplies  his  lanler,  or,  indeed,  as  to  how  he  acquires  property; 
])Ut  he  will  just  as  reailily  i>art  with  what  he  has  to  a  friend  in 
worse  case  than  himself.  '*I  have  fimnd  tliem/'  savs  one  writer, 
""more  cheerful,  pt)lite  and  grateful  than  the  lower  ordei-s  of 
other  races  in  Eun)[)e  or  America,  and  I  Ijclieve  that  when  tlieir 
respect  and  sympathy  ai*e  secuivd  they  are  quite  as  upright.  Like 
all  people  who  are  reganletl  as  outciists,  tliey  are  very  proud  of 
being  tiiisted,  and  under  this  influence  will  commit  the  most 
daring  acts  of  honesty."  Tliere  is  no  more  independent  epicm^e 
than  the  g}'psy.  He  eats  ever^'thing  that  is  edible,  except  hoi-se- 
flesli,  and  sleeps  Avherever  he  lights  on  a  s^mt  well  sheltered 
from  the  wind,  and  tolerably  safe  from  the  only  appanage  of 
society  which  he  dreads  —  the  i)oliceman.  He  has,  moreover, 
a  tact  and  delicacy  which  many  in  far  loftier  stations  might  well 
iinitat(;,  and  a  love  of  nature  which  makes  mere  life  a  joy. 

C)f  religion  they  have  little.  ''The  gypsies'  church,"  they  are 
in  the  lialiit  of  saying,  ''was  made  of  pork,  and  the  dogs  stole  it." 
Whcro  the  alwolute  non-observance  of  the  forms  of  any  creed 
(•ntailn  no  diniculty,  the  gypsies  are  usually  untroubled  by  a 
regard  for  the  faith  of  the  countrj'  in  which  they  live.      If,  on  the 


TRACES  AMONG  GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.       101 

other  Iiand,  they  find  it  to  their  profit  to  profess  a  belief  in  some 
religion,  they  never  hesitate  to  pick  up  as  much  of  it  as  suits 
their  convenience,  their  wonderful  art  of  conforming  themselves 
to  the  ways  of  the  i)articiilar  community  into  which  they  are 
thrown  serving  them  here  in  good  stead.  Here  and  there  may  be 
detected,  mixed  up  with  endless  superstitions  and  crude  bits  of 
Cliristianity,  fragments  of  nature-worship  and  veiy  early  pagan- 
ism, though  how  far  serpent- woi-ship  and  the  adoration  of  a  moon- 
god,  which  Sundt  fancied  he  found  among  the  g}'psies  of  Norway, 
exist  in  reality,  or  in  the  too  easy  conclusions  of  a  student  bent 
on  finding  something  new  is  scarcely  worth  discussing  here. 

The  three  great  gypsy  clans  of  Gennany,  according  to  Liebich, 
Avorship  the  fir,  tlie  bii-ch  and  the  hawthorn,  and  the  Welsh 
Uomany,  certain  ftisciated  growtlis  in  trees.  The  "  Phara(^li  peo- 
ple "  of  Turkey  keep  a  fire  continually  burning,  and  on  the  first 
of  May  they  all  go  to  the  seacoast  or  the  banks  of  a  river,  where 
they  thrice  throw  water  on  their  temples,  invoking  the  invisible 
spirits  of  the  place  to  gi*ant  their  wishes.  Another  custom 
observed  with  equal  consistency  is  that  of  annually  drinking  some 
potion,  the  secret  of  whose  pi-eparation  is  known  only  to  the  wisest 
and  oldest  of  the  tribe.  This  drink  is  said  to  render  them  invul- 
nerable to  snake-bites,  and  ceitainly  according  to  trustworthy 
travellers  the  "Chinguins,"  as  they  are  also  called,  catch  serpents 
and  handle  them  with  an  impunity  which  is  not  vouchsafed  to  any 
j)er8ons  not  of  the  gypsy  i*ace. 

They  have  scai-cely  any  idea  of  a  future  state,  the  only  trace  of 
such  a  l)elief  which  Liebich  ever  detected  being  in  a  gyi^y  crone, 
who  dreamed  that  she  wiis  in  heaven,  which  to  her  appeared  to  be 
a  very  large  garden  full  of  fine  fat  hedgehogs,  the  dainty  which 
Romany  gourmands  or  gluttons  most  esteem.  In  Scandinavia, 
according  to  Sundt,  who  spent  yeai-s  in  studying  the  vagabonds  of 
the  North,  the  gyj>sies  assemble  once  a  year,  and  always  at  night, 
for  the  purpose  of  unbaptizing  all  of  tlieir  children  who  duiing  the 
year  have  been  baptized  by  the  Gorgios,  or  Avhites.  On  this 
occasion  the  jmrents,  whose  acquiescence  in  the  Christian  rite  has 
l)een  obtained  by  the  jxirsuasive  power  of  gifts,  worship  a  small 
idol,  which  is  preserved  until  the  next  meeting  with  the  greatest 
care  and  secrecy.     This  is  a  good  story,  but,  like  many  others 


102  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

in  circulation,  had  better  be  accepted  with  considerable  caution. 
It  would  argue  for  the  gypsy  the  possession  of  a  keen  moral  sense 
—  the  terror  that  the  baptism  was  dreadfully  wrong.  Now  tliis 
is  just  what  the  Indian  nomad  does  not  possess.  He  is  indif- 
ferent. His  moral  sense  is  formed  by  custom,  and  morality  seems 
to  be  at  times  a  question  of  latitude  and  longitude.  A  fearful 
crime  in  one  section  of  human  society  is  a  virtue  in  another  a  few 
degrees  farther  north  or  south. 

For  instance,  in  the  island  of  Borneo,  a  Dyak  is,  or  was,  in- 
eligible for  the  Immble  position  of  a  prospective  husband  until 
he  had  decapitated  a  fellow-man;  we  should  have  hanged  him. 
The  civilized  father  is  overwhelmed  with  sorrow  when  his  boy 
is  detected  pilfering  other  men's  property,  but  an  Apache  parent 
thanks  all  the  heaven  he  knows  of  that  the  lad  who  has  man- 
aged to  steal  a  horse  before  he  was  ready  to  take  a  wife  promises 
to  prove  a  comfort  to  his  old  age. 

So  with  the  gypsy.  Ever  poor,  often'hungry,  always  liated,  it 
seems  to  him  the  most  natural  thing  in  the  world  that  he  should 
temporarily  enrich  himself  and  satisfy  his  appetite  at  the  expense 
of  those  who,  in  his  eyes,  are  burdened  with  superfluities.  He 
knows  it  is  against  the  law,  for  there  are  legends  ever  present  to 
his  memory  and  experience  which  tell  of  the  policeman's  illiberal 
ways ;  but,  as  for  any  moral  crime,  that  is  an  tispect  of  the  matter 
on  which  the  gypsy  hivs  never  heen  taught  to  reflect. 

Yet  there  is  hardly  a  race  or  tribe  —  no  matter  what  ill-informed 
travellers  may  say  to  the  contrary  —  Avhich  is  entirely  without 
religion,  and  the  gypsy  is  no  exception  to  this  rule.  His  feelings 
of  reverence  find  vent  in  an  inordinate  respect  for  the  dead, 
an  outcome,  it  may  be,  of  the  intense  love  he  bears  his  kindred 
when  alive.  The  corpse  is  waked  and  tlie  effects  of  the  deceased 
p'ji-son  are  burned.  '*  The  Annual  Register  "  for  1773  records  tliat 
'Uhe  clothes  of  tlie  late  Diana  Boswell,  queen  of  the  gypsies, 
value  <£50,  were  burnt  in  the  Mint,  Southwark,  by  her  principal 
courtiers,  according  to  ancient  custom,"  and  to  this  day  the  same 
I'ite  is  observed  on  the  deatli  of  any  of  the  tribe,  though  most 
probably  this  is  one  of  tlie  ancient  rites  which  are  on  the  wane. 
Certain  tribes  of  North  American  Indians  adopt  the  same  2)lan, 
j)ix)bably  for  the  same  reason,  to  put  out  of  sight  anything  which 


TRACES   AMONG   GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS   AND  THIEVES. 


lOS 


might  recall  tht;  ineiiioiy  of  tlie  dead,  or  tempt  tlieni  to  inoiiounce 
his  or  her  name. 

In  England  a  gypsy  will,  with  wondioua  t^elf-denial,  often 
abstain  from  spirits  for  years,  because  a  dead  brother  was 
fond  of  liquor,  or  will  iibandrm  some  favorite  pureuit  because  the 


deceased  when  last  in  liiw  company  was  t'lijrayed  in  this  hasiness 
or  pastime.  Again,  a  wife  or  child  will  often  renounce  the  deli- 
L-acy  most  liked  by  the  dead  husband  or  father.  They  will  never 
mention  the  dead  one's  name,  and  if  any  of  the  survivors  linppeu 


104  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

to  bear  one  of  the  names  they  will  change  it  for  another  less  apt 
to  recall  the  loved  one.  A  gypsy  declined  a  cigar  offered  to  him 
by  Mr.  Leland,  the  famous  American  student  of  their  habits, 
because  in  the  pockets  of  his  nephew  some  cigai-s  were  found  after 
his  death.  The  same  man  ceased  using  snuff  after  his  wife's 
deatli.  '^Some  men/'  said  a  gypsy  once,  "won't  eat  meat 
because  th(»  brother  or  sister  that  died  was  fond  of  it;  some 
won't  drink  ale  for  five  or  six  years;  some  won't  eat  the  favorite 
fish  that  the  child  ate;  some  won't  eat  potatoes,  or  cb-ink  milk,  or 
eat  apples,  and  all  for  the  dead.  Some  won't  play  cards  or  the 
fiddle  —  'that's  my  poor  boy's  tunc' — and  some  won't  dance. 
*No,  I  can't  dance;  the  last  time  I  danced  was  witli  poor  wife 
that's  been  dead  this  foiu*  yeai*s.'  'Come,  brother,  let's  go  and 
have  a  droj)  of  ale.'  'Xo,  brother,  I  never  drank  a  drop  of  ale 
since  my  aunt  went.'  *Well,  take  some  tobacco,  brother  ?  '  'No, 
no;  I  have  not  smoked  since  mv  wife  fell  in  the  water,  and  never 
came  out  again  alive.'  " 

This  is  Oriental  entirely,  and  in  Germany,  where  the  gypsies 
are  even  nearer  akin  to  tlie  primitive  conditions  of  the  race  than 
in  England,  the  respect  for  tlie  dead  is  even  more  profound.  "  By 
my  father's  head!"  is  a  very  binding  oatli,  but  to  swear  by  "the 
dead  "  is  even  more  so.  Even  in  England  a  gypsy  who  declares 
that  he  will  do  anything —  "muUo  juvo  "  —  tliat  is,  by  liis  dead 
wife,  is  pretty  sure  to  keep  his  word,  though  he  never  reads  the 
Bible,  and  regards  the  founder  of  oiu'  faith  only  in  the  light  of  some- 
thing to  lend  strength  to  an  affirmation.  In  Germany  it  is  said  that 
Avhen  a  maiden  called  Forella  died,  lier  entire  tribe  ceased  calling 
the  trout  bv  it«  old  name  of  Fore  lie.  In  Engfland  this  rule  is 
veiy  generally  observed,  thougii  it  is  not  universal.  At  one  time 
they  put  new  shoes  and  even  money  in  the  coffin  with  the  corpse, 
or  decked  tlie  lx)dy  with  gay  clothes  and  ornaments  of  value. 

In  the  coui-se  of  their  wanderings  the  gypsies  have,  as  might 
have  been  expet^ted,  picked  up  a  good  many  snatches  of  tlie  Chris- 
tian religion.  For  iiLstance,  some  of  them  burn  an  ash  fire  on 
Christmas  Day  in  honor  of  Christ,  "because  He  was  born  and 
lived  like  a  gypsy."  Among  otlier  of  their  supei"stitious  sciiiples 
is  a  dislike  to  wash  a  table-cloth  with  other  clothes.  A  German 
gypsy  woman  must  not  cook  for  four  months  after  the  birth  of  a 


TBA0E8  AMONG  GYF8IBS,   BBIGANOS  AlO)  THIEVES.        105 

child,  and  any  vessel  touched  by  a  woman's  skirt  is  defiled,  while 
one  of  their  most  widespread  and  most  Indian  practices  is  to  leave 
at  a  road-corner  a  handful  of  leaves  or  grass,  or  a  heap  of  stones 
or  sticks,  to  guide  any  of  the  band  who  may  follow. 

Though  until  lately  almost  entirely  without  school  learning  — 
the  civilized  gypsies  of  Yetholm  are  of  course  excepted  —  they 
are  far  from  being  a  dull  or  unreceptive  race.  Many  of  them  are 
persons  of  great  natural  shrewdness,  though,  except  as  musicians, 
few  of  the  race  have  ever  attiiined  much  celebrity.  The  Ilun- 
garians  owe  their  national  music  to  the  Zigani.  ilaiiy  of  them 
display  considerable  skill  as  metal  workers,  and  one  or  two  have 
develoj^ed  talents  of  a  certain  kind  as  Methodist  preachers.  The 
late  Rev.  Dr.  Gordon,  a  clergyman  of  the  Church  of  Scotland, 
was  always  imderstood  to  be  of  pure  gypsy  stock.  Lord  Jeffrey 
and  Christopher  North  (Professor  John  Wilson)  were  also  said  to 
be  of  the  wandering  folk,  and  it  has  long  Ixicn  aflirmed,  though 
the  asseition  has  been  stoutly  disputed,  that  John  IJunyan, 
author  of  "Pilgrim's  Progress,"  belonged  to  the  gypsy  stock. 
Half  of  the  tramps,  the  "tnivellei-s,"  as  they  are  called,  of 
England,  are  tinctured  Avith  Romany  blood.  These  "half- 
scrags  '^  are  an  ever-incrcjising  class.  They  are  ti-amps  and  beg- 
gai-s,  proprietoi-s  of  tmvelling  shows,  hoi'se-dealei's,  tinkei-s,  cheap 
Jacks,  "Pimclics,"  iiddlei-s,  pottery  dealei-s,  sellers  of  vskewers 
and  dothespegs. 

In  England  the  numl)er  of  house-dwelling  <i;y[)sies  is  on  the 
increa^se,  but  it  is  rare  to  lind  any  who  have  for  two  generations 
ceased  to  find  slielter  luider  tents,  or  who  do  not  at  intervals  take 
to  their  old  kind  of  life.  The  Sfvp-^v  lias  nowhere  nowadays  a 
distintttive  dress,  but  he  or  slie  can  generally  be  picked  out  in 
a  crow<l  bv  reason  of  the  crav  coloi-s  s*^  loved  bv  the  race,  and  the 
heav}'  rings  on  the  women's  fingei-s.  In  some  parts  of  the  con- 
tinent the  Avomen  wear  a  peculiar  pattern  of  earrings,  and  in  Hun- 
gary the  male  gypsy  is  fond  of  decking  his  coat  with  silver 
buttons  bearing  a  serpent  for  a  crest. 

In  the  country  the  gypsy  follows  nearly  all  callings,  from  those 
of  chimney-sweei)s  and  factory  hands,  to  those  of  actors  and  quack 
doctors,  but  as  tinkers,  or  workere  in  metal,  horse-dealers, 
makers   of    baskets,  brooms,  clothes-pegs,    and    pottery   sellers. 


106  THE   STOllY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

they  are  pre-eminent.  The  Calderari,  or  copper-smitlis  of  Hun- 
gary, travel  all  over  Europe,  and  sometimes  reach  as  far  as 
Algeria.  In  Transylvania  they  are  well  known  as  gold  workers, 
and  no  tourist  who  has  ever  visited  the  Alhanibra  but  must 
remember  the  gypsy  smiths  whose  anvils  were  placed  in  the  caves 
of  Oranada. 

Altogether,  according  to  Mr.  Simson,  there  cannot  be  much 
fewer  than  4,000,000  gypsies  in  existence,  but  if  pure  bloods  are 
meant,  this  estimate  is  probably  far  over  the  mark,  since  Von 
Miklosich  reckons  that  number  at  somewhere  in  the  vicinity  of 
700,000.  In  Hungary  there  are,  according  to  a  rough  estimate, 
about  150,000  gypsies —  vagabonds  who  wander  over  the  countrj- 
with  their  carts  and  horses,  accompanied  by  their  women  and  chil- 
dren, and  though  at  one  time  pei-secuted  as  unbelievers,  and 
hunted  to  death  as  sorcerei-s  and  poisoners,  the  cruel  edicts  which 
enjoined  such  treatment  wei*e  never  approved  by  the  Hun- 
garian people.  The  result  is,  that  the  gypsies  have  increased, 
and,  in  their  own  thriftless,  squalid  fashion,  prospered,  despite 
the  hard  usage  they  have  experienced  at  the  hands  of  their  rulers. 

Indeed,  as  we  have  seen,  the  Hungarian  kings  have  more  than 
once  protected  them  as  a  ''poor  wandering  people  without  a  coun- 
try, and  whom  all  the  world  rejected,"  and  granted  them  safe 
conducts  to  go  wherever  seemed  good  to  them,  with  their  ti'oops 
of  donkeys  and  hoi-ses.  Joseph  II.  of  Austria  tried  to  settle  them 
as  agriculturists,  and  had  huts  built  for  them,  but  instead  of 
occupying  the  comfortable  dwellings  themselves  they  stabled  their 
cattle  in  them,  and  pitched  their  tents  outside. 

Then  to  prevent  their  corn  from  sprouting  they  boiled  it  before 
sowing,  and  though  their  children  were  taken  from  them  and 
trained  up  into  habits  of  work  under  Magyar  and  German  peas- 
ants, these  wildlings  soon  escaped  and  joined  their  parents,  with- 
out having  learned  anything  from  their  forcible  fipprenticeship  to 
civilization.  It  is  affirmed  that  a  gypsy,  who  had  actually  risen 
to  the  rank  of  an  officer  in  the  Austrian  army,  disappeared  one 
day,  and  was  found  six  months  afterwards  with  a  band  of  Zigani 
encamped  on  the  heath.  A  young  Slovack  peasant  fell  in  love 
with  and  married  a  gyi)sy  girl,  but  in  his  al)sence  she  escaped  to 
the  woods,  and  when  discovered  was    living   under  a  tree   and 


TRACES   AHOMU   QVPSIES,    BKIQANDS   AND   THISVE8. 


lOT 


feasting  on  hedgehog  after  the  fashion  of  the  race  from  whom  she 
bad  been  taken. 

The  Abb^  Liszt,  cliarmed  with  the  talent  for  muaic  dispkyed 


by  a  gypsy  boy,  took  him  to  Paris  and  tried  to  traiu  the  little 
lad.  But  all  in  vain.  The  moment  he  saw  his  own  x>eople  in 
Vienna  his  delight  was  indescribable ;  there  was  no  loiiger  any 
hope  of  keeping  him  under  the  velvet  bonds  of  polite  life. 


108  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT, 

Like  all  their  kindred,  the  Hungarian  g3'^psy  has  a  horror  of 
restraint  and  of  continuous  labor.  His  vocabulary  contains  no 
"woi-d  signifying  "to  dwell;"  hence  he  follows  any  trade  which 
admits  of  his  wandering  about  the  country  —  farriers,  nail-makers, 
horse-dealers  (and  horse-stealers),  bear-tamei"s,  and  beggars.  In 
the  last  capacity  the  Zigani  are  irrepressible.  Time  to  them  is  no 
object.  They  will  follow  the  traveller  for  half  an  hour,  pouring 
forth  their  whine  in  fluent  Magyar  or  gypsy  until  a  piece  of 
money  is  thrown  to  them,  and  then  they  will  whine  again  to  the 
next  likely  pusser-by.  Indeed,  so  deeply  rooted  is  tliis  love  of 
mendicity  and  its  twin,  mendacity,  tliat  it  is  nothing  uncommon 
for  gypsies  Avearing  gold  cliains  and  rings,  carrying  gold-headed 
canes,  and  leading  race-lioi-ses,  to  hold  out  tlieir  liands  for  alms 
to  all  whom  tliev  meet. 

No  people  are  more  skilful  as  horse-doalci's ;  a  Vermont  Yankee 
is  miles  behind  them.  In  truth,  so  skilful  are  they,  that  Josejih 
II.,  who  occupied  a  good  deal  of  his  time  in  devising  means  for 
the  reformation  of  tliis  section  of  his  su])jects,  al)solutely  foiI)ade 
tliem  to  trade  in  a  specfies  of  mercliandise  wliich  gave  them  an 
undue  advantage  over  tlieir  neighboi-s,  and  put  templ^ition  in  the 
gypsy's  way  of  which  he  was  not  at  all  l)a(^kward  to  avail  him- 
self. The  women,  like  tlieir  sistei*s  everywhere,  tell  fortunes, 
sell  clianns,  })ly  the  trade  of  jugglers  and  dancers,  and,  it  is  said, 
not  without  truth,  act  as  go-l)etweens  and  supply  })oisons. 

Manv  rustics  iu  lands  besides  Ilunorary  have  still  a  firm 
belief  in  their  power  in  these  respects,  and  will  tell  how  by  magic 
formuLnD  they  have*  extinguished  Jires,  preserved  horses  from  the 
flames,  discovtMcd  hidden  tri'asures  or  springs  of  watci*  hitherto 
unsus[)ecte(l,  and  cured  diseases  which  have  defied  the  regular 
faculty.  It  may  be  added,  though  the  contraiy  has  been  asserted, 
that  the  moi-als  of  the  women  are,  if  possible,  woi-sc  tlian 
those  of  the  men.  Among  the  g^qjsies,  however,  as  among  tlie 
people  of  ev(^rv  other  race,  exceptions  are  occasionally  found 
which  }»rovc  the  rule,  the  rule  ])cing  that  they  are  vagabonds.  The 
ex(!eptions  are  tlu^  few  who  in  Transylvania  carry  on  the  tmdes  of 
wood-carvers,  brush-makei's,  tile-makei*s,  rope-makei>>,  ropei"S, 
chinmey-sweeps,  gold-workers,  dentists,  and  musicians  —  as  they 
all  are  more  or  less  —  not  to  mention  the  Zigani  who  are  always 


TRACES  AMONG  GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.        109 

ready  to  perfonn  the  hideous  function  of  the  public  executioner. 
**  Five  florins  for  hanging  a  man ! "  a  gypsy  is  said  to  have 
exclaimed  when  offered  this  fee  for  his  services.  **  Why,  I  would 
hang  all  those  gentlemen,'*  pointing  with  an  affable  grin  to  the 
judges,  **for  that  sum  of  money  I  "  One  or  two  Zigani  have  tried 
their  hand  at  play-writing  and  acting,  and  now  and  then  may  be 
met  a  gypsy  marionette  manager,  or  even  a  comedian  of  the  race. 
In  Hungary  they  can  hardly  he  said  to  profess  any  regular 
religion.  They  are  not  even  pagans,  for  tliey  worship  nothing, 
though  everywhere  they  show  great  respect  for  the  dead,  never 
passing  a  grave  of  their  relatives  witliout  pouring  on  it  a  few 
drops  of  beer,  wine,  or  bmndy. 

They  adopt  any  i-eligion  which  promises  most  profit  or  the 
greatest  immunity  from  discomfort.  Hence  it  will  sometimes 
happen  that  the  children  of  a  wandering  gypsy  will  be  baptized 
four  or  five  times,  and  l)e  quite  ready,  so  far  as  their  pirents  are 
concerned,  to  be  baptized  a  fifth  if  the  nomad  liapi)en  to  come  into 
a  region  where  religious  fervor  runs  high.  How  far  they  acknowl- 
edge any  head  nowadays  is  an  ojien  question.  At  one  time  they 
were  governed  by  four  "voivodes,"  or  chiefs,  who  were  elected  by 
universal  suffrage,  and  proclaimed  amid  music  and  applause.  A 
three-cornered  braided  hat  was  placed  on  the  chief's  head,  and  a 
pitcher  of  wine  on  a  j)late  covered  with  flowers  presented  to  him. 

This  he  drained  at  a  draught,  then  broke  the  flask  in  pieces, 
after  which  he  harangued  the  assembly,  and  shook  hands  with  each 
of  his  subjects  in  turn.  Every  seven  years  the  people  gathered 
round  the  supreme  chief  to  receive  his  orders,  and  those  washing 
the  auriferous  sands  of  the  Transylvanian  rivers,  whatever  might 
have  been  the  habit  of  the  othera,  paid  a  florin  per  annum  to  the 
voivode  under  whom  they  worked.  But  in  these  days  the  chief 
exercises  little,  if  any,  visible  authority.  In  Hungary,  as  in 
England  and  America,  the  policeman  has  long  since  replaced  this 
gypsy  Govereign. 

More  than  any  people,  save  the  poor  artisans  confined  to  the 
vile  tenements  of  our  great  civilized  cities,  the  gypsies  exemplify 
the  doctrine  of  the  "survival  of  the  fittest."  A  weakling  soon 
perishes  during  the  life  of  hardship  which  he  must  endure,  but  the 
strong  survive  to  become  the  fine  specimens  of  humanity  which  are 


110  THE   STOllY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

seen  among  them.  Epidemics  pass  over  them  scatheless.  Gout  and 
rheumatism  are  to  tliem  unknown  mahidies.  Their  wounds  heal 
with  wonderful  rapidity  and,  if  perchance  disease  does  attack 
them,  brandy,  onions  and  safifron  are  the  only  medicines  which 
they  tolerate.  In  short,  their  life  ift  an  animal  one.  A  gypsy 
condemned  to  be  hanged  will  always  ask  as  a  last  favor  to  ]>e 
allowed  a  smoke,  and  a  pipe  is,  perhaps,  the  fii-st  thing  wliich  is 
put  into  a  child's  mouth  after  it  is  weaned. 

Roumania  is,  however,  the  rcal  home  of  the  continental  gypsy, 
for  there  he  numlxirs,  according  to  different  estimates,  from  130,- 
000  to  300,000  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  until  recently  he  was  a 
mere  serf,  bought  and  sold  with  the  land  on  which  he  squatted. 
They  were  nominally  free  in  1848,  though  it  was  not  till  eight 
years  after  this  that  the  Zigani  could  be  said  to  be  absolutely 
beyond  the  power  of  their  former  owners,  and  as  late  as  1845  the 
following  advertisement  appeared  in  a  Bucharest  newspaper:  — 

"  The  sons  and  Iieirs  of  the  late  Sirdar  Nicka  of  Bucharest  will 
expose  for  sale  two  hundred  gypsy  families.  The  men  exercise  the 
trades  of  locksmiths,  goldsniitlis,  shoemakers,  musicians,  and  farm 
laborers.  Not  less  than  four  families  will  be  sold  in  one  lot.  As  a 
set-off,  the  price  asked  is  a  ducat  cheaper  than  the  ordinary  figure. 
Facilities  for  payment/' 

In  1825,  according  to  Walsh,  if  a  gypsy  l)elonging  to  a  Boyard, 
or  noble,  was  killed  by  his  master,  no  notice  was  taken  of  the 
circumst^^nce,  but  if  the  murder  wfis  committed  by  a  stmnger  a 
fine  of  eighty  florins  was  exacted.  Slight  faults  were  punished 
by  the  bastinado  applied  to  the  soles  of  the  feet,  or  by  the  appli- 
cation of  an  iron  mask,  in  wliicli  the  head  was  shut  up  for  a 
longer  or  shorter  period,  preventing  the  offender  from  eating  or 
drinking.  Those  who  had  committed  theft  were  fastened  by  the 
neck  and  arms  to  a  plank,  wliich  they  carried  on  their  shouldei"s 
in  the  fashion  of  the  Chinese  cangue,  which  we  illustrate  i|t  our 
Chinese  chapter.  They  are  still  in  Roumania  the  hewers  of  wood 
and  the  drawei*s  of  water.  All  rough,  unpleasant  work  is 
allotted  to  them.  There  the  men,  women,  and  children  are  the 
drudges  who  cany  bricks  and  mortar  to  the  masons,  meantime 
cooking  and  sleeping  in  the  building  on  which  they  are  at  work, 


112  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

their  main  food  being  mamaliga,  or  maize-meal,  boiled  and 
seasoned  with  salt.  Or,  as  in  other  countries,  they  mend  pots  and 
kettles,  shoe  horses,  or  play  the  medola.  But  though  the  tawny 
face  of  the  Frenchified  Roumanian  bears  distinct  evidence  that 
his  forefathers  were  not  so  callous  to  the  charms  of  the  lithe  young 
gypsy,  the  so-called  whites  affect  an  unutterable  scorn  for  the 
Zigani,  ranking  them  as  little  better  than  the  lower  animals. 
The  philosophy  of  gypsy  life  is  summed  up  in  the  following  little 
poem  composed  by  a  gypsy  of  Spain  in  which  country  these  mystic 
strollers  are  regarded  with  a  sort  of  tender  tolerance  like  naughty 
but  amusing  children. 

**  Poniqucl  liichipen  abajo  *'  There  runs  a  pig  down  yonder  liill 

Abillcla  iiri  balichoro  As  fast  as  e^er  he  can» 

Abillela  a  fjoli  goli,  And  as  he  runs  he  crieth  stiU  : 

Ustilame  Caloro."  '  Come  steal  me,'  gypsy  manl" 

But  the  gypsies  are  injured  innocents  compared  with  the  extraor- 
dinar}^  clandestine  clan  of  robbei*s  and  assassins  called  the 
Camorristi,  whose  original  home  and  habitat  were  the  two 
Sicilies  and  lower  Italv,  but  who  have  followed  the  Italian  i-ace 
in  its  em  ignitions  and  whose  dark  tracks  can  Ije  discovered  in 
every  city  of  magnitude  in  this  country.  The  Camori-a,  as  this 
brotherhood  of  brigands  is  termed,  affords  a  remarkable  insight 
into  the  subtlety  of  the  Italian  character,  its  wonderful  capacity 
for  devising  extraordinary  means  for  the  accomplishment  of 
ordinary  ends,  and  that  less  amiable  aptitude  for  playing  the 
conspirator  or  s[)y  which  has  given  the  Italian  nation  an  evil  odor 
in  the  nostrils  of  other  mces  which  as  a  whole  it  does  not  deserve. 

The  recent  trouble  in  New  Orleans  is  tmceable  to  the  Camorra, 
for  the  JLifia  is  only  a  branch  of  that  tremendous  tree,  like  the 
banyan  in  its  tendency  to  burrow  back  into  the  earth,  and  like  the 
upas  in  its  pestilent  powers.  The  history  of  the  Camorra  is  as 
remarkable  as  any  fable,  for  the  Camorristi  during  the  misrale  of 
the  Bourbons  were  not  only  tolerated,  but  were  actually  permitted 
to  ply  their  infamous  trade,  in  the  hope  that  this  permission  to 
plunder  the  })cople  might  influence  them  in  favor  of  the  gov^^m- 
ment.  The  result  Avas  what  might  have  been  expected,  for  when 
FraiK-is  II.,  terrified  at  the  measureless  assurance  of  the  society 
he  had  favored  and  fostered,  attempted  its  suppression,  the  mem- 


TBACE8  AMOKG  GYPSIES,  BRIGANDS  AND  THISVBS.        118 

bers  who  escaped  the  wholesale  capture  and  transportation  decreed 
against  them  entered  into  alliance  with  tlie  Garibaldians,  and 
materially  aided  in  the  expulsion  of  King  Bomba. 

Meantime,  and  for  many  years,  they  had  a  festival  time  of  it. 
Knowing  that  their  exactions  were  winked  at,  they  boldly  pre- 
sented themselves  in  the  markets,  at  places  of  public  amusement, 
and  at  the  street  spectacles  by  which  the  Neapolitan  rulers  tried 
to  make  their  subjects  forget  the  manner  in  which  they  were  mis- 
governed. If  a  cab  were  engaged,  the  Camorra  expected  its 
share;  if  the  fare  were  disputed,  a  hangdog-looking  individual 
would  step  up  and  say  with  sinister  quietness  how  much  the 
signer  ought  to  pay,  and  tlie  coachman  then  knew  that  the 
Camorra  had  intervened,  and  would  in  due  time  render  its 
account.  Differences  between  men  and  masters  were  referred  to 
the  Camorristi  —  or  taken  to  another  tribunal  at  the  risk  of  the 
recalcitrants  regretting  their  nushness.  The  Camorristi  extracted 
their  percentage  of  whatever  money  passed  from  hand  to  hand  in 
buying  property  or  in  making  any  open  or  even  private  purchase, 
for  the  Camorra  was  everywhere,  and  showed  itself  in  the  most 
unlikely  quartei's.  Rents,  Avages,  prizes  in  lotteries,  winnings  of 
gamblers  —  everything  which  could  be  taxed  had,  willy  nilly,  tO 
contribute  to  tlie  Camorrist  treasurj-.  There  was  nothing  which 
the  society  could  not  accomplish,  from  the  ruin  of  a  minister  to 
the  dismissal  of  a  lalx)rer.  For  a  consideration  they  undertook  to 
convey  smuggled  goods  to  their  destination,  and  if  a  hravo  were 
required,  the  Camorni  —  for  a  consideration  —  would  provide  the 
stiletto. 

Violence,  robbery  and  murder  were  their  machinery.  Terrorism 
kept  the  members  together,  and  so  dreaded  Avas  their  vengeance, 
that  when  thrown  into  gaol  they  would  often  succeed  in 
exacting  money  from  their  fellow-prisoners,  and  even  from  the 
turnkeys,  who  dreaded  the  company  committed  to  their  charge, 
Tlie  ** Camorra"  has  been  repressed  i\i  Naples,  but  in  Sicily  it 
flourishes  still,  not  so  open  and  insolent  as  of  yore,  but  yet  potent. 

Protean  in  form,  it  had  many  names  or  aliases  also.  In  Ravenna 
and  Bologna  it  was  called  the  "Squadraccia,"  in  Turin  the 
**Gocca;"  and  those  who  have  studied  this  strange  cancer  in  the 
social  life  of  Italy  say  that  the  Roman  "  Sicorii, "  the  "  Accoltella- 


•.  * 


114  THE    STORY    OK    GOVERNMENT. 

tori  "  of  the  Romagna  diatriet,  and  the  PmineHaii  "  Pugnalatori," 
were  only  tho  Ncajjolitaii  Cainorristi  under  other  names.  It  was 
a  State  within  a  State,  and  at  the  time  wlien  the  government 
flattered  itjjelf  that  the  organization  was  actiuilly  exterminated, 
there  were  upwards  of  200,000  persons  belonging  to  it,  and 
addressing  eacli  other  in  a  language  unintelligible  to  more  honest, 
or  at  least  to  less  lawless,  people.  Recent  revelatioas  prove  that 
if  they  are  no  longer  able  to  weaken  the  power  of  the  autliorities, 
and  to  modify  the  operations  of  economic  laws  by  exacting  that 
share  of  the  national  wealth  of  which 
they  were  deprived  either  by  idleness 
or  the  badness  of  their  rulers,  they 
are  not  less  a  t«rror  in  certain  stiiita 
of  society,  anil  a  means  of  paralyzing 
confidence  in  tlie  capability  of  the 
law  to  protect  all  classes  equally. 

As  the  branches  of  the  banyan 
tree,  hiding  themselves  in  the  earth, 
re-rooting,  burrowing  back  into  si- 
lence and  shtwlow,  are  more  remark- 
able than  the  original  trunk  or  stem, 
so  the  Mafia,  or  ^IiifDa,  is  more  sin- 
gular than  the  Caniorm  Inseause  Jnoiv 
3ecretive  and  subtle. 

This    society    still    flourishes    in 
Sicily,    and  has  biiinches   in    nearly 
every  large  city  on  this    continent, 
Boston,    San   Francisco,    Chicago, 
A  lAMoRHisTK  TRAMi'.  ^''"'  Vork.    foi'  cxample.      But  New- 

Orleans  especially,  by  reason  of  lier 
attractive  Italian  climate,  has  ]irovcd  a  magnet  to  Alafian  t-nii- 
gmnts. 

.  New  Orleans  for  many  j-eai-s  has  had  a  large  Sicilian  popula- 
tion, and  for  manj'  j'eara  the  jiolice  of  the  Crescent  City  liave 
noticed  odd  coincidences  of  crinu*.  If  a  Palermo  man  was  found 
dead  or  dying  with  a  stiletto  stab  near  his  heart  or  in  his 
stomach,  a  favorite  stabhing-place,  a  Alessina  man  soon  followed, 
tetimes  the  murder  was  committed  in  hnNid  day,  but  when 


TBAGES  AMONG  GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.       116 

the  case  came  up  for  trial,  the  witnesses  from  the  Sicilian  quarter, 
where  such  things  generally  happened,  seemed  to  experience  an 
epidemic  of  stupidity,  for  the  most  searching  questions  failed  to 
strike  from  their  stony  silence  a  scintilla  of  evidence  tliat  could 
light  the  way  to  a  conviction  for  th3  crime.  Out  of  the  court  the 
munlerer  stn)lled  witli  a  smile,  rolling  a  brown  paper  cigarette. 

In  1873  a  characteristic  ease  occurred.  Two  young  Sicilians 
quarrelled  in  the  French  market;  out  flushed  a  knife,  and  one  was 
completely  disembowelled  in  a  moment.  His  wife  saw  the  hor- 
rible deed,  and  ran  round  and  round  shrieking,  and  pointing  at 
the  murderer  whom  the  police,  coming  up,  appreliended. 

But  two  days  later  the  woman  swore  in  court  that  she  could 
not  tell  who  stabbed  her  husband.  La  Mafia  had  whispered  in  her 
ear,  and  she  knew  better  than  to  know.  A  case  occurred  when 
the  present  writer  lived  in  New  Orleans  more  striking  still. 

A  Sicilian  lay  in  wait  for  another  and  fired  at  him  an  old  blun- 
derbuss loaded  to  the  muzzle  with  nails,  small  stones,  and  buck- 
shot. The  murderer  was  seized  by  the  quick  police  with  the 
weapon  in  his  hand,  and  brought  before  the  victim  for  still  more 
certain  identification. 

The  dying  man  darted  one  glance  of  hatred  at  the  captive, 
then  shook  his  head  and  said,  "It  is  not  the  man,  but  another. 
This  fool  must  have  i)icked  up  the  empty  gun."  Then  he  died, 
knowing  he  would  be  avenged  by  his  branch  of  the  Mafia,  or  by 
his  family  clan,  jis,  indeed,  was  done  not  many  months  after. 
But  the  Mafia  did  not  confine  its  operations  to  quarrels  and 
personal  vengeance.  Blood  wtus  its  drink,  but  money  was  its 
meat. 

Rich  Italians  who,  by  reason  of  their  national  knowledge  of 
Mafian  or  Camorran  methods,  could  Ikj  more  easilv  intimidated 
than  citizens  of  other  races  living  in  that  charming  cosmopolitan 
city,  veiy  often  received  notices  that  they  must  make  La  Mafia  a 
little  present,  the  amount  of  whi(;h,  with  time  and  place  for 
delivery,  was  obligingly  specified. 

That  for  many  years  these  merchants  complied  is  not  singular. 
They  could  not  give  up  business  and  go  away  to  escape  the  tax. 
To  whatever  city  they  might  fly,  the  dark  feet  of  the  Mafia  could 
follow  them. 


116  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT, 

Unlike  its  parent,  the  Camorra,  the  Mafia  appears  to  have  no 
central  head,  but  to  have  a  dozen  or  more  gangs,  sometimes  at 
variance  with  each  other,  but  all  agreed  as  against  general  society 
or  government,  and  never  willing  to  bear  witness  against  Mafians. 
These  bands  are  governed  by  councils  of  three  which  meet  in 
secret  places,  not  twice  successively  in  the  same  spot,  plan  out 
the  murders  or  intimidations  and  give  instructions  to  the  members 
what  they  are  to  do. 

Poison  is  sometimes  used,  the  shotgun  is  a  frequent  means, 
but  the  stiletto  is  considered  the  most  creditable  and  stylish 
instrument  for  the  removal  of  an  enemy  or  a  man  who  has 
neglected  to  pay  tribute. 

The  world  knows  how  Police  Inspector  Henessy,  having  made 
a  close  study  of  the  Mafia,  intended  to  expose  it  completely  and 
bring  it  to  an  end,  and  how  he  was  murdered  by  Mafians  in  front 
of  his  own  house. 

The  world  knows  also  how  the  men,  by  bribery  of  the  jury, 
were  acquitted,  and  how  a  mob  of  the  most  respectable  citizens 
of  New  Orleans,  headed  by  W.  S.  Parkerson,  John  C.  WickliflFe, 
and  Col.  W.  P.  Curtis,  three  of  the  most  brilliant  and  popular 
men  of  that  city,  met  around  the  Clay  statue,  went  to  the  old 
Parish  Prison,  seized  the  eleven  acquitted  men,  of  whose  guilt 
there  was  no  shadow  of  a  doubt,  and  executed  them  as  a  warn- 
ing to  the  Mafia.  But  the  Mafia  was  untamed.  A  few  days 
after  Mr.  Parkerson  received  the  following  paper:  — 

MAFIA    WARNING. 

"  You  a  domed  man  and  God  Amity  can't  save  you.  We  have  it 
sworn.  Our  comrades  you  murdered  and  we  kill  you  and  you  family. 
You  will  be  poison.     The  styleto  will  do  for  the  wrest." 

Other  gentlemen,  prominent  in  this  respectable  and  perhaps 
justifiable  mob,  received  similar  sentences,  but  up  to  the  present 
writing  they  have  remained  scathless,  and  it  is  likely  that  the 
Mafia  will  choose  hereafter  some  safer  place  than  New  Orleans, 
since  if  any  of  these  men  or  others  connected  with  that  uprising 
were  to  meet  with  violent  or  suspiciously  sudden  deaths,  such  is 
the  spirit  of  New  Orleans  that  probably  within  twenty-four  hours 
every  Italian  would  be  requested  to  leave  the  city  forever. 


118  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERlOrENT. 

The  initiation  ceremonies  of  the  Mafia,  according  to  the  con- 
fessions of  Caruso,  are  very  simple.  Caruso  said  that  the  chief 
who  presided  was  di*essed  in  a  black  domino,  that  he  lield  up  a 
skull  in  his  left  hand,  and  a  dirk  in  his  right,  speaking  solemnly, 
but  briefly,  of  the  dread  power  of  tlie  Mafia.  The  candidate  for 
crime  then  swore,  with  uplifted  hands,  to  abide  by  the  orders  of 
the  order. 

The  letters  of  demand  for  money  or  of  intimidation  which  thev 
send  are  generally  written  in  blood,  and  sealed  with  a  peculiar 
rude  seal  consisting  of  an  owl  perched  on  a  skull  above  cross-bones. 

This  is  a  sort  of  grim,  unconscious  parody  on  Poe's  raven  sit- 
ting on  the  bust  of  Pallas,  and,  indeed,  a  rather  more  classic 
combination,  since  according  to  ancient  Italian  mythology,  the 
owl  was  the  favorite  bird  of  Pallius,  goddess  of  wisdom,  who, 
still  following  the  antique,  i>erhaps  subtly  antic,  fable  was  not 
born  of  any  feminine  creature,  but  si)rang  full  grown  and  armed 
from  the  brain  of  Jove,  king  of  the  gods. 

It  seems  clear  that  the  Mafia  exists  no  longer  in  its  birthplace, 
Sicily,  for  Guido  Pantatori,  now  superintendent  of  the  Missouri 
Electric  Light  Co.  at  St.  Louis,  who  was  formerly  an  officer  in  the 
Itiilian  army,  makes  the  following  statement : 

In  1860,  the  Italian  government  took  the  first  steps  looking  to  the 
suppression  of  this  band  of  cut-throats,  and  sr)  effectual  were  its  efforts 
in  this  direction,  that  within  one  voar  the  Mafia  as  an  orij^anization  was 
exterminated,  and  it  does  not  exist  in  Italy  or  Sicily  to-day.  There 
was  no  silly  or  sickly  sentiment  about  the  measures  taken  there.  Ex- 
tirpation was  the  object.  We  began  by  arresting  every  man  carrying 
concealed  weapons,  and  every  suspicious  character.  These  were  sent 
to  prison  for  six  months,  even  if  no  other  evidence  could  be  found 
.against  them. 

If  any  further  evidence  could  be  found,  the  prisoners  were  sentenced 
to  be  executed.  The  culprits  were  taken  out,  stood  in  a  line  and  shot 
down  bv  the  score.  Several  thousand  of  the  members  of  the  Mafia 
were  thus  executed  and  the  result  was  })eace  in  Sicily." 

And  yet  while  wc  may  perhaps  ]ye  amazed  at  and  disgusted 
with  a  government  like  that  of  Italy,  which  Wiis  so  slow  in  ex- 
terminating such  a  society,  root  and  branch,  we  nnist  not  forget 
the    beam  in  our  own  eye;    we   nuist  rememljer  that,   although 


TRACBS  AMOKa  6TPSIES,  BRIGANDS  AND  TmBVES.       119 

there  are  certain  more  civilized  States  of  this  Union  which  do 
not  permit  Mr.  Pinkcrton's  choice  collection  of  assassins  to  cross 
their  borders,  the  great  State  of  New  York  a  few  years  ago 
allowed  a  railroad  corporation  whose  oppression  of  its  employees 
had  led  to  a  strike,  to  employ  the  Pinkerton  desperadoes,  not 
merely  as  guai'ds  to  its  property,  but  as  intimidators  of  the  strikers. 

Some  of  the  newspapera  protested  agjiinst  this  wrong;  but 
the  next  day  their  pi*otest  was  hushed  —  how  and  why  anyone  who 
stops  to  reason  well  knows.  But  these  things  will  not  last  for- 
ever, for  the  American  people  are  beginning  to  wake  up  and  break 
off  their  former  party  ties,  and  sliake  off  the  chains  of  that  abom- 
inable old  custom  of  letting  the  politicians  do  their  thinking  for 
them. 

Just  as  traces  of  government  are  discernible  among  the  Camor- 
risti  and  Mafians,  so  among  thieves  in  Iiuge  cities  like  London  and 
Paris,  promoters  of  disorder  and  profiters  by  it  thougli  they  be,  a 
certain  tendency  to  order  crops  out.  Tliat  i-ank  among  thieves  is 
i-ecognized  lias  been  proved  Ix^yond  question.  The  common  pick- 
pocket would  not  dare,  in  a  tavern,  to  force  liis  acquaintance  or 
even  his  uninvited  presence  on  a  jovial  gathering  of  "swell  mobs- 
men "  or  of  house-breakers.  The  crimes  in  which  one's  life  is  risked 
are  accounted  of  more  aristocratic  quality,  and  their  perpetrators 
exercise  an  autocratic  rule  over  tlie  smaller  fry  of  the  republic  of 
thiever}\  But  the  average  condition  of  professional  thieves  in 
a  city  like  London  is  really  not  quite  so  good  as  that  of  our 
honest  working  classes. 

There  are  forty  thousand  professional  thieves  in  London, 
Roughly  estimating  the  population  of  the  world's  metropolis  as 
numbering  six  millions,  this  statistic  means  that  amongst  Lon- 
doners one  person  in  every  hundi-ed  and  fifty  is  a  forger,  a  house- 
lireaker,  a  pickpocket,  a  shoplifter,  a  receiver  of  stolen  goods,  or 
in  short,  a  human  bird  of  prey. 

Almost  eveiy  meml^er  of  this  formidjible  liost  is  known  to  the 
"police,"  but  unfortunately  this  advantage  is  almost  counter- 
balanced by  the  fact  tliat  the  police  are  as  well  known  to  the 
majority  of  the  twenty  thousand.  To  their  exi^rienced  eyes  it  is 
not  the  helmet  and  the  blue  coat  that  make  the  policeman.  In- 
deed, they  appear  to  depend  not  so  much  on  visual  evidence  as  on 


120  the'  stoky  of  government. 

some  subtle  power  of  scent,  such  as  the  fox  possesses,  in  discover- 
ing the  approach  of  their  natural  enemy.  They  can  divine  the 
detective  in  his  innocent-looking  smock-frock  or  bricklayer  jacket, 
while  he  is  yet  distant  the  lengtli  of  a  street.  Tliey  know  him  by 
his  step,  or  by  liis  clumsy  affectation  of  unofficial  loutishness. 
They  recognize  the  stiff  neck  in  the  loose  neckerchief.  Tliey 
smell  "trap,"  and  are  superior  to  it. 

The  following  brief  life  of  an  adroit  London  pickpocket,  who 
had  reformed  and  become  a  street  singer,  shows  how  thieves  are 
trained,  and  how  they  are  oi-ganized  in  bands.  This  pickpocket 
was  about  the  average  height,  of  sallow  complexion,  with  a  rich, 
dark,  penetrating  eye,  a  moustache  and  beard.  He  was  a  man  of 
tolerably  good  education,  and  liad  a  mind  well  fumLshed. 

Had  he  not  started  so  young  as  a  pickpocket,  he  might  have 
ripened  into  a  banker  —  a  Naix>leon  of  finance,  but  at  the  time  he 
told  his  life  history,  he  was  i-ather  melancholy  and  crushed  in  spirit, 
which  he  stated  was  the  result  of  repeated  imprisonments.  Yet, 
while  narrating  some  of  the  exciting  passages,  liis  countenance 
lighted  up  with  intense  interest  and  adventurous  expression, 

I  was  born  in  a  little  hamlet,  five  miles  from  Shrewsbury,  in  the 
county  of  Shropshire.  My  father  was  a  Wesleyan  minister.  We 
had  a  very  happy  home,  though  strict  in  the  way  of  religion.  I 
believe  my  father  would  on  no  account  have  tolerated  such  a  thinj?  as 
any  of  us  children  stopping  out  after  nine  o'clock  at  night,  and  I  have 
heard  my  mother  often  say  that  all  the  time  she  was  wedded  to  him, 
she  never  had  known  him  the  worse  for  liquor.  My  father  had  family 
worship  every  night  between  eight  and  nine  o'clock,  when  the  curtains 
were  drawn  over  the  windows,  the  candle  was  lighted,  and  each  of  the 
children  was  taught  to  kneel  and  pray  out  loud. 

We  often  had  ministers  to  dinner  and  supper  at  our  house,  and  always 
after  feasting  the  conversation  turned  into  discussions  on  different 
points  of  doctrine.  I  can  recollect  as  well  now  as  though  it  were  yes- 
terday the  texts  used  on  the  various  sides  of  the  questions,  and  the  stress 
that  was  laid  on  different  passages  to  uphold  their  arguments. 

At  this  time  I  greedily  drank  in  every  word  that  was  uttered,  and 
soon  as  they  were  gone  I  would  fly  to  the  Bible  and  examine  the  differ- 
ent texts  they  had  quoted.  This  practice  produced  a  feeling  in  my 
mind  that  any  religious  opinions  could  be  plausibly  supported  out  of 
the  Bible  by  citing  detached  passages,  and  not  regarding  it  as  a  whole. 


TRACES  AMONG  GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND   THIEVES.       121 

These  continual  discussions  finally  seemed  to  steel  my  heart  com- 
pletely against  religion,  and  led  to  my  falling  out  with  my  grandfather, 
who  had  a  good  deal  of  property  that  was  expected  to  come  to  our 
family.  For  my  grandsire  found  out  that  I  looked  on  our  family  relig- 
ion with.douht,  and  he  bitterly  resented  it,  and  when  he  died,  it  was 
found,  on  opening  his  will,  that  I  was  not  mentioned  in  it.  The  whole 
of  his  property  was  left  to  my  father,  with  the  exception  of  four  houses, 
which  he  had  an  interest  in  till  my  brothers  and  sister  arrived  at  the 
age  of  twenty-one.  Moreover,  the  property  that  was  left  to  my  father 
for  his  life,  he  had  no  power  to  will  away  at  his  death,  but  it  was  to  go 
to  a  distant  relative  of  my  grandfather. 

This  was  the  first  cause  of  my  leaving  home,  for  the  singularity  of 
my  grandfather's  will  was  attributed  to  my  conduct,  and,  after  a  while,  so 
harsh  were  the  family  comments,  it  began  to  rankle  in  my  boyish  mind 
that  I  was  a  black  sheep,  something  (liferent  from  my  brothers  and  sis- 
ter. After  being  several  times  chided  by  my  father  for  quarreling  with 
my  brothers,  I  threatened,  in  a  fit  of  passion,  to  burn  the  house  down 
the  fii*st  opportunity  I  got.  This  threat,  though  not  uttered  in  my 
father's  hearing,  came  to  his  ear,  and  he  gave  me  a  severe  whipping  for 
it.     This  was  the  first  and  last. 

I  detennined  to  leave  home,  and  took  nothing  away  but  what  be- 
longed to  me.  I  had  four  sovereigns  of  pocket  money,  the  suit  of  clothes 
I  had  on,  and  a  shirt.  I  walked  to  Shrewsbury  and  took  the  coach  to 
London.  When  I  got  to  London  I  had  neither  friend  nor  acquaintance. 
I  first  put  up  in  a  coffee  shop  in  the  Mile  End  Koad,  and  lodged  there 
for  seven  weeks,  till  my  money  was  nearly  all  spent. 

During  this  time  my  clothes  had  been  getting  shabby  and  dirty,  as  I 
had  no  one  to  look  after  me.  Then  I  went  to  a  meaner  lodging  house  at 
Field  Lane,  Holborn,  where  I  met  with  such  characters  as  I  had  never 
seen  before,  and  heard  language  that  I  had  not  formerly  heard. 

The  landlady  here,  however,  took  pity  on  me  as  a  poor  country  boy 
who  had  been  well  brought  up,  and  kept  me  for  some  days  longer  after 
my  money  was  gone.  During  these  few  days,  I  had  very  little  to  eat, 
except  what  was  given  me  by  some  of  the  lodgers  when  they  got  their 
own  meals.  Finally,  the  landlady's  husband  objecting  to  my  continued 
presence,  I  was  turned  out  of  doors,  a  little  boy  in  the  great  world  of 
London,  with  no  friend  to  assist  me,  and  perfectly  ignorant  of  the 
ways  and  means  of  getting  a  living. 

After  wandering  about  for  several  days  half  starved,  I  was  taken  by 
several  poor  ragged  hoys  whom  I  met,  to  sleep  in  the  dark  arches  of  the 
Adelphi.     I  think  I  lived  with  them,  sharing  all  they  ha<l,  for  over  a 


112  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNBiENT. 

their  main  food  being  mamaliga,  or  maize-meal,  boiled  and 
seasoned  with  salt.  Or,  as  in  other  countries,  they  mend  pots  and 
kettles,  shoe  horses,  or  play  the  medola.  But  though  the  tawny 
face  of  the  Frenchified  Roumanian  bears  distinct  evidence  that 
his  forefathers  were  not  so  callous  to  the  charms  of  the  lithe  young 
gypsy,  the  so-called  whites  affect  an  unutterable  scorn  for  the 
Zigani,  ranking  them  as  little  better  than  the  lower  animals. 
The  philosophy  of  gypsy  life  is  summed  up  in  the  following  little 
poem  composed  by  a  gypsy  of  Spain  in  which  country  these  mj'^tic 
strollers  are  regarded  with  a  sort  of  tender  tolerance  like  naughty 
but  amusing  children. 

*'  Poraquel  luchipen  abajo  *'  There  runs  a  pig  down  yonder  hill 

Abillela  uri  balichoro  As  fast  as  e^er  he  can» 

Abillcla  a  goll  goli,  And  as  he  runs  he  crieth  still  : 

Ustilamo  Caloro."  '  Come  steal  me,'  gypsy  manT* 

But  the  gypsies  are  injured  innocents  compared  with  the  extraor- 
dinarj'  clandestine  clan  of  robbers  and  assassins  called  the 
Camorristi,  whose  original  home  and  habitat  were  the  two 
Sicilies  and  lower  Italv,  but  who  have  followed  the  Italian  race 
in  its  emigrations  and  whose  dark  tracks  can  be  discovered  in 
every  city  of  magnitude  in  this  country.  The  Camorra,  as  tliis 
brotherhood  of  brigands  is  termed,  affords  a  remarkable  insight 
into  the  subtlety  of  the  Italian  character,  its  wonderful  capacity 
for  devising  extraordinary  means  for  the  accomplishment  of 
ordinary  ends,  and  that  less  amiable  aptitude  for  playing  the 
conspii-ator  or  spy  which  has  given  the  Italian  nation  an  evil  odor 
in  the  nostrils  of  other  races  which  as  a  whole  it  does  not  deserve. 

The  recent  trouble  in  New  Orleans  is  traceable  to  the  Camorra, 
for  the  Mafia  is  only  a  branch  of  that  tremendous  tree,  like  the 
banyan  in  its  tendency  to  burrow  back  into  the  earth,  and  like  the 
upas  in  its  pestilent  powers.  The  history  of  the  Camorra  is  as 
remarkable  as  any  fable,  for  the  Camorristi  during  the  misrule  of 
the  Bourbons  were  not  only  tolerated,  but  were  actually  permitted 
to  ply  their  infamous  trade,  in  the  hope  that  this  permission  to 
plunder  the  people  might  influence  them  in  favor  of  the  govern- 
ment. The  result  was  what  might  have  been  expected,  for  when 
Francis  II.,  terrified  at  the  measureless  assurance  of  the  society 
he  had  favored  and  fostered,  attempted  its  suppression,  the  mem- 


TBACE8  AMONQ  OYPSIB8,  BBIGANDB  AKD  THIEVBS.        118 

1)619  who  escaped  the  wholesale  capture  and  transportation  decreed 
against  them  entered  into  alliance  with  the  Garibaldians,  and 
materially  aided  in  the  expulsion  of  King  Bomba. 

Meantime,  and  for  many  years,  they  had  a  festival  time  of  it. 
Knowing  that  their  exactions  were  winked  at,  they  boldly  pre- 
sented themselves  in  the  markets,  at  places  of  i^ublic  amusement, 
and  at  the  street  spectacles  by  which  the  Neapolitan  rulers  tried 
to  make  their  subjects  forget  the  manner  in  which  they  were  mis- 
governed. If  a  cab  were  engaged,  tlie  Camonu  expected  its 
share;  if  the  fare  were  disputed,  a  hangdog-looking  individual 
would  step  up  and  say  with  sinister  quietness  how  mucli  the 
signor  ought  to  pay,  and  the  cojiehman  then  knew  that  the 
Camorra  liad  intervened,  and  would  in  due  time  render  its 
account.  Differences  between  men  and  masters  were  referred  to 
the  Camorristi  —  or  taken  to  anotlier  tribunal  at  tlie  risk  of  the 
recalcitrants  regretting  their  i-ashness.  Tlie  Camorristi  extracted 
their  percentage  of  whatever  money  passed  from  liand  to  hand  in 
buying  property  or  in  making  any  open  or  even  private  purchase, 
for  the  Camorra  was  everywhere,  and  showed  itself  in  the  most 
unlikely  quartens.  Rents,  wages,  prizes  in  lotteries,  winnings  of 
gamblers  —  everything  which  could  l>e  taxed  had,  willy  nilly,  tO 
contribute  to  the  Camorrist  treasuiy.  There  AVtis  nothing  which 
the  society  could  not  accomplish,  from  the  ruin  of  a  minister  to 
the  dismissal  of  a  Liborer.  For  a  consideration  they  undertook  to 
convey  smuggled  goods  to  their  destination,  and  if  a  hravo  were 
required,  the  Camorra  —  for  a  consideration  —  would  provide  the 
stiletto. 

Violence,  robbery  and  murder  were  their  machinery.  Terrorism 
kept  the  members  together,  and  so  dreaded  was  their  vengeance, 
that  when  thrown  into  gaol  they  would  often  succeed  in 
exacting  money  from  their  fellow-prisoners,  and  even  from  the 
turnkeys,  who  dreaded  the  company  committed  to  their  charge. 
Tlie  "Camorra"  has  been  repressed  iit  Naples,  but  in  Sicily  it 
flourishes  still,  not  so  open  and  insolent  as  of  yore,  but  yet  potent. 

Protean  in  form,  it  had  many  names  or  aliases  also.    In  Ravenna 

and   Bologna   it  was   called   the    "  Squadraccia, "    in   Turin   the 

"Gocca;**  and  those  who  have  studied  this  strange  cancer  in  the 

.social  life  of  Italy  say  that  the  Roman  "Sicorii,"  the  "  Accoltella- 


•   9 


114 


THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 


tori"  of  the  Tlomagiia  district,  and  tlie  Paniiesftii  "Fugnaktori," 
were  only  the  XeajjoliUm  Camorristi  under  other  names.  It  was 
a  State  within  a  State,  and  at  the  time  wlien  the  government 
flattered  itself  that  tlie  organization  was  actually  extemiiiiated, 
there  were  upwaitls  of  200,000  pei'sons  iKdouging  to  it,  and 
addressing  each  other  in  a  language  unintelligihlc  to  more  honest, 
or  at  least  to  less  lawless,  jjeople.  Recent  I'evelations  prove  that 
if  they  arc  no  longer  able  to  weaken  the  power  of  the  autliorities, 
and  ti>  modify  the  operations  of  eeonomic  laws  by  exacting  that 
sliare  of  tbo  national  wealth  of  which 
they  were  deprived  either  by  idleness 
or  the  badness  of  their  rulers,  they 
ai-e  not  less  a  tent>r  in  certain  sti-ata 
of  society,  and  ii  means  of  paralj"zing 
confidence  in  tlie  capabilitj-  of  the 
law  to  [irotect  all  classes  equally, 

jVs    the    In-anches    of    the   banyan 
tree,  hiding  themselves  in  the  earth, 
I'e-rooting,  buiTowing   lofk   into   si- 
lence and  shadow,  are  more  remark- 
able than  the  original  trunk  or  stem, 
so  the  Matiii,  or  Maffia,    i:i  more  sin- 
-■  gular  than  the  Caniorr.i  Ijecause  nioif 
,  secretive  and  subtle. 
)      Tliis    society    still    flimrishes    in 
Sicilj',    and  has  bimiches   in    nearly 
cver\'  lai^e   city  on  this   continent, 
Boston,    Sun   Fi-antisco,   ('liicago, 
New  York,   for  example.     But  New 
(^)rleaiw  esjreciaUy,  hy  reason  of  her 
attractive  Itiiliaii  climate,   hiis  proved  a  magnet  to  Mafiaii  cmi- 
ginntft. 

New  Orleans  for  many  yean*  hiis  liad  a  large  Sicilian  popula- 
tion, and  for  many  yeai-s  the  police  o£  the  Crescent  City  liave 
noticed  odd  coincidences  of  crime.  If  a  Palenno  man  was  found 
dead  or  dying  with  a  stiletto  stab  near  his  heart  or  in  his 
stomach,  a  favorite  stiibbing-place,  a  Messina  nuin  soon  followed. 
Sometimes  the  murder  w.is  committed  iu  broad  day,  but  wlien 


TRACES  AMONG  GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.       115 

the  case  came  up  for  trial,  the  witnesses  from  the  Sicilian  quarter, 
where  such  things  generally  happened,  seemed  to  experience  an 
epidemic  of  stupidity,  for  the  most  searching  questions  failed  to 
strike  from  their  stony  silence  a  scintilla  of  evidence  that  could 
light  the  way  to  a  conviction  for  th3  crime.  Out  of  the  court  the 
murderer  strolled  witli  a  smile,  rolling  a  brown  paper  cigarette. 

In  1873  a  characteristic  case  occuned.  Two  young  Sicilians 
quarrelled  in  the  French  market;  out  flashed  a  knife,  and  one  was 
completely  disembowelled  in  a  moment.  His  wife  saw  the  hor- 
rible deed,  and  ran  round  and  round  shrieking,  and  pointing  at 
the  murderer  whom  the  police,  coming  up,  apprehended. 

But  two  days  later  the  Avoman  swore  in  court  that  she  could 
not  tell  who  stabbed  her  husband.  La  Mafia  had  whispered  in  her 
ear,  and  she  knew  better  than  to  know.  A  case  occurred  when 
the  present  writer  lived  in  New  Orleans  more  striking  still. 

A  Sicilian  lay  in  wait  for  another  and  lired  at  him  an  old  blun- 
derbuss loaded  to  the  muzzle  with  nails,  small  stones,  and  buck- 
shot. The  murderer  was  seized  by  the  quick  police  with  the 
weapon  in  his  hand,  and  brought  before  the  victim  for  still  more 
certain  identification. 

The  dying  man  darted  one  glance  of  hatred  at  the  captive, 
then  shook  his  head  and  said,  "  It  is  not  the  man,  but  another. 
This  fool  must  have  picked  up  the  empty  gun."  Tlien  he  died, 
knowing  he  would  1k^  avenged  by  his  branch  of  the  Mafia,  or  by 
his  family  clan,  as,  indeed,  was  done  not  many  montlis  after. 
But  the  Mafia  did  not  confine  its  operations  to  quarrels  and 
personal  vengeance.  Blood  wius  its  drink,  hut  money  wius  its 
meat. 

Rich  Italians  who,  by  reason  of  their  national  knowledge  of 
Mafian  or  CamoiTan  methocLs,  could  l)e  more  easily  intimidated 
than  citizens  of  other  races  living  in  that  charming  cosmopolitan 
city,  very  often  received  notices  that  tliey  must  make  La  Mafia  a 
little  present,  the  amount  of  which,  with  time  an<l  place  for 
delivery,  was  obligingly  specified. 

That  for  many  years  these  merchants  complied  is  not  singular. 
They  could  not  give  up  business  and  go  away  to  escape  the  tax. 
To  whatever  city  they  might  fly,  the  dark  feet  of  the  Mafia  could 
follow  them. 


116  THE   STORY  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

Unlike  its  parent,  the  Camorra,  the  Mafia  appears  to  have  no 
central  head,  but  to  have  a  dozen  or  more  gangs,  sometimes  at 
variance  with  each  other,  but  all  agreed  as  against  general  society 
or  government,  and  never  willing  to  bear  witness  against  Mafians. 
These  bands  are  governed  by  councils  of  three  which  meet  in 
secret  places,  not  twice  successively  in  the  same  spot,  plan  out 
the  murders  or  intimidations  and  give  instructions  to  the  members 
what  they  are  to  do. 

Poison  is  sometimes  used,  the  shotgun  is  a  frequent  means, 
but  the  stiletto  is  considered  the  most  creditable  and  stylish 
instrument  for  the  removal  of  an  enemy  or  a  man  who  has 
neglected  to  pay  tribute. 

The  world  knows  how  Police  Inspector  Henessy,  having  made 
a  close  study  of  the  Mafia,  intended  to  expose  it  completely  and 
bring  it  to  an  end,  and  how  he  was  murdered  by  Mafians  in  front 
of  his  o^vn  house. 

The  world  knows  also  how  the  men,  by  bribery  of  the  jury, 
were  acquitted,  and  how  a  mob  of  the  most  respectable  citizens 
of  New  OrleJins,  headed  by  W.  S.  Parkerson,  John  C.  Wickliffe, 
and  Col.  W.  P.  Curtis,  three  of  tlie  most  brilliant  and  popular 
men  of  that  city,  met  around  the  Clay  statue,  went  to  the  old 
Parish  Prison,  seized  the  eleven  acquitted  men,  of  whose  guilt 
there  was  no  shadow  of  a  doubt,  and  executed  them  as  a  warn- 
ing to  the  Mafia.  But  the  Mafia  was  untamed.  A  few  days 
after  Mr.  Parkerson  received  the  following  paper:  — 

MAFIA    WAHXIXG. 

"  You  a  domed  man  and  God  Amitv  can't  save  vou.  We  have  it 
sworn.  Our  comrades  you  murdered  and  we  kill  you  and  you  family. 
You  will  be  poison.     The  styleto  will  do  for  the  wrest." 

Other  gentlemen,  prominent  in  this  respectable  and  perhaps 
justifiable  mob,  received  similar  sentences,  but  up  to  the  present 
writing  they  have  remained  scathless,  and  it  is  likely  that  the 
Mafia  will  choose  hereafter  some  safer  place  than  New  Orleans, 
since  if  any  of  these  men  or  others  connected  with  that  uprising 
were  to  meet  with  violent  or  suspiciously  sudden  deaths,  such  is 
the  spirit  of  New  Orleans  that  probably  within  twenty-four  hours 
every  Italian  would  be  requested  to  leave  the  city  forever. 


118  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERJOfENT. 

The  initiation  ceremonies  of  the  Mafia,  according  to  the  con- 
fessions of  Caruso,  are  ver^'  simple.  Caruso  said  that  the  chief 
who  presided  was  dressed  in  a  black  domino,  that  he  held  up  a 
skull  in  his  left  hand,  and  a  dirk  in  liis  right,  si>eaking  solemnly, 
but  briefly,  of  the  dread  power  of  the  Mafia.  The  candidate  for 
crime  then  swore,  with  uplifted  hands,  to  abide  by  the  orders  of 
the  order. 

The  lettei-s  of  demand  for  money  or  of  intimidation  which  they 
send  are  genei-ally  written  in  blood,  and  sealed  with  a  peculiar 
rude  seal  consisting  of  an  owl  perched  on  a  skull  above  cross-bones. 

This  is  a  sort  of  grim,  unconscious  parody  on  Poe's  i*aven  sit- 
ting on  the  bust  of  Pallas,  and,  indeed,  a  rather  more  classic 
combinaticm,  since  according  to  ancient  Italian  mythology,  the 
owl  AVJis  the  favorite  bird  of  Pallas,  goddess  of  wisdom,  who, 
still  following  the  antique,  ixiriiaps  subtly  antic,  fable  was  not 
Ixirn  of  any  feminine  creature,  but  sprang  full  grown  and  armed 
from  the  brain  of  Jove,  king  of  the  gods. 

It  seems  clear  that  the  Mafia  exists  no  longer  in  its  birthplace, 
Sicily,  for  Guido  Pantatori,  now  superintendent  of  the  Missouri 
Electric  Light  Co.  at  St.  Louis,  who  wiis  formerly  an  officer  in  the 
Italian  army,  makes  the  following  statement : 

In  1860,  the  Italian  government  took  the  first  steps  looking  to  the 
suppression  of  this  band  of  cut-throats,  and  s.)  effectual  were  its  efforts 
in  this  direction,  that  witliiu  one  vear  the  Mafia  as  an  organization  was 
exterminated,  and  it  does  not  exist  in  Italy  or  Sicily  to-day.  There 
was  no  silly  or  sickly  sentiment  about  the  measures  taken  there.  Ex- 
tirpation was  the  object.  We  began  by  arresting  every  man  carrying 
concealed  weapons,  and  every  suspicious  character.  These  were  sent 
to  prison  for  six  months,  even  if  no  other  evidence  could  be  found 
against  them. 

If  any  further  evidence  could  be  found,  the  prisoners  were  sentenced 
to  be  executed.  The  culprits  were  taken  out^  stood  in  a  line  and  shot 
down  by  the  score.  Several  thousand  of  the  members  of  the  Mafia 
were  thus  executed  and  the  result  was  i)eace  in  Sicily." 

And  yet  while  wc  ma}'  perhaps  be  amazed  at  and  disgusted 
with  a  government  like  that  of  Italy,  which  Wiis  so  slow  in  ex- 
terminating such  a  society,  root  and  bmncli,  we  nnist  not  forget 
the    beam  in  our  own  eye;    we   must  remember  that,   although 


TBAC1CS  AMOKa  GYPBIBS,  BRIGANDS  AKD  THIEVES.       119 

there  are  certain  more  civilized  States  of  this  Union  which  do 
not  permit  Mr.  Pinkerton's  choice  collection  of  assassins  to  cross 
their  borders,  the  great  State  of  New  York  a  few  years  ago 
allowed  a  railroad  corporation  whose  oppression  of  its  employees 
liad  led  to  a  strike,  to  employ  the  Pinkerton  desperadoes,  not 
merely  as  gmuds  to  its  property,  but  as  intinndatora  of  the  strikers. 

Some  of  tlie  newspapei's  protested  against  this  wrong;  but 
the  next  day  their  pi*otest  was  hushed  —  how  and  why  anyone  who 
stops  to  reason  well  knows.  But  these  things  will  not  last  for- 
ever, for  the  American  people  are  beginning  to  wake  up  and  break 
off  their  former  party  ties,  and  shake  off  tlie  c.hains  of  that  abom- 
inable old  custom  of  letting  the  politicians  do  their  tliinking  for 
them. 

Just  as  traces  of  government  are  discernible  among  tlie  Camor- 
risti  and  Mafians,  so  among  thieves  inliuge  cities  like  London  and 
Paris,  pi-omoters  of  disorder  and  profiters  by  it  though  they  be,  a 
certain  tendency  to  order  crops  out.  Tliat  nink  among  thieves  is 
recognized  has  l)een  i)roved  Ixiyond  question.  The  common  pick- 
pocket would  not  dare,  in  a  tavern,  to  foi-ce  liis  acquaintance  or 
even  his  uninvited  presence  on  a  jovial  gathering  of  "swell  mobs- 
men "  or  of  house-breakei-s.  The  crimes  in  wliich  one's  life  is  risked 
are  accounted  of  more  aristocratic  quality,  and  their  perj^etrators 
exercise  an  autocratic  rule  over  the  smaller  fry  of  the  republic  of 
thievery.  But  the  average  condition  of  professional  thieves  in 
a  city  like  London  is  really  not  quite  so  good  as  that  of  our 
honest  working  classes. 

There  are  forty  thousand  professional  thieves  in  London. 
Roughly  estimating  the  population  of  the  world's  metropolis  as 
numbering  six  millions,  this  statistic  means  that  amongst  Lon- 
doners one  i>erson  in  every  hundi-ed  and  fifty  is  a  forger,  a  house- 
breaker, a  i)ickpocket,  a  shoplifter,  a  receiver  of  stolen  goods,  or 
in  short,  a  human  biixl  of  prey. 

Almost  eveiy  meml)er  of  this  fonnidable  host  is  known  to  the 
"police,'*  but  unfortunately  this  advantage  is  almost  counter- 
balanced by  the  fact  that  the  i>olice  are  as  well  known  to  the 
majority  of  the  twenty  thousand.  To  their  experienced  eyes  it  is 
not  the  helmet  and  the  blue  coat  that  make  the  policeman.  In- 
deed, they  appear  to  depend  not  so  much  on  visual  evidence  as  on 


120  the'  story  of   GOVEnK^tENT. 

some  subtle  power  of  scent,  such  Jis  the  fox  possesses,  in  discover- 
ing the  approach  of  their  natuml  enemy.  Tliey  can  divine  the 
detective  in  his  innocent-looking  smock-frock  or  bricklayer  jacket, 
while  he  is  yet  distant  the  length  of  a  street.  They  know  him  by 
his  step,  or  by  his  clumsy  affectation  of  unofficial  loutLshness. 
They  recognize  the  stiff  neck  in  the  loose  neckerchief.  They 
smell  "ti-ap,"  and  are  superior  to  it. 

The  following  brief  life  of  an  adroit  London  pickpocket,  who 
had  reformed  and  become  a  street  singer,  shows  how  thieves  are 
trained,  and  how  they  are  organized  in  bands.  Tliis  pickpocket 
was  about  the  average  height,  of  sallow  complexion,  with  a  rich, 
dark,  penetrating  eye,  a  moustache  and  beard.  He  was  a  man  of 
tolerably  good  education,  and  had  a  mind  well  furnished. 

Had  he  not  started  so  young  as  a  pickpocket,  he  might  have 
ripened  into  a  banker  —  a  Napoleon  of  finance,  but  at  the  time  he 
told  his  life  history,  lie  was  ratlier  melancholy  and  crushed  in  spirit, 
which  he  stated  was  the  result  of  repeated  imprisonments.  Yet, 
while  narrating  some  of  the  exciting  passages,  liis  countenance 
lighted  up  with  intense  interest  and  adventurous  expression. 

I  was  horn  in  a  little  hamlet,  five  miles  from  Shrewsbury,  in  tlie 
county  of  Shropshire.  My  father  was  a  Wesley  an  minister.  We 
had  a  very  happy  home,  though  strict  in  the  way  of  religion.  I 
believe  my  father  would  on  no  accoimt  have  tolerated  such  a  thing  as 
any  of  us  children  stopping  out  after  nine  o'clock  at  night,  and  I  have 
heard  my  mother  often  say  that  all  the  time  she  was  wedded  to  him, 
she  never  had  known  him  the  worse  for  liquor.  My  father  had  family 
worship  every  night  between  eight  and  nine  o'clock,  when  the  curtains 
were  drawn  over  the  windows,  the  candle  was  lighted,  and  each  of  the 
children  was  taught  to  kneel  and  pray  out  loud. 

We  often  had  ministers  to  dinner  and  supper  at  our  house,  and  always 
after  feasting  the  conversation  turned  into  discussions  on  different 
points  of  doctrine.  I  can  recollect  as  well  now  as  though  it  were  yes- 
terday the  texts  used  on  the  various  sides  of  the  questions,  and  the  stress 
that  was  laid  on  different  passages  to  uphold  their  arguments. 

At  this  time  I  greedily  drank  in  every  word  that  was  uttered,  and 
soon  as  they  were  gone  I  would  fly  to  the  Bible  and  examine  the  differ- 
ent texts  they  had  quoted.  This  practice  produced  a  feeling  in  my 
mind  that  any  religious  opinions  could  be  plausibly  supported  out  of 
the  Bible  by  citing  detached  passages,  and  not  regarding  it  as  a  whole. 


TBACE8  AMONG   GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND   THIEVES.       121 

These  continual  discussions  finally  seemed  to  steel  my  heart  com- 
pletely against  religion,  and  led  to  my  falling  out  with  my  grandfather, 
who  had  a  good  deal  of  property  that  was  expected  to  come  to  our 
family.  For  my  grandsirc  found  out  that  I  looked  on  our  family  relig- 
ion with  doubt,  and  lie  bitterly  resented  it,  and  when  he  died,  it  was 
found,  on  opening  his  will,  that  T  was  not  mentioned  in  it.  The  whole 
of  his  pro|)erty  was  left  to  my  father,  with  the  excei)tion  of  four  houses, 
which  ho  had  an  Interest  in  till  my  brothers  and  sister  arrived  at  the 
age  of  twenty-one.  Moreover,  the  property  that  was  loft  to  my  father 
for  his  life,  he  had  no  power  to  will  away  at  his  death,  but  it  was  to  go 
to  a  distant  relative  of  my  grandfather. 

Thb  was  the  first  cause  of  my  leaving  home,  for  the  singularity  of 
my  grandfather's  will  was  attributed  to  my  conduct,  and,  after  a  while,  so 
harsh  were  the  family  comments,  it  began  to  rankle  in  my  bo^-ish  mind 
that  I  was  a  black  sheep,  something  di^erent  from  my  brothers  and  sis- 
ter. After  being  several  times  eluded  by  my  father  for  quarreling  with 
my  brothers,  I  threatened,  in  a  fit  of  passion,  to  burn  the  house  down 
the  first  opportunity  I  got.  This  threat,  though  not  uttered  in  my 
father's  hearing,  came  to  his  ear,  and  he  gave  me  a  severe  whipping  for 
it.     This  was  the  first  and  last. 

I  determined  to  leave  home,  and  took  nothing  away  but  what  be- 
longed to  me.  I  had  four  sovereigns  of  pocket  money,  the  suit  of  clothes 
I  had  on,  and  a  shirt.  I  walked  to  Shrewsbury  and  took  the  coach  to 
Tx^ndon.  When  I  got  to  London  I  had  neither  friend  nor  acquaintance. 
I  first  put  up  in  a  coffee  shop  in  the  MUe  End  Road,  and  lodged  there 
for  seven  weeks,  till  my  money  was  nearly  all  spent. 

During  this  time  my  clothes  had  been  getting  shabby  and  dirty,  as  I 
had  no  one  to  look  after  me.  Then  I  went  to  a  meaner  lodging  house  at 
Field  Lane,  Holborn,  where  I  met  with  such  characters  as  I  had  never 
seen  before,  and  heard  language  that  I  had  not  formerly  heard. 

The  landlady  here,  however,  took  pity  on  me  as  a  poor  country  boy 
who  had  been  well  brought  up,  .and  kept  me  for  some  days  longer  after 
my  money  was  gone.  During  these  few  days,  I  had  very  little  to  eat, 
except  what  was  given  me  by  some  of  the  lodgers  when  they  got  their 
own  meals.  Finally,  the  landlady's  husband  objecting  to  my  continued 
presence,  I  was  turned  out  of  doors,  a  little  boy  in  the  great  world  of 
London,  with  no  friend  to  assist  me,  and  perfectly  ignorant  of  the 
ways  and  means  of  getting  a  living. 

After  wandering  about  for  several  days  half  starved,  I  was  taken  by 
several  poor  ragged  l>oys  whom  I  met,  to  sleep  in  the  dark  arches  of  the 
Adelphi.     I  think  I  lived  with  them,  sharing  all  they  had,  for  over  a 


122  THE    STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

month,  and  during  this  time  I  often  saw  the  boys  follow  the  male  pas- 
sengers, when  the  half-penny  boats  came  to  the  Adelphi  stairs,  i.  e.,  the 
part  of  the  river  almost  opposite  the  Adelphi  Theatre. 

I  could  not  at  first  make  out  the  meaning  of  this,  but  I  soon  found 
they  generally  had  one  or  two  handkerchiefs  when  the  passengers  left. 
At  this  time  there  was  an  old  j)rison  van  in  the  Adelphi  arches,  without 
wheels,  in  which  we  used  to  sleej),  and  there  we  used  to  meet  a  man 
my  companions  called  "  Larry,"  who  gave  the  boys  almost  what  price 
he  liked  for  the  handkerchiefs. 

My  companions,  all  this  time,  had  been  very  kind,  sharing  what  they 
got  with  me,  but  often  asking  why  I  did  not  try  my  hand  at  the  trade, 
till  at  last  I  was  ashamed  to  live  any  longer  upon  the  food  they  gave  me 
without  earning  my  share.  So,  when  I  gave  expression  to  this  rather 
natural,  and  as  it  seems  to  me,  somewhat  commendable  feeling,  one  of 
the  boys,  Joe  Muckraw,  said  to  me,  that  when  the  next  boat  came  in,  if 
any  man  came  out  likely  to  carry  a  good  handkerchief,  he  would  let  me 
have  a  chance  at  it. 

Next  day  I  saw  an  elderly  gentleman  step  ashore,  and  a  lady  with 
him.  They  had  a  little  dog,  with  a  string  attached  to  it,  that  they  led 
along.  Before  Joe  reminded  me  of  my  determination,  he  stole  up  and 
"fanned"  the  gentleman's  j»ocket,  i.  e.,  felt  it  to  be  sure  there  was  a 
handkerchief  inside.     Then  he  whispered  '*  Now,  Dick,  have  a  try." 

I  went  to  the  old  gentleman's  side,  trembling  all  over,  and  Joe 
keeping  close  to  me  in  the  dark,  encouraging  me  all  the  time,  while  the 
old  gentleman  was  engaged  with  the  little  dog.  Lifting  up  the  tail  —  of 
the  coat,  not  the  dog,  T  mean  —  I  took  out  a  green  "kingsman  "  (  hand- 
kerchief ),  next  in  value  to  a  black  silk  handkerchief. 

I  did  it  so  quietly,  quickly,  and  naturally,  I  might  say,  that  the  gen- 
tleman di<l  not  perceive  his  loss.  We  immediately  went  to  the  arches 
and  entered  the  van  where  Larry  was,  and  Joe  said  to  him,  "This  is 
Dick's  first  trial,  and  you  must  give  him  a  'ray'  for  it,"  i.  e.,  one  shilling 
and  sixpence.     After  a  deal  of  pressing,  Larry  gave  us  a  shilling. 

After  that  I  gained  confidence,  and  in  the  course  of  a  few  weeks  I 
was  considered  the  cleverest  of  the  little  band,  never  missing  one  boat 
coming  in,  and  getting  one  or  two  handkerchiefs  each  time.  When  we 
knew  there  were  no  boats  coming  we  used  to  waste  our  money  on 
sweets  and  fruits,  and  went  often  in  the  evenings  to  the  Victoria  The- 
atre and  Bower  Saloon,  and  other  places.  When  we  came  out  at 
twelve  or  half-past  twelve  at  night,  we  went  to  the  arches  again  and 
sle])t  in  the  j>rison  van.  I  led  this  life  —  and  a  jolly  one  it  seemed  to 
mc?  then  —  for  a  year. 


TBAGE8  AMONG  GYPSIES,  BBIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.        127 

One  day  sereral  men  came  to  visit  tis,  and  they  oame  again,  telling 
us  pleasant  stories  of  high  life  and  fine  ladies  whom  they  knew.  I 
afterwards  learned  they  were  brought  by  "  Larry  "  to  study  me,  as  he 
had  been  speaking  of  my  cleverness  at  the  "tail,''  i.  e.,  stealing  from  the 
tsuls  of  gentlemen's  coats.  They  used  to  make  me  presents  and  speak 
very  kindly  to  me,  but  at  that  time  they  were  not  quite  satisfied  as  to 
my  abilities  or  capacity  for  taking  higher  rank  in  the  order. 

One  day,  having  grown  a  little  careless  in  my  methods,  I  was  seized 
by  a  gentleman  who  caught  me  with  his  handkerchief  in  my  handy 
and  I  was  sentenced  to  Bridewell  for  two  months.  The  day  of  my  re- 
lease I  felt  touched  and  honored  to  find  at  the  gate  a  cab  waiting  for 
me,  and  two  of  the  men  standing  by  who  had  often  made  me  presents 
and  spoken  to  me  in  the  arches.  They  took  me  to  their  own  home.  One 
of  them  had  the  first  floor  of  a  house,  the  other  had  the  second, 
and  both  had  wives,  women  exceedingly  pretty,  very  kind-hearted,  and, 
though  you  may  not  believe  me,  very  refined. 

I  found  out  shortly  afterwards  that  these  men  had  lately  had  a  boy 
with  them,  but  he  had  been  caught.,  sentenced,  and  transported  to  Aus- 
tralia about  that  time,  though  I  did  not  know  this  then.  They  gave 
me  plenty  to  eat,  and  one  of  the  women,  by  name  "  Emily,"  washed  and 
cleansed  me  —  I  was  wonderfully  dirty  —  and  gave  me  new  clothes 
to  put  on.  For  three  days  I  was  not  asked  to  do  anything,  but  in 
the  meantime  they  had  been  talking  to  me  of  going  with  them  and 
having  no  more  to  do  with  the  boys  at  the  Adelphi  or  with  the 
"  tiul,"  but  instead  to  try  the  finer,  more  difficult  and  aristocratic  work 
of  picking  ladies'  pockets. 

I  thought  it  more  difficult  at  first,  but  found  afterwards  that  it  was 
more  satisfactory  to  work  on  a  woman's  pocket  than  upon  a  man's,  for 
this  reason ;  more  persons  work  together,  and  the  boy  is  well  sur- 
rounded by  companions  older  than  himself,  and  is  shielded  from  the 
eyes  of  the  passers-by.     Besi<les,  it  pays  better. 

As  this  was  my  first  essay  in  having  anything  to  do  in  stealing  from 
a  woman,  I  believe  they  were  nervous  themselves,  but  they  had  well 
tutored  me  during  the  two  or  thr^e  days  I  had  been  out  of  prison. 
They  had  stood  against  me  in  the  room  while  Emily  walked  to  and  fro, 
and  I  had  practised  on  her  by  taking  out  sometimes  a  lady's  clasp 
purse,  termed  a  "  portemonnaie,"  and  other  articles  out  of  her  pocket, 
and  thus  I  was  not  quite  ignorant  of  what  was  expected  of  me. 

On  the  day  of  my  first  attempt  one  walked  in  front  of  me,  one  on 
my  right  hand,  and  the  other  m  the  rear,  and  I  had  the  lady  on  my 
left  hand.      I  immediately  <' fanned"   her   (felt  her  pocket),  as  she 


128  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

stopped  to  look  in  at  a  hosier's  window,  then  I  took  her  purse  and  gave 
it  to  one  of  them,  and  we  immediately  went  to  a  house  in  Giltspur 
Street.  We  there  examined  the  purse  and  found  about  two  sovereigns 
in  it.  The  purse  was  thrown  away,  as  is  the  general  rule,  and  that 
afternoon  I  found  four  more  purses  and  then  we  went  home  to  a  good 
supper,  after  which  we  laid  aside  entirely  the  cares  of  business  and  went 
to  the  theatre.  I  recollect  how  they  praised  me  that  night  for  my 
cleverness,  and  how  my  cheek  glowed  with  pride  at  their  praise. 

The  following  day  we  reaped  a  still  better  harvest.  It  amounted  to 
about  19£.  (nearly  $100)  each.  These  organized  gangs  always  take 
care  to  allow  the  boy  to  see  what  is  in  the  purse,  and  to  give  him  his 
proper  share,  equal  with  the  others,  because  he  is  their  sole  support. 
If  they  should  lose  him  they  would  be  unable  to  do  anything  until  they 
got  another.  Out  of  my  share,  I  bought  a  silver  watch  an<l  a  gold 
chain,  and  about  this  time  I  also  bought  an  elegant  little  overcoat  and 
carried  it  on  my  left  arm  to  cover  my  movements. 

But  men  devoted  to  monetary  pursuits  —  even  the  most  adroit  and 
careful  financiers,  —  for  instance,  think  of  Baring  Brothers  just  lately  — 
sometimes  have  their  turns  of  ill-luck  and  get  caught  on  the  wrong 
side  of  an  investment.  My  day  came.  I  saw  a  gentleman  stuff  a  roll 
of  bank  notes  in  his  waistcoat  pocket  and,  brushing  up  against  him,  I 
attempted  to  relieve  him.  It  landed  me  in  prison  for  three  months. 
During  that  time,  however,  I  did  not  grow  thin  on  prison  diet,  but 
was  kept  on  good  rations  supplied  to  me  through  the  kindness  of  my 
comrades  out  of  doors  bribing  the  turnkeys. 

When  I  came  out  we  began  to  attend  the  theatres  professionally, 
and  I  have  often  taken  as  many  as  six  or  seven  ladies'  purses  during 
the  crowding,  while  they  were  coming  out.  We  also  used  to  go  to 
the  great  races  on  business,  and  one  day  I  was  induced  by  my  comrades, 
much  against  my  will,  for  I  thought  it  was  too  risky,  to  turn  my  hand 
upon  two  ladies  as  they  were  stepping  into  a  carriage.  I  was  detected 
by  the  ladies  and  there  was  immediately  a  tremendous  outcry  and 
rush  for  me,  but  I  was  got  clear  by  two  of  my  comrades,  the  other 
throwing  himself  in  the  way,  and  keeping  the  pursuers  back;  for  which 
he  was  taken  up  on  suspicion,  committed  for  trial,  and  not  being  able 
to  explain  satisfactorily  who  he  was  and  why  he  stumbled  in  the  way 
of  persons  trying  to  seize  a  young  pickpocket,  my  pal  got  four  months 
imprisonment. 

We  got  another  man  in  his  j)lace  and  when  his  time  expired, 
went  down  to  meet  him,  and  he  did  not  go  out  hunting  with  us  for 
some  time  afterwards  —  nearly  a  fortnight.     After  awhile  one  of  the 


%taf^-  -''^r'^--^-^-T=^ 


TRACES    AMONG    GYPSIES,    BBIGANDS    AND   THIEVES.        129 

men  w;is  seized  with  a  (lecline,  and  died  at  Brompton,  in  the  hospital. 
Like  the  other  stalls,  as  men  are  called  who  help  in  a  quiet  way  as  the 
support  while  one  thief  plays  the  star  part,  he  usually  went  well- 
dressed  and  had  a  good  appearance.  His  chief  work  was  to  guard  me 
and  to  get  nie  out  of  difficulty  when  I  was  detected,  as  I  was  the 
mainstay  of  the  band. 

One  time  w^hen  I  was  caught,  liowcver,  my  imprisonment  was  so 
long  that  the  band  had  to  get  another  boy  in  my  place,  and  when  I 
came  out  I  decided  to  go  into  business  by  myself.  I  went  to  live 
in  Charles  Street,  ])rury  Lane,  and  I  stopped  there,  working  all 
alone  for  five  or  six  months,  till  T  got  accjuainted  with  a  young 
woman,  who  has  ever  since  been  devoted  to  me.  She  was  not  a 
thief  then,  but  soon  after  she  got  acquainted  with  me,  she  divined  that 
I  was.  At  first  it  troubled  her  terribly,  but  after  awhile  she  accepted 
it  as  destiny  and  became  one  herself,  even  more  expert  than  I,  although 
she  had  not  i)een  regularly  educated  in  stealing  as  I  was  when  young. 
We  married  after  the  usual  fashion  of  thieves  —  that  is,  for  as  lonjx  as 
we  should  agree.  Then  we  took  a  cou])le  of  rooms  and  went  to  house- 
keeping. I  soon  got  acquainted  with  sonu^  of  the  swell  mob  at  the 
Seven  Dials,  and  began  working  along  with  three  of  them  upon  tlie 
ladies'  ])urses  again. 

We  WQre  frequently  watched  by  the  j)olice  and  detectives,  who 
followed  our  track,  and  were  often  in  the  same  places  of  amusement 
with  us.  Hut  we  knew  them  as  well  as  thev  knew  us  and  often 
eluded  them.  Still  their  followini?  us  was  sometimes  the  cause  of  our 
doinjj  nothing  on  manv  of  these  occasions,  as  we  knew  their  eve  was 
upon  us. 

But  whether  I  became  too  well  known  to  the  police,  or  whether  in 
the  course  of  time  my  hand  lost  some  of  its  cunning,  the  fact  stared 
me  in  the  face  that  I  got  caught  more  frequently,  and  also  the  addi- 
tional fact  that  my  imprisonments  broke  down  my  health,  so  I  decided 
to  quit  stealing  and  earn  what  I  conld  as  a  street  ballad  singer.  Sally, 
however,  kept  on  stealing,  which  troubled  me.  So  after  trying  to  be 
honest  for  several  months,  I  told  her  if  she  was  not  satisfied  with 
what  I  was  earning  as  a  singer  I  would  resume  my  former  employ- 
ment. I  did  this  for  a  year,  but  was  arrested  three  times.  Each  time 
the  prosecutor  did  not  apjjcar  and  I  was  acquitted. 

Such  luck,  I  felt  certain,  could  not  happen  a  fourth  time  running, 
and  I  took  it  as  a  sign  of  my  last  chance  to  lead  an  honest  life.  I 
came  home  and  told  Sally  I  would  never  engage  in  stealing  again,  and 
I  have  kept  my  word.     Had  I  been  tried  at  this  time,  as  there  were  so 


130  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

many  former  convictions  against  me,  I  should  very  likely  have  been 
transported.  I  have  since  then  got  my  living  by  singing  in  the  streets. 
I  earn  my  28.  or  2s.  6d.  in  an  hour  or  an  hour  and  a  half  in  the  even- 
ing, and  can  make  a  shift.  It's  a  poor  calling,  but  it's  honester  than 
most  vocations,  isn't  it,  since  I  take  only  what  people  choose  to  give 
me? 

For  six  or  seven  years,  when  engaged  in  business,  I  earned  perhaps 
a  larger  amount  of  money  than  most  of  the  pocket- picking  profession. 
Our  house  expenses  many  weeks  would  average  from  4£  to  5£,  for  we 
lived  on  the  l)est  fare,  and  besides  we  went  to  theatres,  dressed  well, 
and  bought  the  best  editions  of  the  best  authors.  I  was  always  very 
much  interested  in  the  attempts  of  writers  to  depict  thieves.  Very 
few  of  the  popular  novelists  come  anywhere  near  a  knowledge  of  the 
natures  of  thieves,  or  can  even  give  a  fair  descnption  of  the  incidents 
of  their  lives.  The  truth  is,  a  pickpocket,  till  he  rises  fo  the  rank  of  a 
burglar,  differs  very  little  in  his  moral  and  mental  makeup  from  your 
average  merchant  in  any  large  city  like  London.     Why  so? 

Well,  I  maintain  that  unless  you  give  a  man  a  full  equivalent  for 
what  he  gives  you,  you  pick  his  pocket.  To  make  a  profit — to  get 
something  for  nothing  or  to  get  more  than  you  give — is  it  not 
stealing  ?  When  a  pickpocket  graduates  into  burglary,  another  element 
comes  in, —  the  risk  of  life  and  limb  is  added  —  and  the  possibility,  the 
probability  of  becoming  a  murderer,  completes  the  criminal  natare, 
and  makes  the  man  a  man-wolf.  Consider  a  moment.  In  my  life,  I 
have  picked  about  four  thousand  pockets,  mostly  from  people  who 
could  afford  once  in  their  lives  to  be  thus  taxed.  Will  you  not  admit 
that  nearly  every  very  great  manufacturer  or  commercial  speculator 
takes,  under  cover  of  law,  more  out  of  the  pockets  of  the  honest,  hard- 
working, producing  class  in  the  course  of  his  life  than  all  the  pick- 
pockets of  London  put  together  could  amass? 

Or  even  take  a  burglar  for  the  sake  of  argument.  I  don't  aspire  to 
be  one,  for  I  am  timid  and  shrink  at  the  thought  of  risking  or  of 
taking  human  life.  But  say  that  an  industrious  burglar  in  his  business 
life  kills  two  or  three  men.  What  does  that  amount  to,  compared  with 
the  thousands  which  my  dear  native  country,  England,  has  killed  in 
Africa  during  this  century  just  for  the  sake  of  extending  her  com- 
merce ?  Indeed,  I  think  I'd  rather  be  the  worst  of  London  burglars 
than  Napoleon  the  Great,  if  quantity  as  well  as  quality  counts  in  a 
consideration  of  murder.  Yes,  j)ickpockets  generally  the  world  over 
know  each  other,  for  there's  a  kind  of  free  masonry  among  thieves.  I 
ean  pick  out  a  thief  as  quick  as  a  pocket,  whenever  I  see  him. 


TRACES   AMONG   GYl^IES,   BRIGANDS  AND   THIBVES.        181 

IHckpockets  in  any  large  city  are  generally  well  acquainted  with 
-each  other,  go  visiting  like  or(]inary  people,  and  liave  their  parties  at 
which  times  they  generally  "  sink  the  shop,"  and  except  for  an 
occasional  phrase  you  might  not  know  their  occupation.  They  help 
iheir  comrades  in  difficulty.  They  frequently  meet  with  the  burglars 
bat  do  not  associate  with  them,  unless  they  join  tlieni  formally  and 
give  up  pockets.  Most  of  the  women  of  pickpockets  and  burglars  are 
shoplifters,  as  they  often  have  to  support  themselves  when  their  Ims- 
hands  are  in  prison.  Then,  too,  a  woman  would  not  he  considered  a 
Jielpmeet  or  fair,  square  mate   for  a  man,  unless  she  were    able    to 


procure  legal  counsel  for  iiim  whfri  c;mght,  and  to  keep  him  in  clover 
for  a  few  days  after  he  gets  out  of  jirison,  which  she  does  by  shop- 
lifting or  picking  pnckels.  I  have  associated  a  good  deal  with  the 
pick-pockets  over  London  in  different  districts.  You  cannot  easily  cal- 
culate their  weekly  income,  as  it  is  so  precarious,  jicrhaps  one  day  get- 
ting 20£  or  30£,  and  another  day  being  totally  unsuccessful.  They  are 
in  general  very  superatitious,  and  if  anything  cross  them,  they  will  do 
nothing.  If  they  see  a  person  they  have  formerly  robbed,  they  expect 
bad  luck,  and  will  not  attempt  anything  that  day. 


182  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

They  are  very  generous  in  helping  each  other,  when  they  get  into 
difficulty  or  trouble,  but  have  no  societies,  as  they  could  not  be  kept 
up.  Many  of  them  may  be  in  prison  five  or  six  months  of  the  year; 
some  may  get  a  long  penal  servitude,  or  transportation  ;  or  they  may 
have  the  steel  taken  out  of  them,  and  give  uj)  this  restless  criminal  life. 

They  do  not  generally  find  stealing  gentlemen's  watches  so  profita- 
ble as  picking  la<lies'  pockets,  for  this  reason,  that  the  purse  can  be 
thrown  away,  some  of  the  coins  changed,  and  they  may  set  to  work 
again  immediately ;  whereas,  when  they  take  a  watch,  they  must  go 
immediately  to  the  fence ^  with  it ;  it  is  not  safe  to  keep  it  on  their  per- 
son. A  good  silver  watcli  will  now  bring  little  more  than  25s.,  or 
30s.,  even  if  tlie  watch  has  cost  G£.  A  good  gold  watch  will  not  fetch 
above  4£.  I  have  worked  for  two  or  three  hours,  and  have  got,  per- 
haps, six  different  purses  during  that  time,  throwing  the  purses  away 
at  once,  so  that  the  rol)l>ery  might  not  be  traced.  Suppose  you  take  a 
watch,  and  you  place  it  in  your  pocket,  while  you  have  also  your  own 
watch.  If  you  hap|>en  to  bo  detected  you  are  searched,  and  there 
being  a  second  watch  found  on  you,  the  evidence  is  complete. 

The  trouser8-]>ocljets  are  seldom  picked,  except  in  a  crowd.  It  is 
almost  impossible  to  do  this  on  any  other  occasion,  such  as  when  walk- 
ing in  the  street.  The  cleverest  of  the  native  London  thieves,  in 
general,  are  the  Irish  cockneys,  that  is,  London  children  of  Irish 
])arenta£re. 

I  never  learned  any  business  or  trade,  and  never  did  a  hard  day's 
work  in  my  life  excej)t  in  prison.  When  men  in  my  position  take  to  an 
honest  employment,  they  are  sometimes  i)ointed  out  by  some  of  the 
police  as  having  been  formerly  convicted  thieves,  and  are  often  dis- 
missed from  service,  and  are  driven  back  into  criminal  courses. 

There  is  to  some  natures  anjong  us  thieves,  for  we  are  not  all  alike, 
a  certain  zest  in  our  criminal  life,  an  intense  ple:isure  in  liberty  because 
we  do  not  know  how  lont^  we  may  enjoy  it.  This  cruel  uncertaintv 
strengthens  very  often  the  attachment  between  pickpockets  and  their 
women,  who,  I  believe,  have  a  stronger  liking  to  each  other,  in  many 
cases,  than  married  ]>eople  engaged  in  safer  businesses. 

Would  I  rather  be  honest  than  j)ick  pockets?  Yes,  I  think  I  would, 
though  occasionally,  when  I  see  a  fine  silk  handkerchief  gently  bulging 
out  a  gentleman's  coat-tail-pocket,  my  fingers  have  a  momentary  twitch 
and  itch  that  carries  me  back  on  memory's  express  train  to  the  days  of 
my  boyhood  when  I  slept  in  the  dark  arches  of  the  Adelphi  and  was 
the  cleverest  of  my  gang  at  "the  tail." 

Their  tenu  for  a  receiver  of  stolen  ptxKi?*. 


TBACBS  AMONG  GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.        138 

There  is  a  language  current  amongst  them  that  is  to  1x3  met 
with  in  no  popular  dictionary.  Probably  not  even  the  "slang  dic- 
tionary*' contains  more  than  a  few  of  the  following  instances  that 
may  be  accepted  as  genuine.  It  will  he  seen  that  the  prime  essen- 
tial of  "Thieves'  Latin"  is  brevity.  By  its  use,  much  in  one  or 
two  words  may  be  conveyed  to  a  comrade  wliile  rapidly  passing 
him  in  the  street,  or,  should  opportunity  serve,  during  a  \'i8it  to 
him  while  in  prison. 

For  instance,  to  erase  the  original  name  or  numlxjr  from  a  stolen 
watch  and  substitute  one  that  is  fictitious  is  called  christenhig 
Jack.  To  take  the  works  from  one  watch  and  case  them  in 
another,  churching  Jack.  Poultry'  stealing  is  styled  beak  hunthig. 
One  who  filches  from  a  shopkeeper  while  j)i-etendin^  to  effect  an 
honest  purchase  is  a  bouncer. 

One  who  entices  another  to  play  a  game  at  which  cheating 
rules,  such  as  card  or  skittle  sharping,  is  a  butfoner.  The  treadmill 
of  a  prison  is  named  a  shin  scraper,  possibly  ou  account  of  the 
operator's  liability,  if  he  is  not  careful,  to  get  his  shins  scraped 
by  the  ever-revolving  wheel. 

To  commit  burglary  is  to  crack  a  cane  or  break  a  drum.  The 
van  that  conveys  prisoner  to  jail  is  a  Black  Maria.  A  thief 
who  robs  cabs  or  caiTiages  by  climbing  up  Ix^hind,  and  cutting  the 
stra{)B  that  secure  the  luggage  on  the  roof  is  a  firaf/nman^  while 
he  who  trains  young  thieves,  like  Fagiii  in  *M)liver  Twist,"  is  a 
kidsman. 

Breaking  a  square  of  gliuss  is  (!alled  »tarring  the  glaze.  To  be 
transported  or  sent  to  penal  servitude  is  being  Jagged.  Tlii'ee 
years'  imprisonment  is  a  stretchy  while  by  some  defect  in  thieves' 
arithmetic  a  half  stretch  is  only  six  months.  A  confederate  in  the 
practice  of  thimble-rigging  is  a  nobler.  To  rol)  a  till  is  to  pinch 
a  hob. 

One  who  assists  at  a  sham  street  row  for  the  purpose  of  creat- 
ing a  mob  and  promoting  roblxjry  from  the  person  is  a  jolly.  A 
thief  who  secures  goods  in  a  shop  while  a  confederate  distracts 
the  attention  of  the  shopkeeper  is  entitled  a  palmer.  A  person  or 
place  marked  for  plunder  is  denominated  a  plant.  Going  out  to 
steal  linen  that  is  drying  in  gardens  is  picturesquely  phrased 
as  going  9nowing.     Stolen   property  generally  is   sicag.     To  go 


184  THE  STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

about  half  naked  to  excite  compassion  is  to  be  on  the  shallow. 
Stealing  lead  from  the  roofs  of  houses  is  technically  termed  flying 
the  blue  pigeon.  Coiners  of  bad  money  are  hit  fakers^  while  mid- 
night prowlers  who  rob  drunken  men  are  facetiously  nicknamed 
Img  hunters.  Entering  a  dwelling-house  while  the  family  have 
gone  to  church  is  a  dead  lark.  When  a  man  is  convicted  of 
thieving  he  is  in  for  a  vamp.  A  city  missionary  or  Scripture 
reader  is  a  gospel  grinder.  When  hidden  from  the  police  a  thief  is 
said  to  be  laid  up  in  lavender.  Forged  banknotes  are  queer  screens. 
To  receive  a  whipping  while  in  prison  is  called  having  scroby  or 
claws  for  breakfast.  Long-fingered  thieves,  expert  in  emptying 
ladies'  pockets,  are  fine  wirers.  The  condemned  cell  is  the  salt 
box.  The  prison  chaplain  is  rather  aptly  styled  Lady  Green.  A 
boy  thief,  lithe  and  thin  and  daring,  such  a  one  as  house-breakers 
hire  for  the  purpose  of  entering  a  small  window  at  the  rear  of 
a  dwelling-house,  is  a  little  snakesman. 

So  pertinaciously  do  the  inliabitants  of  criminal  colonies  stick 
to  their  "Latin,"  that  a  well-known  Avriter  suggests  that  special 
religious  tracts,  suiting  their  condition,  should  be  printed  in  this 
language,  as  an  almost  certain  method  of  securing  their  attention. 
But  if  an  acquaintance  with  the  thieves'  quarters  reveals  to  one 
the  amazing  subtlety  and  cleverness  of  the  pilfering  fraternity,  it 
also  teaches  the  guilty  fear,  the  wretchedness,  the  moral  guilt,  and 
the  fearful  hardships  that  fall  to  the  lot  of  the  professional  thief. 

They  are  never  safe  for  a  moment,  and  this  unceasing  jeopardy 
produces  a  constant  nervousness.  Sometimes  when  visiting  the 
sick,  a  minister  who  spent  his  life  among  them  would  gently  lay 
his  hand  on  the  shoulder  of  one,  who  happened  to  be  standing  in 
the  street.  The  man  would  "start  like  a  guilty  thing  upon  a 
fearful  summons,"  and  it  would  take  him  two  or  three  minutes 
to  recover  his  self-possession.  The  adage,  "Suspicion  always 
haunts  the  guilty  mind,"  is  painfully  illustrated  in  the  thieves' 
quarter  by  the  faces  of  gray-haired  criminals,  whose  hearts  liave 
been  worn  into  hardness  by  the  dishonoring  chains  of  transpor- 
tation. When,  in  the  dusk,  one  speaks  to  a  London  thief  in  a 
low  tone,  the  guilty  start  as  the  man  l^nds  forward,  anxiously 
peering  into  the  speaker's  face,  is  a  thing  frightful  to  behold. 

He  is  never  at  rest,  the  wretched  professional  thief.     He  goes 


TRACES   AMONG   GYPSIES,   BRIGANDS   AND  THIEVES.        135 

about  with  the  tools  of  war  perpetually  in  his  hands,  and  with 
enemies  in  the  front  and  the  rear,  to  the  right  and  the  left  of 
him.  "Anybody,  to  hear  'em  talk,"  a  thief  once  remarked  (he 
was  a  thief  at  that  time  in  possession  of  liberty ;  not  an  incar- 
cerated rogue  plying  "gammon"  as  the  incarcerated  rogue  loves 
to  ply  it,  for  the  sake  of  securing  sympathy  as  a  stepping-stone  to 
something  else),  "anybody  would  think  to  hear  'em  talk,  that  it 
was  all  sugar  with  us  while  we  were  free,  and  that  our  sufferin's 
did  not  begin  until  we  were  caught  and  'put  awa:;  Them  that 
think  so  know  nothin'  about  it.  Take  a  case,  i)*>  ^j,  of  a  man  who 
is  in  for  gettin'  his  livin'  'on  tlie  cross,'  and  wi^o  luis  got  a  'kid' 
or  two,  and  their  mother,  at  home.  I  don't  ^.ay  it  is  vvj  cjise,  but 
you  can  take  it  so  if  you  like.  She  isn't  a  thief.  Ask  her  what 
she  knows  about  me  and  she'll  tell  you  that,  wuss  luck,  I've  got 
in  CO.  with  some  bad  uns,  and  she  wishes  that  I  liadn't.  She 
wishes  that  I  hadn't,  p'r'aps,  — not  out  of  any  Goody-two  shoes 
feelin',  but  because  she  loves  me.  That's  the  name  of  it;  we 
haint  got  any  other  word  for  the  feelin' ;  and  slie  can't  bear  to 
think  that  I  may,  any  hour,  be  dragged  off  for  six  montlis,  or  a 
year,  p'r'aps.  And  them's  my  feelin's  too,  and  no  mistake,  day 
after  day,  and  Sundays  as  well  as  week  days.  She  isn't  fonder  of 
me  than  I  am  of  her,  I'll  go  bail  for  that;  and  as  for  the  kids, 
the  girl  especially,  why,  I'd  skid  a  wagon  Avhecl  with  my  l>ody 
rather  than  her  precious  skin  should  be  grazed.  WtOl,  take  my 
word  for  it,  I  never  go  out  in  the  morniir,  and  the  young  un  sez 
'good-by,'  but  what  I  think  'good-by, — yes  I  p'r'iips  it's  good-by 
for  a  longer  spell  than  you're  dream  in'  about,  you  poor  little 
shaver!'  And  when  I  get  out  into  the  street,  how  long  am  I 
safe?  Why,  only  for  the  straight  length  of  that  street,  as  far  as 
I  can  see  the  coast  clear.  I  may  find  a  stopper  at  any  turnin',  or 
at  any  corner.  And  when  you  r/o  feel  the  hand  on  your  collar  I 
I've  often  wondered  what  must  be  a  eha})'s  feelin's  when  the 
white  cap  is  pulled  over  his  })eepers,  and  old  Caleraft  is  j)awin' 
about  his  throat  to  get  the  rope  right.  It  must  be  a  sight  woi-se 
than  the  other  feelin',  you'll  say.  Well,  if  it  is,  I  wonder  how 
long  the  chap  manages  to  hold  up  till  he's  let  go!  " 

Many  a  thief  is  kept  in  reluctant  bondage  to  crime  from  the 
difficulties  he  finds  in  obtaining  honest  employment  and  earning 


186  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

honest  bread,  yet  some  thieves  are  fond  of  their  criminal  calling. 
They  will  tell  you  plainly  that  they  do  not  intend  to  work  hard 
for  five  dollars  a  week  when  they  can  easily  earn  five  times  as 
much  by  thieving,  in  less  time,  and  live  like  gentlemen.  But 
some  are  utterly  weaiy  of  the  hazard  and  disgrace.  They  were 
once  pure,  honest  and  industrious,  and  when  sick,  or  in  jail,  they 
are  frequently  filled  with  bitter  remorse,  and  make  the  strongest 
vows  to  have  done  with  a  guilty  life. 

Suppose  a  man  of  this  sort  in  jnison.  His  eyes  are  opened, 
and  he  sees  before  him  the  gulf  of  utter  ruin  into  which  he  will 
soon  be  plunged.  He  knows  well  enough  that  the  money  earned 
by  thieving  goes  as  ftist  as  it  comes,  and  that  there  is  no  prospect 
of  his  ever  being  able  to  retire  on  his  ill-gotten  gains.  He  comes 
out  of  prison  det^jrmined  to  reform.  But  where  is  he  to  go? 
What  is  lie  to  do?  How  is  he  to  live?  Whatever  may  have 
been  done  for  him  in  prison  is  of  little  or  no  avail,  if  as  soon  iis 
he  leaves  the  jail  he  must  go  into  the  world  branded  with  crime, 
unprotected  and  unhelped. 

The  discharged  prisoner  must  be  friendly  with  some  one,  and 
he  must  live.  His  criminal  friends  will  entertain  him  on  the 
understood  condition  that  they  are  to  be  repaid  from  the  Ix)oty  of 
his  next  depredation.  Thus  the  first  food  he  eats,  and  the  firet 
friendly  chat  he  has,  lK»conie  the  half-necessitating  initiative  of 
future  crime.  Frequently  the  newly  discharged  prisoner  passes 
through  a  round  of  riot  and  drunkenness  immediately  on  his 
i-elease  from  a  long  incareeratioi),  as  any  other  man  might  do  in 
similar  circumstances  who  has  no  fixed  principles  to  sustain  him. 
And  so  ])y  reason  of  the  rebound  of  newly  fioquired  lil)erty,  and 
the  influence  of  the  old  set,  the  man  is  agiiin  demoralized. 
The  discharged  prisoner  may  leave  jail  with  good  resolves  but 
the  moment  he  enters  the  world  there  arises  before  him  the  dark 
and  specti*al  danger  of  l)eing  hunted  down  by  the  police,  of 
l^eing  recognized  and  insulted,  of  being  shunned  and  despised 
by  his  fellow-workmen,  of  being  everywhere  contemned  and 
forsaken. 

One  cannot  live  amongst  the  thieves  many  months  and  study 
them  closely,  without  discovering  the  fa  till  fact  that  they  have 
no  faith  in  the  sincerity,  honesty,  or  goodness  of  human  nature ; 


TRACES  AMONG   GYPSIES,   BKIGANDS  AND  THIEVES.        187 

and  that  this  last  and  saddest  scepticism  of  the  human  heart 
is  one  of  the  most  powerful  influences  at  work  in  the  continua- 
tion of  crime.  They  believe  people  in  general  to  be  no  better 
than  themselves,  and  that  most  people  will  do  a  wrong  thing  if 
it  serves  their  purpose.  They  consider  themselves  better  than 
many  "square"  people  who  practise  commercial  frauds,  and  in 
this  point,  perhaps,  they  are  nearly  right. 

Not  having  a  spark  of  faith  in  human  nature,  their  case  is  all 
but  hopeless,  and  only  those  who  have  tried  the  experiment  can 
tell  liow  difficult  it  is  to  make  a  thief  believe  that  you  are  really 
disinterested  and  mean  him  well.  But  thieves,  the  worst  of 
them,  speak  gloomily  of  the  prospects  of  the  fraternity,  just  as  a 
red  Indian  might  complain  of  the  dwindling  of  his  tribe  I^efore 
the  strong  march  of  advancing  civilization. 

Although,  as  most  people  are  aware,  the  great  thief  tribe 
reckons  amongst  its  number  an  upper,  a  middle  and  a  lower 
class,  pretty  much  as  corresponding  grades  of  station  are  recog- 
nized amongst  the  honest  community,  it  is  doubtful,  in  the  former 
case,  if  promotion  from  one  stage  to  another  may  be  gained  by 
individual  entei-prise,  talent  and  industry.  The  literature  of  * 
the  country  is  from  time  to  time  enriched  by  bragging  autobiogra- 
phies of  confessed  villains,  as  well  as  by  tlie  penitent  revelations 
of  reclaimed  rogues,  but  it  does  not  appear  tliat  pei*severance  in 
the  humbler  walks  of  crime  leads  to  the  highway  of  infamous 
prosperity. 

This,  indeed,  seems  to  be  an  idea  too  preposterous  even  for 
the  pages  of  Newgate  romance,  daring  in  their  flights  of  fancy  as 
are  the  authors  affecting  that  delectable  line.  There  is  no  sinister 
antithesis  of  the  well-known  honest  boy  Whittington,  who  tramped 
from  Bristol  to  London  with  twopence-halfpenny,  or  five  cents,  in 
his  pocket,  and  afterwards  became  lord  mayor.  No  low-browed 
ragged  little  tliief,  who  began  his  career  by  purloining  a  turnip 
from  a  costemionger's  barrow,  is  immortalized  in  the  pages  of  the 
Newgate  Calendar  as  having  finally  arrived  at  the  high  distinc- 
tion of  wearing  fine  clothes  and  ranking  as  the  first  of  swell 
mobsmen,  or  as  a  brilliant  and  fashionable  burglar. 

On  the  contrary  it  is  a  fatal  fact,  and  should  have  weight  with 
aspirants  for  the  convict's  mask  and  badge,  that  the  poor,  shabby, 


188  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

hard-working  thief  so  remains  till  tlie  end  of  his  days.  There  is 
no  more  chance  of  his  carrying  his  shameful  figure  and  miserable 
hangdog  visage  into  the  tip-top  society  of  his  order,  than  there  is 
of  a  camel  threading  his  way  through  the  eye  of  a  needle  or  a  Jay 
Gould  repenting  and  restoring  his  legalized  plunder  to  the  people. 

Shocking  enough  is  it  to  contemplate  the  white-haired  tottering 
criminal  holding  on  to  the  front  of  the  dock 'because  he  dares  not 
trust  entirely  his  quaking  legs,  and  with  no  more  to  urge  in  his 
defence  than  Fagin  liad  when  it  came  to  the  last,  —  "  an  old  man, 
my  lord,  a  very  old  man" ;  and  we  give  him  our  pity  ungrudg- 
ingly, because  we  are  no  longer  troubled  with  fears  of  his  hos- 
tility as  regards  the  present  or  the  future.  It  is  all  over  with 
him  or  very  nearly.  The  grave  yawns  for  him,  and  we  cannot 
help  feeling  that  after  all  he  has  hurt  himself  much  more  than  us. 

No,  it  is  not  those  who  have  run  the  length  of  their  tether 
of  crime  that  society  has  to  fear,  but  those  who  by  reason  of  their 
tender  age  are  as  yet  but  feeble  toddlera  on  the  road  that  leads 
to  the  hulks.  It  would  \)e  instructive  iis  well  as  of  great  ser- 
vice to  humanity,  if  reliable  infonnation  could  be  obtiiined  as 
to  the  beginning  ct  tlie  down-hill  journey  by  our  juvenile 
criminals.  Without  doubt  it  would  l>e  found  that  in  a  lament- 
ably large  numlxir  of  cases  the  iK^ginning  did  not  arise  in  the 
present  transgressoi-s  at  all,  but  that  they  were  bred  and  nurtured 
in  it,  inheriting  it  from  their  parents  as  certain  forms  of  phys- 
ical disease  are  inlierited. 

One  tiling,  at  least,  is  certain  ;  it  would  come  much  cheaper  to 
every  country  if  these  Inidding  burglai's  and  pickpockets  were 
caught  up,  Ixjfore  their  natures  l^ecame  too  thoroughly  pickled  in 
the  brine  of  rascality,  and  caged  away  from  the  community  at 
large.  Boy  thieves  are  the  most  mischievous  and  wasteful. 
They  will  mount  a  house  roof,  and  for  the  sake  of  appropriating 
the  thirty  cents'  worth  of  lead  that  forms  its  gutter,  cause  such 
damasfe  as  only  a  builder's  bill  of  a  hundred  dollars  or  so  will  set 
right. 

The  other  day  a  boy  stole  a  family  Bible  valued  at  twelve  dol- 
lai-s,  and  after  wrenching  off  the  gilt  clasps,  threw  the  book  into 
a  sewer;  the  clas[)s  he  sold  to  a  marine  store  dealer  for  five  cents. 
It  may  be  fairly  assumed  in   the  ciuse  of  boy  thieves,  who  are  so 


TBAOE8   AMONQ    GTPBrES,    BRIGANDS   AND  IHIBVXS.        189 

completely  in  the  hands  of  others  that,  before  they  can  "  make  " 
ior  themselves  five  dollars  in  cash,  they  must,  as  a  rule,  steal 
goods  to  the  value  of  at  least  forty  dollars,  and  sometimes  double 
as  much.  But  let  us  put  the  loss  by  exchange  at  its  lowest,  and 
say  that  the  hoy  thief  gets  a  fourth  of  the  value  of  what  he  steals; 
before  he  can  earn  by  Odeving  as  umch  as  fifty  cents  a  day,  he  must 
rob  to  the  amount  of  twelve  dollars  a  week,  — allowing  him  his 
Sunda^-3  off  —  or,  in  short,  to  live  as  decently  as  our  common 
laborers,  the  hoy  must  steal  to  the  value  of  $624  per  annum. 
Now,  whatever  less  aura  than  this  it  would  cost  the  State  to  edu- 
cate, clothe  and  teach  him,  the  [>eople 
at  large  would  be  in  pocket. 

Yet  infinitely  worse  in  its  conse- 
quences than  the  \yetty  larceny  or  the 
burglaiy  thsit  are  the  precarious  profes- 
sions of  outlawed  unfortunates  Ja  our 
great  cities  is  the  theft  which  goes  on 
right  under  the  noses  of  neiirly  every 
community  in  the  "way  of  commerce; 
the  theft,  and  sometimes  slow  munler, 
which  is  called  adultei-ation  of  fond. 
Possibly  this  commen;ial  robbery  is  not 
so  common  in  this  country  as  in  Enfj- 
land,  but  there  is  good  ground  for 
believing  that  in  many  places  adulter- 
ation is  sj-stematic  and  inerciisiiig,  and 
recently  a  bill  has  been  introduced  in  Congi-ess  for  an  extension 
of  the  Bureau  of  Agriculture  by  tlie  appointment  of  fiwid  in- 
spectors, whose  duties  should  be  the  buying  of  foml  in  ilifferent 
shoiM,  and  the  having  such  specimens  chemically  analyzed. 

In  addition  to  the  fact  that  bad  bread  niadi;  by  private  enter- 
prise sa^js  the  national  health,  chithing  made  in  tenement  houses 
spreads  fevere,  and  the  jiiMnly  built,  imperfectly  ventilated  houses 
in  which  the  jwior  and  the  lower  middle  class  live  cause  diseases 
ht>m  which  occasionally  the  rich  die  as  well  jw  the  \Mor  ^-ictima 
of  plutocratic  greed  or  stupidity.  We  shall  read  in  a  laterchapter 
about  the  Ju^emaut  o£  India,  but  it  is  merely  a  toy  monster  com- 
pared to  the  Jug^niaut  of  Avarice  and  Ignorance,  under  whose 


140  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

wheels  the  masses  are  being  crushed  in  many  nations  that  have 
the  amazing  effrontery  to  call  themselves  civilized.  Even  in  free 
and  supposedly  prosperous  America  between  the  years  1850  and 
1880,  the  percentage  of  criminals  more  than  trebled,  and  the 
percentage  of  lunatics  more  than  quadrupled.  Does  not  this  fact 
seem  to  imply  that  there  is  something  wrong  somewhere  in  our 
present  industrial  system?  Why,  in  a  land  so  blessed  by  nature, 
should  such  cui-ses  as  these  be  on  the  increase?  Will  the  reader 
study  for  a  few  moments  these  figures  and  facts  from  the  last 
census,  and  then  draw  a  just  conclusion?  Our  population  is 
alKmt  04,000,000.  Our  national  wealth  is  about  $65,000,000,000 
—  sixtv-five  billions. 

This  wealth  is  divided  among  three  cliisses  as  foUo'vs : 

182,000  rich  families  own $43,000,000,000 

l,20f),000  middUsclass  familieK  own     .     .       7,500,000,000 
11,(520,000  working-class  families  own  .     .     11,200,000,000 

Allowing  five  i)ei*sons  to  a  family,  the  usual  method  amor^g 
stiitisticuans,  each  rich  pei-son  averages  a  having  of  $47,253,  each 
middle  class  man  or  woman  owns  on  an  average  $1,250,  and  each 
meml)er  of  the  toiling  legion  which  composes  the  bulk  of  the 
poj)ulation  and  produces  the  bulk  of  the  wealth,  possesses  $193. 

These  figures  and  calculations  are  not  those  of  any  wild-eyed, 
wide-mouthed  demagogue,  but  are  put  forth  by  Mr.  Thomas  G. 
Sheannan,  a  New  York  millionnaire.  What  do  they  mean?  Do 
the}'  not  suggest  a  reasonable  cause  for  the  spread  of  pauperism, 
the  rise  of  crime  and  the  possibly  near  fall  of  our  civilization,  as 
many  a  si)lendid  but  unbalanced  society  has  fallen  —  witness 
Kabylon,  Athens,  and  Home  I  —  into  corruption  and  chaos? 

Wlmtever  politicians  of  any  party  may  say,  national  wealth  is 
not  national  health,  unless  it  is  well  distributed.  Let  the  reader 
ask  himself  not  once,  in  reading  these  lines,  but  often  in  the 
future,  two  questions :  Is  there  not  something  wrong  somewhere, 
no  matter  how  personally  prosperous  or  successful  I,  juM  this 
momf'jit,  miy  ba;  and  is  not  "this  wrong  something"  our  present 
industrial  system  which  enriches  the  few  at  the  expense  of  the 
many  ? 


IV. 


THE  kind  of  government  of  which  the  eliief  idea  is  em- 
bodied in   the  word   feudalism,   imd  which  w^as    once 
the  prevalent  form  in  Eiiroi)e,  as  we  see  it  to-day  in 
Central  and  Western  Africa,  presents  many  features  of 
intense  interest.     Iloughly  speaking,  it  is  a  government  of  chiefs 
witli  a  sort  of  loose  or  elastic  allegiance  to  a  liead  chief  or  king. 

European  feudalism  gi*ew  to  be  a  much  more  elaborate  system 
than  that  which  Africa  now  exhibits,  and  an  explanation  of  it  will 
be  found  in  a  note  to  the  chapter  on  constitutional  monarchy  ;  but 
the  essential  marks  are  the  same,  the  deg-ree  of  alleuriance  to  the 
central  chief,  that  is,  the  power  possessed  by  the  king,  varying 
considerably  among  the  different  tribes,  probably  according  to  the 
length  of  time  of  their  divergence  from  the  sim[)le  democracy  of 
original  tribal  government  as  outlined  in  chapter  first. 

All  the  Central  Afric!an  governments,  for  instance,  though 
feudal,  are  more  or  less  despotic.  Among  tluj  Manganja  the 
country  is  divided  up  into  a  number  of  districts,  each  of  which 
has  under  its  control  some  villages;  but  each  of  these  districts,  or 
"Rundos,"  as  they  are  called,  is  independent  of  the  other,  not 
even  acknowledging  a  common  chief.  Each  village  pays  tribute 
to  the  Rundo,  which  in  its  turn  protects  and  assists  it  in  time  of 
trouble.     In  fact,  the  system  is  not  unlike  that  of  the  Swiss  can- 

141 


142  THK   STOKY   OF   GOVEKNMENT, 

tons,  or  the  American  states;  "state  riglits,"  however,  being  i-ather 
further  advanced  in  the  Black-kingly  Republic  than  in  the 
European  or  Transatlantic  democratic  one.  A  woman  may  also 
be  chief  of  a  Rundo,  and  they  are  said  to  exercise  their  authority 
veiy  judiciously. 

The  Banyai,  a  trilxi  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  Zambesi,  elect 
their  chiefs,  but  always  out  of  ^ne  famil}',  though  they  never  select 
the  immediate  descendants  ot  the  late  monarch,  but  always  some 
relative,  sucli  as  a  nephew  or  brother.  It  is  ficcounted  etiquette 
for  the  newl}'  elected  chief  to  affect  an  air  of  modesty,  and  a  seem- 
ing desire  to  decline  the  i)roflfered  honoi-s  as  too  great  for  a  man 
of  his  rank,  ability  and  ambition.  In  fact,  he  expects  to  be 
"thrice,"  or  a  greater  numl)er  of  times,  offered  the  "kingly 
crown " ;  but,  unlike  his  Roman  prototype,  there  is  no  case  on 
record  in  which  the  honor  was  eventuall}'  refused. 

The  new  chief  not  only  inherits  the  property,  but  also  the 
wives  and  children  of  his  predecessoi-s,  though  often  one  of  the 
sons  of  the  former  chief  considei-s,  quite  mituiully,  that  he  is  not 
to  be  kept  iii  su])servienct)  to  tlie  new  monai-ch,  and  attempts  to 
set  up  as  a  i)etty  chief  for  himself,  an  attempt  whicli  generally 
results  in  his  having  his  village  burnt  alxmt  his  eai-s,  Jis  a  gentle 
hint  that  he  had  better  receive  liis  superior  in  a  proj>er  man- 
ner—  viz.,  by  clapping  of  hands,  the  common  method  of  salutii- 
tion  amont^  most  of  these  African  tril)es. 

Among  tlie  lianyai  it  is  the  custom  for  wealthy  men  to  send 
their  sons  to  be  educated,  under  some  man  of  eminence,  in  all 
the  duties  and  accomplishments  of  Banyai  gentlemen,  just  as  in 
former  times  in  Europe  the  sons  of  gentlemen  were  sent  as  pages 
and  escpiires  to  be  trained  in  the  laws  of  cliivahy  under  some 
jmissant  knight. 

Among  the  Wahunuis  a  cuiious  law  ])ie vails.  If  anyone 
becomes  a  slave  —  whicli  it  is  uiniecessary  to  say  is  always  an 
involuntiiry  act  —  he  or  she  is  ])ut  to  deatli  when  caught  again  by 
their  own  people,  becaust?  b}'  so  doing  they  have  broken  one  of  the 
laws  of  their  country.  Speke  witnessed  an  instance  in  which 
some  women  were  actually  put  to  death  b}^  their  own  husbands. 

Theft  is  generally  severely  punished  in  Africa,  if  it  is  committed 
on  any  of  their  own  tribe.     The  Karagues  punish  this  crime  with 


144  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

imprisonment  in  the  stocks,  often  for  months  at  a  time.  Let  a 
man  strike  another  with  a  stick,  and  he  can  expiate  the  offence 
by  paying  ten  goats ;  but  if  a  spear,  or  any  other  deadly  weapon 
is  used,  then  he  is  deprived  of  all  his  property  —  one  half  of  the 
forfeit  going  to  the  crown,  the  other  to  the  person  assaulted. 

In  case  of  murder,  the  entire  goods  of  the  murderer  are  for- 
feited to  the  relatives  of  the  slain.  The  laws  against  adultery 
are  curiously  at  once  both  lax  and  severe.  If  a  wife  offend,  she 
only  loses  an  ear;  if  a  slave,  or  the  daughter  of  the  chief,  is  the 
guilty  party,  both  she  and  her  paramour  are  executed. 

Among  some  tribes  a  man  is  very  severely  punished  for  hurting 
his  wife,  as  our  striking  illustration  shows,  where  two  wife-beat^rs 
are  dealt  with  in  no  ordinary  way,  but  are  whipped  till  the  blood 
runs.  The  old  crone  is  telling  the  culprit  who  is  bound  and 
waiting  his  turn  what  an  artistic  flagellation  he  is  going  to 
receive. 

Indeed,  women  in  Central  Africa  are  l)etter  trea,ted  than  gen- 
erally among  barbarians.  Among  the  Banyai  the  wife  is  the 
husband's  equal.  Tlie  husband  not  only  regards  her  with  pro- 
found respect,  but  is  expected  to  consult  her  before  concluding 
any  bargain,  and  to  let  her  know  his  most  private  business 
transactions.  The  women  even  do  business  on  their  own  account, 
and  visit  distant  towns  to  effect  commercial  transactions  for  their 
husbands. 

Unlike  many  women  who  attempt  business,  they  can  S3e  that 
there  are  two  sides  to  a  bargain.  The  Banyai  system  of  mamage 
is  quite  in  keeping  with  this  region  of  the  strong-minded  woman. 
Among  them  there  is  none  of  the  barter  of  cows  for  wives  as  else- 
where. 

The  bridegroom  goes  humbly  to  live  at  the  house  of  his 
father-in-law  and  meekly  submits  to  be  bullied  and  ordered  alxiut 
by  his  mother-in-law,  not  a  more  amiable  lady  than  usual,  probii- 
bly.  He  has  to  carry  water,  cut  wood,  and  altogether  demean 
himself  as  becomes  his  position  in  life.  If  lie  objects  to  this 
arrangement  he  may  leave,  but  his  wife  and  children  must  remain, 
unless  he  can  pay  as  much  as  will  compensate  the  wife's  parents 
for  the  loss  of  her  services. 

In  unpleasant  contrast  with  this  supremacy  of  woman,  let  us 


FEUDALISTIG  MONARCHY.  145 

look  at  Uganda,  where  she  is  taught  her  place  with  the  sharp 
logic  of  the  rod.  A  special  Icind  of  whip  made  of  plaited  strips 
of  hippopotamus  hide,  with  hard,  sharp,  horny  edges,  which  cut 
into  the  flesh  at  every  stroke,  is  reserved  for  the  administration 
of  wifely  chastisement.  Killing  a  wife,  or  a  few  wives  at  a  time, 
is  a  mere  trifle  in  Uganda.     Polygamy  is  the  universal  custom. 

The  King  of  Uganda  has  seven  thousand  women  in  his  palace.^ 
Often  thirty  or  forty  girls  will  be  offered  him  in  a  single  morning 
as  brides.  If  he  orders  them  to  fall  upon  their  knees,  and 
embraces  them,  then  the  ceremony  of  marriage  is  complete, 
the  fortunate  damsels  are  received  into  the  number  of  his  wives, 
and  the  parents  prostrate  themselves  before  their  sovereign, 
ejaculating  the  word  ''N'yanz"  (thanks)  repeatedly,  in  such 
a  manner  that  the  ceremony  of  thanking  the  sovereign  for  any 
favor  is  described  by  those  travellers  who  have  visited  the  Uganda 
court  as  "n'yanzigging."  Koffee,  the  late  King  of  Ashanti,  is 
said  to  have  had  3,333  wives. 

The  M angan  ja  looks  upon  the  burial  places  of  his  race  as  sacred, 
and  keeps  the  graves  neatly.  They  are  arranged  north  and  south, 
and  on  the  surface  are  laid  the  implements  which  the  sleeper 
beneath  used  during  life. 

As  amongst  the  North  American  Indians  these  tools  are  broken 
perhaps  to  prevent  their  being  stolen  by  irreverent  marauders  of 
their  own  or  other  tribes.  By  the  nature  of  the  implements  the 
passerby  can  thus  tell  the  occupation,  sex,  or  rank  of  the  dead. 

As  mourning,  the  relatives  wear  strips  of  palm  tied  round  their 
heads,  necks,  breasts,  arms,  and  legs,  and  allow  them  to  remain 
lutil  decay,  and  the  wear  and  tear  to  which  they  are  subject,  cause 
them  to  drop  off. 

In  other  tribes  —  among  the  Karague  people,  for  example  — 
the  place  and  mode  of  a  man's  burial  are  regulated  by  his  rank. 
If  low,  his  body  is  sunk  in  the  lake  near  which  tliey  live; 
but  if  of  noble  caste  (or  as  he  is  styled,  a  "  Wahuma  "),  then  a 
sacred  island  is  the  place  of  its  deposit,  and  the  vicinity  of  the 
place  of  sepulture  marked  by  the  symbol  of  two  sticks,  tied  to  a 

iThls  Is  probably  a  groBS  exaggeration,  due  partly  to  the  desire  of  the  King  to  Impress 
stimngers  with  his  great  power  and  pomp  as  a  hnsband  and  paitly  to  the  savage  inability  to 
flgnvB  oonectly  beyobd  a  certain  namber. 


144  THE  STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

imprisoDment  in  the  stocks,  often  for  months  at  a  time.  Let  a 
man  strike  another  with  a  stick,  and  he  can  expiiite  the  offence 
by  paying  ten  goats ;  but  if  a  spear,  or  any  other  deadly  weapon 
is  used,  then  he  is  deprived  of  all  his  property  —  one  half  of  the 
forfeit  going  to  the  crown,  the  other  to  the  j>erson  assaulted. 

In  case  of  murder,  the  entire  goods  of  the  munlerer  are  for- 
feited to  the  relatives  of  the  slain.  The  laws  against  adulterj- 
are  curiously  at  once  both  lax  and  severe.  It  a  wife  offend,  she 
only  loses  an  ear;  if  a  slave,  or  the  daughter  of  the  chief,  is  the 
guilty  party,  hoth  she  and  her  paramour  are  executed. 

Among  some  tribes  a  man  is  very  severely  puiiished  for  hurting 
his  wife,  as  our  striking  illustration  shows,  where  two  wife-beat«rs 
are  dealt  with  in  no  ordinary  way,  but  are  whipped  till  the  blood 
runs.  The  old  crone  is  telling  the  culprit  who  is  bound  and 
waiting  his  turn  what  an  artistic  flagellation  he  is  going  to 
receive. 

Indeed,  women  in  Central  Africa  are  better  treajed  than  gen- 
erally among  barbarians.  Among  the  Banyai  the  wife  is  tlie 
husband's  equal.  Tlie  husband  not  only  regards  her  with  pi-o- 
found  respect,  but  is  expected  to  consult  her  before  concluding 
any  bargain,  and  to  let  her  know  his  most  private  business 
transactions.  The  women  even  do  business  on  their  own  account, 
and  visit  distant  towns  to  effect  commen:ial  transactions  for  their 
husbiinds. 

Unlike  many  women  who  attempt  business,  they  can  see  that  i 
there  are  two  sides  t>i  ;i  bitrgain.     The  Banyai  system  of  mari'iage  i 
is  quite  in  keeping  uitb  this  region  of  the  strong-minded  wommi.  j 
Among  them  there  is  none  of  the  barter  of  cows  for  wives  as  else- 
where. 

The  bridegroom  goes    humbly   lo    live    at   the 
father-in-law  and  meekly  submita  to  be  bullied  B 
by  his  mother-in-law,  not  a  more  amiable  Uiiy.% 
hly.     He  has  to  carry  wattr,  iiit   wood,   auflj 
himself  as  becomes  Lis  [» 

arrangement  he  may  leave,  buth 

unless  he  can  pay  as  mtiol^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^ 

for  the  loss  of  her  ae 

In  unpleasant  c 


146  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

stone,  lying  across  the  pathway.  No  one  seeing  this  mark  would 
dare  to  go  along  the  holy  path ;  at  any  inconvenience  he  would 
turn  aside  to  I'eacli  his  destination. 

Tlie  kings  are  buried  like  the  nobles,  Imt  with  this  addition, 
that  their  l)odies  are  fiist  roixsted  for  a  month,  until  they  are  like 
sun-dried  meat,  when  tlie  lower  jaw  is  cut  off,  preseived,  and 
covered  with  beads.  The  royal  tombs  are  put  under  the  charge 
of  special  officei-s  who  occupy  huts  erected  over  them. 

On  the  death  of  any  of  the  great  ofticei-s  of  state,  the  finger- 
lK)nes  and  hair  are  also  preserved;  or,  if  tliey  died  shaven,  as 
sometimes  occui-s,  a  bit  of  tlieir  "mbiigu  "  dress  will  be  preserved 
in  place  of  the  liair.  Their  families  guard  their  tombs.  Among  the 
Wanyoro  the  dead  are  buried  —  the  men  on  the  left,  the  women 
on  the  right  of  the  door. 

The  Bari  bury  their  dead  within  the  enclosure  of  their  kraal  or 
homestead,  the  grave  being  marked  with  poles,  on  whicli  are  luing 
skulls  and  bonis  of  cattle,  and  the  top  decorated  with  a  tuft  of 
cocks'  feathei's,  tlie  national  "crest"  or  distinction  of  a  memljer 
of  that  tribe,  and  which  they  wear  on  their  heads  during  life. 
The  Musgu,  one  of  the  rather  more  civilized  African  races,  are 
singular  in  this  respect,  that  they  erect  mounds  with  urns  over 
their  dead,  a  custom  which  obtained  extensive  popularity  among 
the  primitive  races  of  Europe  and  other  countries. 

Among  the  Bongo,  soon  as  life  is  extinct,  the  corj)ses  are 
placed  in  a  crouching  j)osture,  with  the  knees  forced  up  to 
the  chin,  and  are  firmly  l)ound  round  the  head  and  legs.  Then, 
after  the  body  has  been  thus  compressed  into  the  smallest 
possible  comj^ass,  it  is  sewn  into  a  sack  made  of  skins,  and  placed 
in  a  deep  grave.  A  shaft  is  then  sunk  perpendicularly  about  four 
feet,  and  a  niche  hollowed  in  the  side,  so  that  the  bag  containing 
the  corpse  should  not  Iiave  to  sustain  any  vertical  pressure  from 
the  earth  which  is  thrown  in  to  fill  up  the  grave. 

The  Bongo  have  the  striking  custom  of  bur}^ing  men  with  the 
face  turned  to  the  north  and  women  to  the  south.  After  the 
gmve  is  filled  in,  a  heap  of  stones  is  piled  over  the  spot  in  a  short 
cylindrical  fonn,  and  this  is  supj)Oii:ed  by  strong  stakes,  which  are 
driven  into  the  soil  all  i-ound.  A  i)itcher  or  urn  is  placed  on  the 
middle  of  the  pile,  and  the  graves  are  always  close  to  the  huts, 


FKUDALISTIC   MONAliCHY.  147 

their  site  being  marked  by  a  number  of  long  forked  branches, 
carved,  by  way  of  ornament,  with  numerous  notc;hes  and  incisions, 
and  having  their  points  sharpened  like  horns. 

The  typical  meaning  of  these  stakes  is  unknown  even  to  the 
natives,  the  assertion  made  by  tlie  traders,  that  each  notch  denotes 
an  enemy  killed  in  biittle  by  the  deceased,  being  denied  by  the 
Bongo  theuLselves.  The  neiglil)oring  Mittoo  and  Madi  adopt  a 
similar  style  of  sepultiu"e,  and  the  memorial  urns  erected  over  tlie 
graves  of  the  Musgu  remind  the  traveller  of  the  pitchei"s  on  tlio?;e 
of  the  Bongo. 

When  a  funeral  takes  place,  all  the  neiglilx)!^^  attend,  and  after 
being  freely  entertained  with  native  beer,  help  to  form  the  grave, 
rear  the  memorial  urn,  and  erect  the  votive  stakes.  When  the 
ceremony  is  finished,  they  shoot  at  the  stakes  with  arrows,  which 
they  leave  sticking  in  the  wood. 

The  Ddre,  or  Dyooi*s,  of  the  White  Nile  arniuge  their  graves 
close  to  their  houses,  and  mark  them  bv  a  (drcular  mound  three  or 
four  feet  high,  which  in  a  few  yeai-s  is  obliterated  by  the  tropical 
rains,  and  is  not  renewed. 

Among  the  cannilml  Niam-Niam  grief,  as  is  frequent  among  the 
African  and  other  trilx?s,  is  denoted  by  shaving  the  head.  The 
corpse  is  ordinarily  dyed  with  red  wood  and  adorned  with  fine 
skins  and  feathers.  Men  of  rank,  after  l^eiiig  attired  with  their 
common  aprons,  are  interred  either  sitting  on  their  benches  or  ai*e 
enclosed  in  a  kind  of  coffin  made  from  a  hollow  tree. 

Like  the  Bongo,  the  Niam-Xiam  bury  their  dead  with  a  scrupu- 
lous regaid  to  the  points  of  the  compass ;  but  commonly  enough 
they  reverse  the  iiile  of  the  fonner  tribe,  the  men  I)eing  deposited 
with  their  faces  towaixls  the  east,  the  women  towards  the  west. 
After  the  grave  has  been  well  stamped  down,  a  hut  is  erected 
over  it,  though,  owing  to  its  fragile  character,  it  rarely  long 
survives  the  weather  or  the  annual  burning  of  the  steppe 
pasture. 

.  A  Wagogo  chief,  on  dying,  is  washed,  and  his  cori)se  placed  in 
an  upright  jKwition  in  a  hollow  tree,  to  which  the  people  come 
daily  to  mourn  and  pour  l)eer  and  ashes  on  the  corpse,  indulging 
themselves  meanwhile  in  a  kind  of  wake.  This  ritual  goes  on 
until  the  body  is  thoroughly  decomposed,  when  it  is  placed  on 


148  THE   STOBY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

a  platform  and  exposed  to  the  effects  of  the  weather,  that  speedily 
reduces  it  to  a  heap  of  bones  —  which  ai-e  then  duly  buried. 

At  one  time  slaves  were  sacrificed  to  heighten  the  dignity  of  such 
occasions ;  but  in  marked  conti-ast  with  the  elaborate  rites  attend- 
ing a  great  man's  sepulture,  the  bodies  of  commonei's  are  thrown 
into  the  nearest  jungle  to  be  devoured  by  beasts  of  the  field  and 
fowls  of  the  air. 

Among  some  tribes  the  first  step  taken  when  a  king  expires  is 
to  divert  the  course  of  a  stream,  and  to  dig  an  enormous  pit  in  its 
bed.  This  cavern  is  then  lined  with  living  women.  At  one  end 
a  woman  is  placed  on  her  liands  and  knees,  and  upon  lier  back  the 
corpse  of  the  dead  king,  covered  witli  l>eads  and  other  ornaments, 
is  seated,  supported  on  each  side  by  one  of  his  wives,  while  his 
second  wife  sits  at  his  feet. 

The  earth  is  then  shovelled  in  over  living  and  dead  alike,  all 
the  women  being  buried  alive  except  tlie  second  wife,  who  is 
graciously  permitted  the  privilege  of  being  slaughtered,  instead, 
before  the  huge  grave  is  filled  in.  Finally,  forty  or  fifty  slaves 
are  killed,  and  their  blood  poured  over  the  sepulchi-e,  after  which 
the  river  is  allowed  to  resume  its  course. 

A  pitiable  sight  is  the  di-agging  of  a  king's  wives  to  his 
funeral.  They  are  generally  stolid  as  cattle  driven  to  the 
shambles,  but  in  our  illustration  one  can  ])e  noticed  making  an 
eloquent,  though  vain,  appeal  to  a  former  sweetheart  in  the  crowd 
to  attempt  her  rescue.  The  man  would  like  to,  but  he  does  not 
dare :  the  superstition  of  royalty  is  too  strong. 

It  is  said  that  as  many  as  a  hundred  women  have  been  buried 
with  one  great  chief  or  king,  though  smaller  men  have  to  be  sent 
to  their  long  home  with  only  two  or  three,  and  their  gi-aves 
drenched  with  the  blood  of  as  many  slaves,  while  the  vulgar  herd 
have  to  be  content  with  solitary  sepulture,  the  corpse  being  placed 
in  a  sitting  posture,  with  the  right  forefinger  pointing  heaven- 
wards, just  level  with  the  top  of  the  mound  over  his  grave. 

Eating,  smoking,  sleeping,  fighting,  dancing,  gambling  a  little, 
and  wrestling,  may  l^e  said  to  form  in  outline  tlie  list  of  a  Cen- 
tral African's  amusementii.  Wrestling  is  about  the  only  manly 
sport  tliey  care  for,  as  hunting  and  fishing  are  their  daily  occupa- 
tions,   and    thei*efore    cannot   be    looked    upon   as   amusements. 


150  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Wrestling,  however,  is  only  practised  among  tlie  moi-e  civilized 
races,  such  as  tlie  Birghami.  So  keenly  do  they  contest  in  tliis, 
that  it  is  not  an  unfrequent  occurrence  for  one  of  the  contestants 
to  be  left  dead  on  the  ground.  Great  men  among  this  people  will 
keep  in  their  pay,  or  as  slaves,  powerful  wrestlei-s,  on  whose 
prowess  they  highly  pride  themselves.  A  Avrestler  once  beaten  is 
looked  upon  as  no  good,  and,  if  a  slave,  would  l)e  sold  for  a  mei-e 
fraction  of  the  ])rice  he  was  valued  at  before  meeting  with  this 
i*everse  of  fortune. 

In  addition,  all  tlie  Birghami,  particularly  the  women,  are  good 
dancers,  being  active  and  yet  gi-aceful  in  all  their  movements. 
Their  dancing  is  a  sort  of  acting  in  dumb  show,  and  all  the  while 
they  keep  up  a  low  plaintive  song,  which  adds  wondrously  to  the 
pleasant  impression  the  scene  makes  on  the  onlooker.  Music  and 
dancing  are  passions  throughout  Africa. 

Fighting,  in  a  more  or  less  disciplined  manner,  either  to  avenge 
some  old  feud,  some  recent  wrong,  or  simply  for  the  sake  of  plun- 
dering the  cattle  and  other  property  of  the  weaker  tribes,  or  to 
capture  them  for  slaves,  is  to  a  great  extent  the  normal  state  of 
most  Cent  ml  African  kingdoms. 

In  dress  and  general  appeamnce,  the  chief  object  of  the  African 
warriors  seems  to  be  to  strike  teiTor  into  the  l)eholdei's.  Want  of 
courage  is  not  a  failing  that  can  iLsually  be  ascribed  to  a  savage, 
though  a  display  of  bravery,  unless  attended  with  a  corresponding 
success,  does  not  seem  to  be  valued ;  nor,  on  the  other  liand,  is  a 
coward  so  despised  as  among  civilized  nations. 

A  monarch  who  "showed  the  white  feather"  in  Europe,  or  even 
among  the  semi-civilized  pe()2)le  of  Asiti,  would  forever  incur  the 
contempt  of  the  meanest  of  his  subjects.  Not  so  in  Africa, 
apparently.  The  kingdom  of  Unyoi-o,  ruled  by  Kamrasi,  was 
threatened  with  inviusion.  Instead  of  the  king  pre^mring  to  defend 
his  kingdom  as  well  as  he  could,  his  own  brother  counselled  him 
to  take  refuge  in  flight. 

Though  fond  of  display  and  practical  braggadocio  —  in  this 
respect  l)eing  not  unlike  the  Chinese  —  yet,  on  occasion,  the  Cen- 
tral Africans  have  shown  themselves,  even  in  warfare  against  the 
Amb  slavc-robl)ei's,  a  far  from  unworthy  enemy — desperation  giving 
them  the  courage  and  force  which  they  might  not  naturally  possess. 


PEDDAilSTIC   MONARCHY. 


151 


Of  war  as  a  science  they  know  nothing.  Indeed,  they  resort 
to  most  unstrategic  methods  of  going  about  it  —  such,  for 
instance,  as  the  ridiculous  Iiabit  of  the  Latookas  in  sounding  a 
drum  —  or  nogara  —  before  attacking  a  village,  which  can  but 
give  the  enemy  warning  of  the  intended  onslaught. 

Captives  in  %var  are  usually  reserved  for  slaves.  Among  the 
D6r  tribes  of  the  White  Nile,  the  bleached  skulls  of  slain  foemen 


)eman'k  head. 


are  suspended  to  the  branches  of  a  great  tree  in  the  oi>en  spai-e  of 
the  village,  under  which  the  huge  nogaras,  iir  war-drums,  are 
placed  to  be  ready  for  sounding  as  occasiun  may  ie<[uiri;.  Tlie 
I'onciusionof  a  successful  fight  is  celebnt ted  with  a  wild  war-dance, 
iliffering  but  little  in  general  chanicter  from  those  so  common 
among  other  savages  after  their  murdemus  foiiij-s,  except  that  as 
in  our  illustration  of  ;i  double  rain-storm  tbey  sometimes  make  a 


142  THE   STOUY   OF   GOVEliNMENT. 

tons,  or  the  American  states;  ''state  rights,"  however,  being  mther 
further  advanced  in  the  Black-kingly  Republic  than  in  the 
European  or  Tmnsatlantic  democratic  one.  A  woman  may  also 
be  chief  of  a  Rundo,  and  they  are  said  to  exercise  their  authority 
veiy  judiciously. 

The  Banyai,  a  tribe  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  Zambesi,  elect 
their  chiefs,  but  always  out  of  '^ne  fanuly,  though  they  never  select 
the  immediate  descendants  ot  the  late  monarch,  but  always  some 
relative,  such  as  a  nephew  or  brother.  It  is  Jiccounted  etiquette 
for  the  newly  elected  chief  to  affect  an  air  of  modesty,  and  a  seem- 
ing desire  to  decline  the  proffered  honoi's  jis  too  great  for  a  man 
of  his  rank,  ability  and  ambition.  In  fact,  he  ex2)ects  to  l>e 
"thrice,"  or  a  greater  numl)er  of  times,  offered  the  '"kingly 
crown " ;  but,  unlike  liis  Roman  prototype,  there  is  no  ca«e  on 
record  in  which  the  lionor  was  eventually  refused. 

Tlie  new  chief  not  only  inherits  the  property,  but  also  the 
wives  and  children  of  his  predeccssoi-s,  though  often  one  of  tlie 
sons  of  the  former  chief  considei's,  quite  naturally,  that  he  is  not 
to  be  kept  in  subservience  to  the  new  monarch,  and  attempts  to 
set  up  as  a  petty  chief  for  himself,  an  attempt  which  generally 
results  in  his  having  his  village  burnt  alnnit  his  ears,  as  a  gentle 
hint  that  he  had  better  receive  liis  superior  in  a  projjer  man- 
ner—  viz.,  by  clapping  of  hands,  the  connnon  method  of  saluta- 
tion among  most  of  these  African  tril)es. 

Among  the  Banyai  it  is  the  custom  for  wealthy  men  to  send 
their  sons  to  be  educated,  under  some  man  of  eminence,  in  all 
tlie  duties  and  accjomplishments  of  Banyai  gentlemen,  just  as  in 
former  times  in  P2ui*ope  the  sons  of  gentlemen  were  sent  as  pages 
and  escpiires  to  be  trained  in  the  laws  of  t:liivalry  under  some 
puissant  knight. 

Among  the  Wahunuis  a  cm-ions  law  pievails.  If  anyone 
becomes  a  slave  —  Avhicli  it  is  inniecessaiy  to  say  is  always  an 
involuntary  act  —  he  or  she  is  put  to  death  when  caught  again  by 
their  own  people,  because  by  so  doing  they  have  broken  one  of  the 
laws  of  their  country.  Speke  witnessed  an  instanc^e  in  which 
some  women  were  actually  put  to  death  by  their  own  husbands. 

Theft  is  generally  severely  punished  in  Africa,  if  it  is  committed 
on  any  of  their  own  tribe.     The  Karagues  punish  this  crime  with 


144  THE   STORY  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

imprisonment  in  the  stocks,  often  for  months  at  a  time.  Let  a 
man  strike  another  with  a  stick,  and  he  can  expiate  the  offence 
by  paying  ten  goats;  but  if  a  spear,  or  any  other  deadly  weapon 
is  used,  then  he  is  deprived  of  all  his  property  —  one  half  of  the 
forfeit  going  to  the  crown,  the  other  to  the  person  assaulted. 

In  case  of  murder,  the  entire  goods  of  the  murderer  are  for- 
feited to  the  relatives  of  the  slain.  The  laws  against  adulteiy 
are  curiously  at  once  both  lax  and  severe.  If  a  wife  offend,  she 
only  loses  an  ear;  if  a  slave,  or  the  daughter  of  the  chief,  is  the 
guilty  party,  both  she  and  her  paramour  are  executed. 

Among  some  tribes  a  man  is  very  severely  punished  for  hurting 
his  wife,  as  our  striking  illustration  shows,  where  two  wife-beaters 
are  dealt  with  in  no  ordinary  way,  but  are  whipped  till  the  blood 
runs.  The  old  crone  is  telling  the  culprit  who  is  bound  and 
waiting  his  turn  what  an  artistic  flagellation  he  is  going  to 
receive. 

Indeed,  women  in  Central  Africa  are  better  trea^d  than  gen- 
erally among  barbiirians.  Among  the  Banyai  the  wife  is  the 
husband's  equal.  Tlie  husband  not  only  regards  her  with  pro- 
found respect,  but  is  expected  to  consult  her  before  concluding 
any  bargain,  and  to  let  her  know  his  most  private  business 
transactions.  The  women  even  do  business  on  their  own  account, 
and  visit  distant  towns  to  effect  commercial  transactions  for  their 
husbands. 

Unlike  many  women  who  attempt  basiness,  they  can  S3e  that 
there  are  two  sides  to  a  bargain.  The  Banyai  system  of  marriage 
is  quite  in  keeping  with  this  region  of  the  strong-minded  woman. 
Among  them  there  is  none  of  the  barter  of  cows  for  wives  as  else- 
where. 

The  bridegroom  goes  humbly  to  live  at  the  house  of  his 
father-in-law  and  meekly  submits  to  l)e  bullied  and  ordered  about 
by  his  mother-in-law,  not  a  more  amiable  lady  than  usual,  pi'oba- 
bly.  He  has  to  carry  water,  cut  wood,  and  altogether  demean 
himself  as  becomes  his  position  in  life.  If  he  objects  to  this 
arrangement  he  may  leave,  but  his  wife  and  children  must  remain, 
unless  he  can  pay  as  much  as  will  compensate  the  wife's  parents 
for  the  loss  of  her  services. 

In  unpleasant  contrast  with  this  supremacy  of  woman,  let  us 


FEUDALISTIC   MONARCHY.  145 

look  at  Uganda,  where  she  is  taught  her  place  with  the  sharp 
logic  of  the  rod.  A  special  Icind  of  whip  made  of  plaited  strips 
of  hippopotamus  hide,  with  hard,  sharp,  horny  edges,  which  cut 
into  the  flesh  at  everj'-  stroke,  is  reserved  for  the  administration 
of  wifely  chastisement.  Killing  a  wife,  or  a  few  wives  at  a  time, 
is  a  mere  trifle  in  Uganda.     Polygamy  is  the  imiversal  custom. 

The  King  of  Uganda  has  seven  thousand  women  in  his  palace.^ 
Often  thirty  or  forty  girls  will  be  offered  him  in  a  single  morning 
as  brides.  If  he  orders  them  to  fall  upon  their  knees,  and 
embraces  them,  then  the  ceremony  of  marriage  is  complete, 
the  fortunate  damsels  are  received  into  the  number  of  liis  wives, 
and  the  parents  prostrate  themselves  before  their  sovereign, 
ejaculating  the  word  "N'yanz"  (thanks)  repeatedly,  in  such 
a  manner  that  the  ceremony  of  thanking  the  sovereign  for  any 
favor  is  described  by  those  travellers  who  have  visited  the  Uganda 
court  as  "n'yanzigging."  Koffee,  the  late  King  of  Ashanti,  is 
said  to  have  had  3,333  wives. 

The  Manganja  looks  upon  the  burial  places  of  his  race  as  sacred, 
and  keeps  the  graves  neatly.  They  are  arranged  north  and  south, 
and  on  the  surface  are  laid  the  implements  which  the  sleeper 
beneath  used  during  life. 

As  amongst  the  North  American  Indians  these  tools  are  broken 
perhaps  to  prevent  their  being  stolen  by  irreverent  marauders  of 
their  own  or  other  tribes.  By  the  nature  of  the  implements  the 
passerby  can  thus  tell  the  occupation,  sex,  or  rank  of  the  dead. 

As  mourning,  the  relatives  wear  strips  of  j)alm  tied  round  their 
heads,  necks,  breasts,  arms,  and  legs,  and  allow  them  to  remain 
until  decay,  and  the  wear  and  tear  to  which  they  are  subject,  cause 
them  to  drop  off. 

In  other  tribes  —  among  the  Karague  people,  for  example  — 
the  place  and  mode  of  a  man's  burial  are  regulated  by  liis  rank. 
If  low,  his  body  is  sunk  in  the  lake  near  which  they  live; 
but  if  of  noble  caste  (or  as  he  is  styled,  a  "  Wahuma  "),  then  a 
sacred  island  is  the  place  of  its  deposit,  and  the  vicinity  of  the 
place  of  sepulture  marked  by  the  symbol  of  two  sticks,  tied  to  a 

^Thit  is  probably  a  gross  exaggeration,  due  partly  to  the  desire  of  the  King  to  impress 
strangers  with  his  great  po-vrer  and  pomp  as  a  husband  and  pai  tly  to  the  savage  inability  to 
figure  oorvBOtly  beyoiid  a  certain  number. 


146  THE   STOKY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

stone,  lying  aci-oss  the  pathway.  No  one  seeing  tliis  mark  would 
dare  to  go  along  the  holy  path ;  at  any  inconvenience  he  would 
turn  aside  to  reach  his  destination. 

The  kings  are  bmied  like  the  nobles,  but  with  this  addition, 
that  their  bodies  are  fii"st  roasted  for  a  month,  until  they  are  like 
sun-dried  meat,  when  the  lower  jaw  is  cut  off,  preseived,  and 
covered  with  beads.  The  royal  tombs  are  put  under  the  charge 
of  special  officei"s  who  occupy  huts  erected  over  tliem. 

On  the  deatli  of  any  of  the  great  oflicei-s  of  state,  the  finger- 
bones  and  hair  are  also  preserved;  or,  if  they  died  shaven,  as 
sometimes  occui-s,  a  bit  of  their  *'  mbiigu  "  dress  will  be  preserved 
in  place  of  the  hair.  Their  families  guard  their  tombs.  Among  the 
Wanyoro  the  dead  are  buried  —  the  men  on  the  left,  the  women 
on  the  right  of  the  door. 

The  Bari  buiy  their  dead  within  the  enclosure  of  their  kraal  or 
homestead,  the  grave  being  marked  with  poles,  on  which  are  liung 
skulls  and  bonis  of  cattle,  and  tlie  top  decorated  with  a  tuft  of 
cocks'  feathei's,  the  national  "  crest "  or  distinction  of  a  member 
of  that  tribe,  and  which  they  wear  on  their  heads  during  life. 
The  Musgu,  one  of  the  i-ather  more  civilized  African  races,  are 
singular  in  this  respect,  that  they  erect  mounds  with  urns  over 
their  dead,  a  custom  which  obtained  extensive  popularity  among 
the  primitive  races  of  Europe  and  other  countries. 

Among  the  Bongo,  soon  as  life  is  extinct,  the  corj>ses  arc 
placed  in  a  crouching  postiu-e,  ^vith  the  knees  forced  up  to 
the  chin,  and  are  firmly  l)ound  ix)und  the  head  and  legs.  Then, 
after  the  body  has  been  thus  compressed  into  the  smallest 
possible  compass,  it  is  sewn  into  a  sack  made  of  skins,  and  placed 
in  a  deej)  grave.  A  shaft  is  then  sunk  perpendicularly  about  four 
feet,  and  a  niche  hollowed  in  the  side,  so  that  the  bag  containing 
the  corpse  should  not  have  to  sustiiin  any  vertical  pressure  from 
the  eaith  which  is  thrown  in  to  fill  up  the  grave. 

The  Bongo  have  the  striking  custom  of  burying  men  with  the 
face  turned  to  the  noith  and  women  to  the  south.  After  the 
gmve  is  filled  in,  a  heap  of  stones  is  piled  over  the  spot  in  a  short 
cylindrical  foi-m,  and  this  is  supported  by  strong  stakes,  which  are 
driven  into  the  soil  all  round.  A  pitcher  or  urn  is  placed  on  the 
middle  of   the  pile,  and  the  graves  rae  always  close  to  the  huts, 


FEUDAUSTIC   IHONARCHY.  147 

their  site  being  marked  by  a  number  of  long  forked  branches, 
carved,  by  way  of  ornament,  with  numerous  notches  and  incisions, 
and  having  their  points  sharpened  like  horns. 

The  typical  meaning  of  these  stakes  is  unknown  even  to  the 
natives,  the  assertion  made  by  the  tmders,  that  each  notc'h  denotes 
an  enemy  killed  in  battle  by  the  deceased,  being  denied  by  the 
Bongo  themselves.  The  neighlx)riiig  Mittoo  and  Madi  adopt  a 
similar  style  of  sepultui-e,  and  the  memorial  urns  ei-ectcd  over  the 
graves  of  the  Musgu  i*emind  the  tniveller  of  the  j)itchei*s  on  those 
of  the  Bongo. 

When  a  funeral  tiikes  place,  all  the  neighlK^i-s  attend,  and  after 
being  freely  enteitained  with  native  beer,  help  to  form  the  gitive, 
rear  the  memorial  lU'n,  and  erect  the  votive  stakes.  When  the 
ceremony  is  finished,  they  shoot  at  the  stakes  with  arrows,  which 
they  leave  sticking  in  the  wood. 

The  D6rs,  or  Dyooi-s,  of  the  White  Nile  arrange  their  graves 
close  to  their  houses,  and  mark  them  by  a  circular  mound  three  or 
four  feet  liigh,  which  in  a  few  yeai-s  is  obliterated  by  the  tropical 
rains,  and  is  not  renewed. 

Among  the  cannikil  Niam-Niam  grief,  us  is  frequent  among  the 
African  and  other  tril)es,  is  denoted  by  shaving  the  head.  The 
corpse  is  ordinarily  dyed  with  red  wood  and  adorned  with  fine 
skins  and  feathers.  Men  of  rank,  after  being  attired  with  their 
common  aprons,  are  interred  either  sitting  on  their  Ix^nehes  or  are 
enclosed  in  a  kind  of  coffin  made  from  a  hollow  tree. 

Like  the  Bongo,  the  Niam-Niam  bury  their  decad  with  a  scrupu- 
lous regard  to  the  points  of  the  compass ;  but  commonly  enough 
they  reverse  the  rule  of  the  former  tribe,  the  men  being  de£X)sited 
with  their  faces  towaitls  the  east,  the  women  towards  the  west. 
After  the  grnve  has  been  well  stamped  down,  a  hut  is  erected 
over  it,  though,  owing  to  its  fmgile  chai-acter,  it  rarely  long 
survives  the  weather  or  the  annual  burning  of  the  steppe 
pasture. 

.  A  Wagogo  chief,  on  dying,  is  washed,  and  his  coi-pse  i)laced  in 
an  upriglit  jHwition  in  a  hollow  tree,  to  which  the  i)eople  come 
daily  to  mourn  and  pour  beer  and  ashes  on  the  corpse,  indulging 
themselves  meanwhile  in  a  kind  of  wake.  This  ritual  goes  on 
until  the  body  is  thoroughly  decomposed,  when  it  is  placed  on 


148  THE   STOBY   OF   GOVBRKMENT. 

a  platform  and  exposed  to  the  effects  of  the  weather,  that  speedily 
reduces  it  to  a  heap  of  bones  —  which  are  then  duly  buried. 

At  one  time  slaves  were  sacrificed  to  heighten  the  dignity  of  such 
occasions;  but  in  marked  contrast  with  the  elaborate  rites  attend- 
ing a  great  man's  sepulture,  the  bodies  of  commoners  are  thro^vn 
into  the  nearest  jungle  to  be  devoured  by  beasts  of  the  field  and 
fowls  of  the  air. 

Among  some  tribes  the  first  step  taken  when  a  king  expires  is 
to  divert  the  course  of  a  stream,  and  to  dig  an  enormous  pit  in  its 
bed.  Tliis  caveni  is  then  lined  with  living  women.  At  one  end 
a  woman  is  placed  on  her  liands  and  knees,  and  upon  her  back  the 
corpse  of  the  dead  king,  covered  with  beads  and  other  ornaments, 
is  seated,  supported  on  each  side  by  one  of  his  wives,  while  his 
second  wife  sits  at  his  feet. 

The  earth  is  then  shovelled  in  over  living  and  dead  alike,  all 
the  women  being  buried  alive  except  the  second  wife,  who  is 
graciously  permitted  the  privilege  of  being  slaughtered,  instead, 
before  the  huge  grave  is  filled  in.  Finally,  forty  or  fifty  slaves 
are  killed,  and  their  blood  poured  over  the  sepulchi-e,  after  which 
the  river  is  allowed  to  resume  its  course. 

A  pitiable  sight  is  the  dragging  of  a  king's  wives  to  his 
funeral.  Tliey  are  generally  stolid  as  cattle  driven  to  the 
shambles,  but  in  our  illustration  one  can  be  noticed  making  an 
eloquent,  though  vain,  appeal  to  a  former  sweetheart  in  the  crowd 
to  attempt  her  rescue.  The  man  would  like  to,  but  he  does  not 
dare :  the  superstition  of  royalty  is  too  strong. 

It  is  said  that  as  many  as  a  hundred  women  have  been  buried 
with  one  great  chief  or  king,  though  smaller  men  have  to  be  sent 
to  their  long  home  with  only  two  or  three,  and  their  graves 
drenched  with  the  blood  of  as  many  slaves,  while  the  vulgar  heixl 
have  to  be  content  with  solitary  sepulture,  the  corpse  being  placed 
in  a  sitting  posture,  with  the  right  forefinger  pointing  heaven- 
wards, just  level  with  the  top  of  the  mound  over  his  grave. 

Eating,  smoking,  sleeping,  fighting,  dancing,  gambling  a  little, 
and  wrestling,  may  be  said  to  form  in  outline  the  list  of  a  Cen- 
tral African's  amusements.  Wrestling  is  about  the  only  manly 
spoilt  they  care  for,  as  hunting  and  fishing  are  their  daily  occupa- 
tions,   and    therefore    cannot   be   looked    upon   as   amusements. 


150  THE   STORY   OF   GOVEllNMENT. 

Wrestling,  however,  is  only  practised  among  the  more  civilized 
races,  such  as  the  Birghami.  So  keenly  do  they  contest  in  this, 
that  it  is  not  an  unfrequent  occurrence  for  one  of  the  contestants 
to  be  left  dead  on  the  ground.  Great  men  among  this  people  will 
keep  in  their  pay,  or  as  slaves,  powerful  wrestlei"s,  on  whose 
prowess  they  highly  pride  themselves.  A  Avrestler  once  beaten  is 
looked  upon  as  no  good,  and,  if  a  slave,  would  Ihj  sold  for  a  mei-e 
fraction  of  the  price  he  was  valued  at  before  meeting  witli  this 
reverse  of  fortune. 

In  addition,  all  the  Birghami,  pai-ticuhirly  the  women,  are  good 
dancers,  being  active  and  yet  graceful  in  all  their  movements. 
Their  dancing  is  a  sort  of  acting  in  dumb  show,  and  all  the  while 
they  keep  up  a  low  plaintive  song,  which  adds  wondrously  to  tlie 
pleasant  impression  the  scene  makes  on  the  onlooker.  Music  and 
dancing  are  passions  throughout  Afiica. 

Fighting,  in  a  more  or  less  disciplined  manner,  either  to  avenge 
some  old  feud,  some  recent  ^vrong,  or  simply  for  the  sake  of  plun- 
dering the  cattle  and  other  property  of  the  weaker  tribes,  or  to 
capture  tliem  for  slaves,  is  to  a  great  extent  the  normal  state  of 
most  Central  African  kingdoms. 

In  dress  and  general  appearance,  the  cliief  object  of  tlie  African 
warrioi-s  seems  to  be  to  strike  terror  into  the  lieholdei's.  Want  of 
courage  is  not  a  failing  that  can  usually  be  ascribed  to  a  savage, 
though  a  display  of  bravery,  unless  attended  with  a  corresponding 
success,  does  not  seem  to  be  valued ;  nor,  on  the  other  liand,  is  a 
coward  so  despised  as  among  civilized  nations. 

A  monarch  who  "showed  tlie  white  feather"  in  Europe,  or  even 
among  the  semi-civilized  peo2)le  of  Asia,  would  foi-ever  incur  the 
contempt  of  the  meanest  of  his  subjects.  Not  so  in  Africa, 
apparently.  The  kingdom  of  Unyoro,  ruled  by  Kamrasi,  was 
threatened  with  invasion.  Instead  of  the  king  preparing  to  defend 
his  kingdom  as  well  as  he  could,  his  own  brother  counselled  him 
to  take  refuge  in  flight. 

Though  fond  of  display  and  practical  braggadocio  —  in  this 
respect  being  not  unlike  the  Chinese  —  yet,  on  occasion,  the  Cen- 
tral Africans  have  shown  themselves,  even  in  warfare  against  the 
Amb  slave-robbers,  a  far  from  unworthy  enemy — desperation  giving 
them  the  courage  and  force  which  they  might  not  naturally  possess. 


PE0DAI.ISTIC   MONARCHY. 


151 


Of  war  as  a  science  they  know  nothing.  Indeed,  they  resort 
to  most  unstrategic  methods  of  going  about  it  —  such,  for 
instance,  as  the  ridiculous  habit  of  the  Latookas  in  sounding  a 
drum — or  nogSra  —  before  attacking  a  village,  which  can  but 
give  the  enemy  warning  of  the  intendsd  onslaught. 

Captives  in  war  are  usually  reserved  for  slaves.  Among  the 
DSr  tribes  of  the  White  Nile,  the  bleached  skulls  of  slain  foemen 


are  suspended  to  the  branches  of  a  gi-eat  tree  in  the  open  8pR<'e  of 
the  village,  imder  which  the  liuge  nogaras,  iii'  Wiir-<lrunis,  are 
})laced  to  be  ready  for  sounding  as  occiision  may  rt-quire.  Tlie 
conclusion  of  a  successful  fight  is  celebiiited  with  a  wild  war-dance, 
differing  but  little  in  general  cliameter  from  tliose  so  common 
among  other  8a\'age8  after  their  nmnlei-ous  fomj-s,  except  tliat  as 
in  our  illustration  of  a  iloiilile  rain-storm  they  SDUictimes  make  a 


152  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

fetish  of  a  foemaii's  head  when  he  has  displayed  unusual  bravery, 
by  blowing  water  at  it  from  their  mouths. 

With  all  the  African  tribes  religion  is  superstition  and  super- 
stition religion.  Both  are  equally  dark  and  gross,  though  in 
justice  to  the  Central  Africans  it  must  be  said  that,  so  f;ir  as  we 
have  yet  learned,  neither  their  religious  nor  their  superstitious 
deeds  are  disfigured  by  the  abominations  that  abound  in  similar 
rites  among  the  West  Coast  tribes. 

Few  of  the  Central  African  tribes  believe  that,  psychologically, 
the  black  man  and  the  white  have  anything  in  common.  Chris- 
tianity, they  say,  for  instance,  is  good  enough  for  the  whites,  but 
won't  do  for  the  blacks.  Most  of  them  believe  in  the  immortality 
of  the  soul,  as  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  nearly  all  of  the  tribes 
—  very  strongly  the  Mangan jas  —  hold  that  their  relatives  come 
and  speak  to  them  in  their  dreams. 

The  spirits  of  the  dead,  they  believe,  can  aid  and  protect  them. 
Under  this  belief  the  Banyai  people  will,  when  hunting,  pour 
out  the  contents  of  their  snuff-boxes  as  an  offering,  which  may 
have  the  effect  of  so  far  propitiating  their  dead  friends  as  to 
induce  them  to  render  the  hunting  prosperous. 

Unlike  more  irreverent  people  —  savage  and  civilized  —  the 
Banyai  relies  quite  as  much  upon  his  prayers  and  snuff,  as  hunt- 
ing appliances,  as  upon  his  more  phyisical  weapons.  A  belief 
in  a  superintending  Providence,  or  in  other  words  in  the  gods 
("Barima"),  interfering  in  the  affairs  of  mortals,  is  thus  dis- 
played. 

Of  the  great  wisdom  of  hyaenas  and  other  wild  animals  they 
possess  the  usual  savage  high  estimate.  A  hyaena,  for  instance, 
heard  "laughing"  in  the  woods  at  night  after  an  elephant  is 
killed,  is  chuckling  at  the  idea  that  the  huntera  will  not  be  able 
to  eat  all  the  flesh,  but  must  perforce  leave  some  to  them. 

An  idea,  not  widely  different  from  the  Polynesian  custom  of 
taboo^  prevails  among  the  Banyai.  To  guard  property  left  in  the 
woods,  or  some  such  unprotected  place,  a  strip  of  palm  leaf, 
smeared  with  some  sticky  substance,  and  decorated  with  roots, 
twigs,  leaves,  etc.,  is  attached  to  the  property,  under  the  belief 
that  no  one  could  attempt  to  pilfex  it  without  being  seized  with 
sickness  resulting  in  speedy  death. 


FEUDALISTIC    MONARCHY. 


158 


Many  of  the  tribes  have  no  idols,  and  found  their  religiouB 
belief  on  a  fear  of  evil  spirits,  which  are,  however,  under  the 
control  of  wizards,  whose  powers  of  exorcisinjf  them  can  lie  pur- 


mSMsSm 

llliMH    111  ill  11 

jftiji 

^n 

eb 

dcS''  ^Km^B 

J 

^,m.l^^''^ 

^*^3jMp|M 

^"         °"1K3iiii 

f^^^B 

r^- 

~-     ^^^1 

■^■r^isf  M 

%\  ^ 

m^--^: 

-^^ 

'V^<  ~- 

citased  by  a  few  goats,  generally.  If  a  pei^on  falls  sick  it  is 
believed  that  lie  must  have  been  bewitched.  The  punisliment 
for  this  is  death,  and  if  the  hyaenas  refuse  to  touch  the  body  after 
execution,  then  it  is  believed  that  the  sentence  must  have  been 


164  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

superlatively  just.  About  nearly  eveiy  animal  they  have  the 
most  extraordinary  superstitions.  The  antelope  bears  the  reputa- 
tion of  causing  ulcers  if  its  saliva  but  touches  the  skin,  while  the 
fingers  and  toes  will  fall  off  if  its  flesh  is  eaten. 

Lynx  and  lion  skins  are  a  monopoly  of  the  king;  accordingly, 
no  one  but  he  can  decorate  his  person  or  his  dwelling  with  these 
royal  peltries.  The  fat  which  is  skimmed  off  the  water  in  which 
a  lion's  flesh  is  boiled  is  looked  upon  as  a  valuable  medicine,  but 
no  one  must  walk  around  the  dead  body  of  a  lion,  otherwise  the 
spell  which  prevents  these  ferocious  animals  from  entering  villages 
would  be  broken. 

Two  men  cement  their  friendship  by  making  an  incision  in 
each  other's  body  and  mixing  the  blood  which  flows  from  the 
wound  on  a  leaf  with  butter.  The  mixture  is  then  inibbed  into 
the  wound,  and  the  mixed  blood  and  butter  is  supposed  to  make 
them  brothel's  for  life. 

A  fetish  is,  in  African  idea,  almost  anything  to  which  super- 
natural qualities  attach,  or  which  is  considered  to  bring  good 
fortune  or  prevent  evil.  King  M'tesa  (who  was  a  friend  of 
Stanley)  and  liis  mother  used  to  set  apart  certain  days  for  con- 
sulting their  fetishes,  in  order  to  see  that  nothing  was  amiss  in 
the  kingdom  of  Uganda. 

It  was  something  like  an  inquiry  into  the  ecclesiastical  con- 
dition of  the  country,  and  being  a  religious  ceremony  is  appro- 
priately gone  into  on  the  fii'st  day  after  the  new  moon  appears. 
On  the  third  moon  by  account  the  king  and  all  the  court  shaved 
their  heads,  the  king,  however,  redlining  his  "cock's  comb,"  and 
the  pages  their  double  cockades,  these  being  marks  of  their 
official  ranks. 

Tlierc  are  certain  priests  who  preside  over  and  direct  the  rites 
of  religion  —  at  least,  in  some  cases.  Such  a  one  is  the  priest  of 
the  Nile,  who  lives  in  a  liut  decoi-ated  with  many  mystic  sym- 
bols —  amongst  othei-s  a  paddle,  the  badge  of  his  high  oflBce  — 
on  an  island  in  the  lake  whicli  forms  one  of  the  Nile  sources 
(Victoria  Nyanza). 

This  ecclesiastic  is  only  the  deputy  or  familiar  of  M'gussa,  the 
spirit  who  presides  over  the  water,  and  his  office  is  to  interpret 
the  secrets  the  spirit  has  to  tell  to  the  king.     There  is  even  a 


FEUDALISTIC   MONARCHY.  165 

tract  of  land  dedicated  in  some  mysterious  manner  to  the  gods,  or 
to  one  of  them. 

It  is  a  kind  of  "church  estate,"  for  although  the  king  exercises 
authority  over  some  of  the  people  who  live  on  it,  others  seem  to 
l)e  viewed  in  a  sacred  light,  and  to  ba  exempt  from  the  control  of 
the  civil  power;  neither  has  the  king  any  right  to  disi)ose  of  the 
land.  In  this  sacred  territory  there  are  vilhiges  only  every  fifth 
mile,  and  no  roads  run  through  it. 

These  priestly  magicians  (M'ganga)  are  a  sad  cui-se  to  African 
explorei's,  for  so  thorough  is  tlicir  hold  on  the  minds  of  the  people, 
that  if  they  wish  to  hamper  the  movements  of  the  traveller,  all 
they  need  do  is  to  prophesy  all  sorts  of  calamities  —  drought, 
famine,  wai-s  —  as  the  consecjucnce  of  his  being  allowed  to  pro- 
ceed, and  the  creduloasly  superstitious  i)eople  will  believe  tliem, 
and  do  their  best  to  avert  such  dire  misfortunes  by  preventing 
the  white  man  from  ever  setting  his  eyes  on  the  soil  likely  to  be 
so  cui-sed  by  his  presence. 

Their  implement  of  divination,  simple  as  it  may  appear,  is  a 
cow's  or  antelope's  horn  (Uganga),  wliich  they  stuff  with  magic 
]>owder,  also  called  Uganga.  Stuck  into  the  ground  in  front  of 
the  village,  it  is  supposed  to  ward  off   the  attacks  of  an  enemy. 

By  simply  holding  it  in  the  hand  the  magician  jn-etends  he  can 
discover  anything  that  has  been  st<3len  or  lost,  and  instances  have 
l)een  told  of  its  dragging  four  men  after  it  with  irresistible 
imjHjtus  up  to  a  thief,  when  it  belabored  the  culprit  and  drove 
him  out  of  his  senses. 

So  imbued  are  the  natives'  minds  with  belief  in  the  power  of 
channel's,  that  they  i)'-iy  the  magician  for  sticks,  stones,  or  mud 
which  he  has  doctored  or  fetished  for  them.  Tliev  believe  certain 
flowei'S  held  in  the  hand  will  conduct  them  to  anvthiniif  lost,  iis 
also  the  voices  of  certain  wild  animals,  birds,  or  beasts,  will  ensui'e 
them  good  luck  or  warn  them  of  danger. 

They  have  many  other  and  horrible  devices.  For  instance,  in 
times  of  tribulation,  the  magician,  if  he  ascertains  a  war  is  pro- 
jected by  inspecting  the  blood  and  bones  of  a  fowl  which  he  has 
flayed  for  that  purpose,  flays  a  young  child,  and  having  laid  it 
lengthwise  on  a  path,  directs  all  the  warriora  on  proceeding  to 
battle  to  step  over  his  sacrifice  and  ensure  themselves  victory. 


166  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

These  extremes,  however,  are  not  often  resorted  to,  for  the 
natives  are  usually  content  with  simpler  means,  such  as  flaying  a 
goat,  instead  of  a  child;  while,  to  prevent  any  evil  approaching 
their  dwellings,  a  squashed  frog,  or  any  such  absui*dity,  when 
placed  on  the  track,  is  considered  a  specific. 

Human  sacrifice,  disgustingly  common  among  the  West  Coast 
tribes,  is,  with  the  exceptions  mentioned,  rather  a  rare  feature  in 
the  religious  rites  of  the  interior  tribes.  The  Waganda,  when 
they  go  to  war,  in  addition  to  the  sacrifice  of  a  child  for  the  pur- 
pose of  the  warriors  stepping  over  its  dead  body,  use  also  another 
and  still  more  inhuman  method  of  divination  in  which  a  child 
and  a  fowl  bound  together  are  smothered  in  the  steam  of  pots,  one 
inveited  over  the  other. 

The  min-maker  is'also  another  popular  figure  in  Africa,  but  the 
office  is  mther  a  perilous  one,  for,  if  the  rain-maker  fail  in  his 
methods,  liis  life  is  in  danger.  Baker's  description  of  one  of  these 
rain-makers  is  very  amusing.  The  hero  was  half  chief,  half  magi- 
cian, at  Obbo,  and,  at  the  time  the  incident  happened,  old  Katchiba, 
the  individual  in  question,  called  on  the  famous  explorer  and 
remarked  that  there  had  been  a  dreadful  drouth  for  a  fortnight. 

"  Well,"  I  rei)lie(l,  *'  you  are  the  rain-maker,  why  don't  you  give 
your  people  rain  ?  "  • 

"  Give  my  people  rain  ! "  said  Katchiba ;  "  I  give  them  rain  if  the}'- 
don't  give  me  goats  ?  You  don't  know  my  people  ;  if  I  am  fool  enough 
to  give  them  rain  before  they  give  me  goats  they  would  let  me  starve ! 
No,  no  !  let  them  wait ;  if  they  don't  bring  me  supplies  of  corn,  goats, 
fowls,  yams,  and  all  that  I  require,  not  one  drop  of  rain  shall  ever  fall 
again  in  Obbo.  Impudent  brutes  are  my  people !  Do  you  know  they 
liave  positively  threatened  to  kill  me  unless  I  bring  the  rain.  They 
sha'n't  have  a  drop ;  I  will  wither  the  crops,  and  bring  a  plague  upon 
their  flocks.     I'll  teach  these  rascals  to  insult  me ! " 

With  all  this  bluster  I  saw  that  Old  Katchiba  was  in  a  great 
dilemma,  and  that  he  would  give  anything  for  a  shower,  but  that  he 
did  not  know  how  to  get  out  of  the  scrape. 

Suddenly  altering  his  tone,  he  asked,  "  Have  you  any  rain  in  your 
country?"  I  replied  that  we  had  every  now  and  then.  "How  do  you 
bring  it?     Are  you  a  rain-maker  ?  " 

I  told  him  no  one  believed  in  rain-makers  in  our  country,  but  that  we 
understood  how  to  bottle  lightning  (meaning  electricity). 


FEUDALISTIC  MONARCHY.  167 

^  I  don't  keep  mine  in  bottles ;  I  have  a  houseful  of  thunder 
and  lightning,"  he  most  coolly  replied ;  ^«  but  if  you  can  bottle 
lightning  yon  must  understand  rain-making.  What  do  you  think  of 
the  weather  to-day  ?" 

I  immediately  saw  the  drift  of  the  cunning  Old  Katchiba ;  he 
wanted  professional  advice.  I  replied  that  he  must  know  all  about  it, 
as  he  was  a  reguLar  rain-maker. 

"  Of  course  I  do,"  he  answered,  "  but  I  want  to  know  what  you  think 
of  it." 

"  Well,"  I  said,  *'  I  don't  think  we  shall  have  any  steady  rain,  but  I 
think  we  may  have  a  heavy  shower  in  about  four  days."  (I  said  this 
as  I  had  observed  fleecy  clouds  gathering  daily  in  tlie  afternoon.) 

"  Just  my  opinion,"  said  Katchiba,  delighted,  "  in  four,  or  ])erhaps 
in  five  days,  I  intend  to  give  them  one  shower,  just  one  shower ;  yes, 
ni  just  step  down  to  them  now,  and  tell  the  rascals  that  if  they  will 
bring  me  some  goats  by  this  evening,  and  some  corn  to-morrow  morn- 
ing, I  will  give  them,  in  four  or  five  days,  just  one  shower." 

To  give  effect  to  this  declaration  he  gave  three  toots  on  his  magic 
whistle,  inquiring :     "  Do  you  use  whistles  in  your  country  ?  " 

I  only  replied  by  giving  so  shrill  and  deafening  a  whistle  on  my 
fingers  that  Katchiba  stopped  his  ears  and,  relapsing  into  a  smile  of 
admiration,  took  a  glance  at  the  sky  from  the  doorway  to  see  if  any 
sudden  effect  had  been  produced. 

"  Whistle  again,"  he  said  ;  and  once  more  I  performed  like  the  whistle 
of  a  locomotive.  "  That  will  do  ;  we  shall  have  it,"  said  the  cunning 
old  rain-maker,  and  proud  of  having  so  knowingly  obtained  "  counsel's 
opinion  "  on  his  case,  he  toddled  off  to  liis  impatient  subjects. 

In  a  few  days  a  sudden  storm  of  rain  and  violent  thunder  added  to 
Katchiba's  renown,  and  after  the  shower  horns  were  blowing  and 
nogaras,  or  drums,  were  beating  in  honor  of  their  chief.  Entre  7ious^ 
my  whistle  he  considered  infallible. 

Along  the  feverish  coiist  of  West  Africa  stretches  a  range  of 
country  about  three  hundred  miles  in  length,  from  the  Assinie 
River  to  the  River  Volta,  or  a  little  beyond,  to  the  fi-ontier  of 
Dahomey.  This  is  the  "Gold  Coast,"  low  and  sandy,  bounded 
on  the  east  by  the  dense  malarious  tropical  jungle  which  rises 
gradually  from  the  shore  to  the  height  of  about  fifteen  hundred 
feet,  the  whole  territory  which  goes  by  this  attractive  name  being 
about  two  hundred  miles  in  breadth. 

Visited  as  early  as  1364  by  French  adventurers  from  Rouen 


1S8  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

and  Dieppe,  it  is  now  ruled  as  a  crown  colony  by  Great  Britain. 
The  chief  establishments  for  trade  are  at  Cape  Const  Castle, 
Elinina,  and  a  few  other  places.  Cape  Coast  being  at  present  the 
seat  of  government.  In  the  interior,  and  on  both  sides  of  the 
River  Prah,  which  flows  through  it,  are  several  tiibes  or  nations 
of  kindred  mce  sjeaking  the  same  langu-ige  or  dialer  t  and  gov- 
erned bj  native  kings  of  a  moral  c  n  plexion  scarcely  less 
dusky  than  their  ikins 


These  ure  the  Wassaws,  Denkeras,  Assin,  Akem,  Aquapims, 
Aquamo,  Adangme,  Krolw,  and  many  other  "nations,"  subdivided 
into  different  tribes.  All  of  them  are  very  familiar  with  Eui-o- 
peans,  though  thej'  have  gained  little  by  this  intercourse,  except 
the  vices  of  tlieir  visitors. 

This  coast  was  long,  in  common  with  that  lying  north  and 
Houth  of  it,  the  active  scene  of  the  infamous  slave  ti'ade.  Under 
the  stimulus  of  the  riches  or  influence  acquired  through  it,  some 
of  these  petty  kingdoms  rose  into  impoitance,  formed  new  com- 
binations, or  fell,  as  rapidly  as  they  had  risen,  into  obscurity, 
after  the  decay  of  the  trafRc  m  human  flesh. 


FBODALI8TIC   MONARCHY. 


But  by  far  the  most 
important  of  all  these 
kingdoms  are  those  of 
the  F»nti»  and  AstiaiitiH, 
s  e  ]>  )i  r  ii  t  e  (I  from  eacli 
other  by  the  River  Prah ; 
the  one,  Fanti,  lying 
on  the  coast,  while  the 
other  in  in  the  interior. 
Apparently  one  people, 
and  speaking  almost  ex- 
ai-tly  the  same  language, 
they  have,  since  the 
Euj-o[iean3  made  their 
acquaintance,  been  po- 
litically separated,  raor- 
til  enemies  and  rivals, 
and  mainly  owing  to 
continued  disputes  in 
regard  to  a  claim  on  the 
[lart  of  the  Ashantis  for 
free  aet-ess  to  the  coast, 
[leriodically  at  war  with 
each  other. 

On  two  of  these  oc- 
casions the  British  gov- 
ernment has  been  foit^ed 
to  [n-ntect  the  Fantis 
from  their  more  warlike 
e  11  c  m  i  c  s,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  guard  their 
own  commercial  inter- 
ests, and  tlms  the  names 
of  the  Fantis  and 
Ashantis  liave  iM^come 
familiar  to  us. 

Tlie  Fantis  are  a  lazy,  good-for-nothing  set  at  present,  what- 
ever they  may  have   been  before  British  influeuee.     They   live 


160  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

along  the  coast,  and  chiefly  at  Cape  Coast  Castle.  They  are  well 
made,  muscular,  and  are  chocolate  colored  rather  than  black. 
Their  dress  is  a  cloth  round  the  waist  and  another  over  their 
shouldera  when  outside  their  houses,  the  upper  garment  being 
taken  off  when  a  superior  passes  them. 

The  women  are  not  good  looking,  but  have  fine  figures,  spoilt, 
however,  by  the  "dress  improver"  or  "cankey"  (a  name  also 
applied  to  a  loaf  of  bread),  which  they  wear  behind,  jind  which  is 
used  as  a  sort  of  saddle  for  carrying  their  children.  The  cloth 
round  her  waist  a  woman  allows  to  hang  down  in  the  form  of  a 
petticoat;  and,  if  she  is  married,  there  is  an  end,  or  another 
piece,  to  cover  her  lx)som. 

She  is  mentally  much  superior  to  the  man,  being  lively  and 
keen  with  eyes,  hands,  and  tongue.  In  the  last  Ashanti  war  tlie 
women  did  most  of  the  porter  work,  or  carrying  of  the  baggage. 
Both  sexes  prefer  as  their  "  cloths "  the  gaudiest  blue,  yellow, 
or  red  striped  calico.  A  girdle  or  string  of  beads,  made  of  glass, 
clay,  or  gold,  according  to  the  wealth  of  the  wearer,  is  always 
worn  around  the  waist. 

Their  head  dress  is  peculiar.  The  woolly  hair,  combed  out  with 
great  patience  until  it  may  attain  a  maximum  length  of  nine  to  ten 
inches,  is  then  ti-ained  up  in  the  form  of  a  ridge,  suppoiiied  by 
means  of  a  comb,  and  satiirated  with  grease.  Their  skin  is  diy 
and  rough,  lips  verj"  thick,  ears  large,  chin  protruding,  but  the 
nose  scarcely  so  flat  as  that  of  the  typical  negro. 

The  head  is  round,  but  the  face  long,  and  ornamented  with  a 
very  scanty  beard,  while  the  limbs  are  large-jointed,  bony  and 
muscular,  and  (if  possible)  the  women  are  uglier  than  the  men, 
tliat  is,  when  they  get  old;  and  age  among  this  people  means 
fc^ome  period  near  or  very  little  over  thirty. 

When  young,  the  girls  are  bright-eyed,  lithe  of  limb  and,  after 
custom  liiis  familiarized  the  stranger  witli  the  blackness  of  their 
skin,  are  not  absolutely  displeasing.  But  when  age  comes,  the 
face  assumes  a  monkey  look,  the  breasts  become  pendent,  and  the 
whole  pei-son  extremely  repulsive. 

The  Fanti  territory  is  divided  into  four  districts,  stretching 
about  thirty  miles  inland,  and  each  of  these  districts  is  governed 
by  a  king,  or  sometimes  by  two  joint  kings.     Succession  to  the 


FBVDALISTIC   MOHAROHY. 


161 


headship  of  the  tribes  is  hereditaiy  and  has  been  in  some  cases  held 
by  women.  The  king,  however,  of  the  confederation  of  tribes  is 
elected  hy  the  tribal  chiefs. 
Their  laws  are  despotic,  each 
chief  ruler  having  jmwer  over 
the  life  and  deiith  of  liis  sub- 

Crimiuals  ai'e  puiiislied  hy 
decaiiitation,  slavery,  foi-feit- 
ure  of  goods,  or  by  Ireing  ex- 
pelled and  exposed  to  s\mv 
death  by  famine  in  the  wil- 
derness. Inuoeeijce  or  fpiilt 
is  tested,  a.s  in  many  other 
portions  of  Africa,  by  meiins 
of  "oi-deals." 


A  CBIUIMAI,  DECAPTTATBD. 


For  instance,  a  suspect  is  ordered  to  drink  a  decoction  of  some 
poisonoiu  plant,  or  to  chew  a  handful  of  dry  rice,  when  his  inno- 
cence or  guilt  is  tested  hy  the  effect  of  the  "ordeal"  on  his 


162  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

stomach  or  his  saliva.  When  the  "  ordeal "  is  a  poison,  he  is  con- 
sidered innocent  if  his  stomach  rejects  it,  but  guilty  if  it  does 
not,  and  death,  of  course,  happening  in  such  cases,  the  man  is 
considered  properly  punished.  They  have,  however,  one  redeem- 
ing quality, —  they  provide  for  their  aged  parents. 

As  to  morals  among  the  Fanti,  they  have  long  mingled  with 
Europeans,  and  European  influence  on  the  Gold  Coast,  as  in  other 
portions  of  black  Africa,  has  been  invariably  coiTupting.  The 
slave  trade  was  at  one  time  almost  the  only  branch  of  commerce ; 
at  best  its  influence  on  the  native  character  was  pernicious. 

It  has  disappeared  now,  but  has  not  been  succeeded  by  any  other 
branch  of  legitimate  traffic  that  suffices  to  stimulate  the  possible 
latent  industiy  of  the  people.  Rum  and  other  articles  which  tend 
to  corrupt  the  morals  of  the  people  are  almost  the  only  articles  of 
import. 

In  return  for  the  moral  loss  sustained  by  the  presence  of  the 
English,  attempts  have  been  made  to  administer  an  antidote  to  the 
vices  introduced  among  them  by  traders,  in  the  shape  of  large 
doses  of  missionary  instruction.  Probably  no  set  of  savages  have 
ever  been  more  vigorously  plied  with  good  advice  at  certain  places, 
or  entirely  neglected  at  others,  than  have  the  Fantis.  Ceiiainly 
none  have  ever  profited  less  by  it. 

But  what  they  lack  in  religion,  they  make  up  in  the  quantity 
and  quality  of  their  superstitions,  not  the  least  astounding  of 
which  is  their  belief  in  a  child  "who  hiis  existed  from  the  begin- 
ning of  the  world,"  and  yet  has  neither  eaten  nor  drunken  during 
all  this  time,  and  of  course  cannot  be  expected  to  grow. 

To  represent  this  child  they  bonow  a  baby,  when  anyone  is 
found  rich  enough  to  pay  for  the  gratification  of  his  curiosity,  and 
the  guardian  of  the  sacred  Ixibe  paints  it  with  colored  clays  in  such 
a  style  tliat  it  cannot  be  recognized  as  belonging  to  this  world. 
This  guardian  is  genei-ally  a  hideous  old  woman,  who  must  be 
quite  cognizant  of  the  swindle  she  is  perpetrating,  though, 
strange  to  say,  Fantis  of  fair  education  have  been  known  to 
believe  in  this  ridiculous  impostuix3. 

Cannibalism  does  not  now  exist  among  the  Fantis  or  Ashantis, 
though,  when  General  Sir  Charles  Macarthy  was  killed  in  the 
first  Ashanti  war,  his  heart  was  eaten  by  the  latter  people  in  order 


FEUI  iacistic  MONABOHT.  168 


to  give  them  a  share  of  his  courage.  ITuinan  sacrifices,  though 
very  common  among  the  Ashantis,  have  now  fallen  into  dianse 
among  those  tribes  living  along  the  seaboard;  there  is,  however, 
little  doubt  hut  that  at  one  time  they  were  as  common  among  the 
fantis  ns  they  are  now  among  their  ferocious  neighboi's,  the 
Dahomans  or  Ashantis. 

Polygomy  is  permitted,  though,  for  financial  reasons,  is  not 
often  practised.  The  Women,  as  the  more  intellectual  and  ener- 
getic sex  of  the  Gold  Coast,  maintain  the  right  of  divorcing  a 
husband  if  he  shows  cowaixjice  in  battle. 

A  Fanti  lives  to  a  good  old  age ;  white  hair  is  nothing  uncom- 
mon amongst  them ;  but  die  he  must  in  due  course  by  rum,  or  the 
natural  order  of  events.  Great  pomp  is  the  rule  on  such  occasions- 
Professional  mourners  —  negro  mutes  —  are  hired  for  the  cere- 
mony ;  a  slieep  is  killed  for  the  funeral  feast,  and  the  shoulder  blade 
laid  on  the  grave,  where  it  is  permitted  to  remain  for  some  time. 

The  man  who  buries  another  succeeds  to  his  property,  hut 
he  also  succeeds  to  his  debts.  In  the  fii'st  case  the  heirs  take  veiy 
good  care  to  put  their  deceased  i-elative  under  ground,  but  with 
the  defaulting  debtor  there  is  not  the  same  stimulus  on  the  part 
of  his  relatives  to  perform  the  funeral  obsequies.  Accordingly, 
in  the  vicinity  of  every  Fanti  village,  corpses  will  be  found  lying 
exposed  on  a  platfoim,  merely  covered  with  a  cloth,  nobody  hav- 
ing beHi  found  financially  courageous  enough  to  bury  them. 

As  on  every  other  occasion  of  Fanti  mirth,  grief,  or  piety, 
insufferable  noise  accompanies  the  funeml  rites.  If  the  deceased 
has  been  a  man  of  any  note,  all  his  friends  —  and  the  great  man, 
as  all  the  world  over,  has  in  Fanti  land  an  infinitude  of  friends, 
even  after  he  is  dead  —  squat  in  front  of  the  house  and  celebrate 
the  inauspicious  event  by  drinking,  yelling,  singing,  smoking, 
and  firing  muskets. 

A  dog  is  sacrificed  before  the  hut,  after  which  the  corjwe  is 
buried  along  with  considerable  sums  of  money,  gold,  and  jewels 
of  some  value.  The  firet  thing  an  enemy  does  on  entering  the 
Fanti  country  is,  accordingly,  to  rifle  the  graves,  though,  indeed, 
this  is  occasionally  done  by  the  relatives  themselves,  in  spite  of 
all  the  tenors  of  fetish  and  demon,  for  avarice  is  at  times  stronger 
than  superstition.  ""^  '*-'"' '  ''  ""'-— ^^ 


164  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  amusements  of  the  Faiitis  are  few.  Yelling  and  dancing- 
seem  to  be  the  only  exertion.  Laziness  is  the  salient  minor  vice 
of  the  Fantis.  In  this  they  excel,  nor  can  anything  better  be 
expected  of  them.  They  live  under  a  tropical  sun;  they  have  an 
example  of  lassitude  in  the  European  comnmnity,  and,  above  all, 
exertion  can  scarcely  be  expected  of  people  whose  olily  ambition 
is  to  provide  for  their  daily  wants. 

Now  on  the  Gold  Coast  a  native  can  live  luxuriously  on  two 
cents  a  day,  and  the  exertion  of  a  few  houi-s  per  week  will  supply 
him  with  all  he  requires  in  the  way  of  rum,  gaudy  Manchester 
goods,  and  tobacco.  Even  then,  so  runs  Fanti  logic,  what 
necessity  is  there  for  his  exerting  himself  to  procure  even  that? 
Sis  wife  can  do  so.  Accordingly  in  Fanti  land  thei-e  is  an  equit- 
able division  of  labor,  the  wife  earns  the  living  and  the  husband 
consumes  it. 

Whatever  the  Fantis  may  have  been,  the  Ashantis  are  now,  at 
all  events,  a  much  superior  people,  intellectually,  and,  if  cour- 
age is  a  virtue,  morally  also.  Barbarous  no  doubt  they  are,  but 
it  is  almost  an  abuse  of  the  term  to  call  them  savage.  In  their  gov- 
ernment they  display  no  little  force  and  order,  and  a  well-estab- 
lished system  of  political  institutions,  the  history  of  which  can  be 
tmced  for  at  least  two  centuries. 

Statesman-like  ability  and  military  skill  are  distinguishing 
marks  of  the  aristocnxcy  of  the  kingdom,  and  the  common  people 
display  so  much  coui-age  in  battle  there  is  little  doubt  but  thjit 
within  the  Ashanti  kingdom  lies  the  element  of  a  great  African 
military  empire,  provided  the  people  were  efficiently  trained  and 
supplied  with  the  appliances  of  modem  warfare. 

And  among  such  strong-minded  men  there  is  liope  tliat  under 
moral  influences,  stronger  than  those  they  liave  yet  come  in  con- 
tact with,  the  very"  supei'stitions  —  black  jind  cruel  though  they 
be  —  which  at  present  give  them  a  pre-eminence  over  their 
neighbors,  might  be  transmuted  to  something  noble,  pure,  and 
sweet. 

Though  not  so  powerfully  made  ns  the  Fanti,  the  Ashanti  war- 
riors are  infinitely  more  courageous;  and  the  women  are  much 
better  looking  than  their  Fanti  sistei-s.  But  women  are  looked 
upon  as  a  rpgular  arllclo  ut  nierchdiidise,  and  nothing  astonished 


KEDDALISTIC   M((NAIICHY. 


lfi.5 


the  Ashanti  warriofs  more  than  that,  when  the  English  captured 
in  the  late  war  a  couple  of  women,  they  let  them  go  free. 

"What  a  curious  people  these  white  men  are  to  send  the 
women  awayl  Whtf^  this  i»  moneif.'"  was  their  cnnimentjiry,  A 
woman  among  them  is  always  worth  at  Icitst  twentj-  or  thirty 
doU'irs  ind  a  very  attractive  damsel  may  fetch  ti  much  is  thirty 
five    n  tl  e  n  atr  mon  il     i  ket 

Government  among  tl  e  A  1  a  t  s  s  more  absolute  r  less  feu 
dal  stic  than  amo  g  other  tnbes       The  s  iccess  o      lo      not    n 


in  a  direct  line  but  to  a  brother  or  neiihew,  in  wliich  latter  case 
the  nephew  is  not  the  son  of  tlio  king's  brother,  but  of  lils  sister, 
who  (and  this  is  a  strange  oonnncntar)'  on  savage  moral-s)  iiei'd  not 
be  married,  the  only  requisite  Ix'ing  th;it  the  prolKihU;  father  l)e 
strong,  good  looking,  and  of  repuliible  oiigiii. 

The  reason  they  give  for  this  depurture  fi'om  the  dimct  line  in 
the  succession  to  the  Ashanti  emwn  is  tliat  one  can  never  be  sure 
tliat  the  king  is  the  father  of  tlic  i]UCTit*s  son,  and  that  as,  more- 
over, the  queens  are  almost  invarinbly  of  humljle  origin,  making 
the  son  of  the  "princess  royal  "  the  licir  secures  tliat  at  least  there 
should  be  some  kingly  blood  in  the  occupant  of  the  throne. 


/ 


166  THE  STORY  OF  GOVERNMENT. 

Failing  the  brother  or  the  nephew,  the  sou  can  occupy  the 
throne ;  failing  all  three,  the  chief  slave  of  the  dead  king.  But 
the  unwritten  constitution  of  Ashanti,  though  allowing  very 
8ummaiy  powers  to  the  sovereign,  controls  him  in  many  ways. 

The  powers  of  the  "Kotoko,"  or  council,  curb  the  tyranny 
of  the  king,  for  he  is  bound  to  consult  them  in  all  questions  of 
foreign  policy,  and  war  or  peace.  He  also  voluntarily,  in  times 
of  trouble,  summons  to  his  aid  a  few  chosen  councillors,  whose 
advice  he  takes  or  rejects,  as  seems  good  to  him. 

His  civil  list  is  great:  tribute  is  paid  by  the  vassal  princes, 
taxes  are  levied  on  all  the  villages,  or  "crooms,"  while  tolls  and 
custom  dues  make  up  the  rest  of  the  revenue.  He  hiw  also  in  his 
own  hands  various  gold  mines,  and  levies  a  handsome  percentxige 
on  all  the  gold  found  in  his  country,  to  which,  indeed,  he  makes 
a  formal  claim,  not,  however,  except  in  rare  cases,  enforced. 
All  nuggets,  however,  strictly  escheat  to  the  king  as  his  special 
property. 

But  where  every  man  is  a  soldier,  and  the  king  is  dependent  on 
the  good-will  of  his  subjects  —  warlike  though  they  be  —  before 
he  can  cany  out  any  of  his  ambitious  schemes,  he  is  not  veiy 
apt  to  unnecessarily  irritate  them. 

From  this  point  of  view  there  is  much  to  be  said  in  favor 
of  a  feudal  monarchy,  such  as  that  of  Ashanti.  Yet  between  the 
highest  nobles  and  the  king  there  is  a  wide  gulf;  as  in  Dahomey 
the  prime  minister,  or  even  greatest  general,  will  humble  himself 
in  the  dust  when  entering  the  dread  presence  of  roj'ulty.  A  des- 
cription of  an  Ashanti  king,  by  a  great  African  traveller,  gives 
an  excellent  example  of  the  richness  of  the  kingdom  as  well 
as  the  bill  baric  pomp  of  a  feudal  sovereign :  — 

His  manners,  says  Bowdich,  were  majestic,  yet  courteons,  and 
he  did  not  allow  his  surprise  to  beguile  him  for  a  moment  of  the  com- 
posure of  a  monarch.  He  appeared  about  thirty-eight,  inclined  to 
corpulence,  and  of  a  benevolent  countenance  ;  he  wore  a  fillet  of  aggry 
beads  round  his  temple,  a  necklace  of  gold  cockspur  shells  strung  by 
their  largest  ends,  and  over  his  right  shoulder  a  red  silk  cord  suspend- 
ing three  sapphires  cased  in  gold.  His  bracelets  were  the  richest  mixture 
of  beads  and  gold,  and  his  fingers  were  covered  with  rings ;  his  cloth 
was  a  dark  green  silk ;  a  pointed  diadem  was  elegantly  painted  in  white 


FEUDALISTIO  HONABCHY.  167 

on  hiB  forehead,  also  a  pattern  resembling  an  epaalet  on  each  shoulder, 
and  an  ornament  like  a  full-blown  rose,  one  leaf  rising  above  another 
until  it  covered  his  whole  breast;  his  knee-bands  were  of  aggry  beads, 
and  his  ankle-strings  of  gold  ornaments  of  the  most  delicate  workman- 
ship, small  drums,  swords,  guns,  and  birds  clustered  together.  His  san- 
dals, of  a  soft  white  leather,  were  embossed  across  the  instcp-band  with 
small  gold  and  silver  cases  of  sapphires ;  he  was  seated  in  a  low  chair, 
richly  ornamented  with  gold ;  and  he  had  a  pair  of  gold  castanets  on  his 
finger  and  thumb,  which  he  clapped  to  enforce  silence.  The  belts  of 
the  guards  behind  his  chair  were  cased  in  gold,  and  covered  with  small 
jaw-bones  of  the  same  metal. 

The  elephants'  tails,  waving  like  a  small  cloud  before  him,  were 
spangled  with  gold,  and  large  plumes  of  feathers  were  flourished  amid 
them.  His  eunuch  presided  over  these  attendants,  wearing  only  one 
massive  piece  of  gold  about  his  neck  ;  the  royal  stool,  entirely  cased  in 
gold,  was  displayed  under  a  splendid  umbrella,  with  drums,  horns, 
and  various  musical  instruments,  cased  in  gold,  about  the  thickness  of 
cartridge  paper. 

Large  circles  of  gold  hung  by  scarlet  cloth  from  the  swords  of  state, 
the  sheaths  as  well  as  the  handles  of  which  were  also  cased ;  hatchets 
of  the  same  were  inter-mixed  with  them ;  the  breasts  of  the  Ochras 
and  various  attendants  were  adorned  with  large  stars,  crescents,  and 
gossamer-wings  of  solid  gold. 

The  profusion  of  gold  in  this  picture  brings  us  to  a  considera- 
tion of  the  principal  Ashanti  industiy,  namely,  the  gold  mines 
with  which  they  allow  no  white  man  to  interfere.  When  the 
Creator  first  made  the  world,  according  to  their  philosophy.  He 
created  a  black  man  and  a  white  man. 

To  the  black  man  He  offered  a  calabash  of  gold,  rich  soil,  a 
mud  hut,  and  all  the  fruits  of  the  earth  in  abundance ;  but  the 
white  man  preferred  a  quantity  of  paper,  pens,  and  ink,  and 
having  got  knowledge,  prospered  over  the  black  man,  who  in  his 
ignorance  pi*efeiTed  the  apparent  natural  riches.  Yet  having 
made  their  choice,  they  say,  they  intend  sticking  to  it;  let  the 
white  man  keep  to  his  ink  and  paper. 

A  license  is  exacted  from  every  one  in  the  kingdom  of  Ashanti 
wearing  gold  ornaments.  Strictly  speaking,  all  the  gold  found 
belongs  to  the  king;  and  when  a  nobleman  or  rich  man  dies  the 
gold  he  may  leave  behind  him  becomes   his  majesty's  property. 


168  THE   STORY  OF   GOVEKNMENT. 

Moreover,'  it  is  forbidden  for  anyone  but  the  king's  servants 
to  sweep  the  market  place  at  Coomassie,  for  among  the  sweep- 
ings may  be  found  some  particles  of  dust  which  have  been 
dropi)ed  in  the  course  of  barter,  gold  dust  being  the  ordinary  com- 
merce of   the  country. 

When  the  king  dies,  his  treasures  are  buried  with  him  in  the 
Bantama,  or  sepulchre  of  the  Ashanti  monarchs;  and  no  doubt, 
had  Sir  Garnet  Wolseley,  as  was  originally  his  intention,  de- 
stroyed this  sacred  enclosure,  much  of  the  treasure,  the  absence 
of  which  80  disappointed  the  English  soldiers,  would  have  been 
found. 

"  Aggry  beads  "  are  ornaments  highly  prized  by  the  Ashantis. 
Their  origin  is  rather  obscure,  and  though  the  artists  of  Birming- 
ham have  attempted  to  imitate  them,  they  have  hitherto  failed  to 
produce  a  sham  which  will  impose  upon  the  art  connoisseurs  of 
the  Gold  Coast. 

It  is  probable  that  they  are  glass  mosaics,  and  of  Egjrptian  or 
PhoBnician  manufacture.  The  Egyptians  or  Phcenicians  might 
have  sold  their  goods  to  the  Berbei-s,  and  by  them  the  aggry  beads, 
among  other  manufactures  of  these  ingenious  dwellers  in  Tyre 
or  on  the  Nile  banks,  might  have  been  passed  from  tril)e  to  tribe 
until  they  reached  far  away  Ashanti. 

By  Ashanti  law  if  an  aggry  beiul  is  broken  in  a  scuffle,  seven 
slaves  must  be  paid  to  the  owner,  or  in  other  words,  upwards  of 
$225.  They  are  usually  found  at  some  distance  from  the  sea,  and 
though  only  picked  up  now  and  then  by  accident,  are  yet  plenti- 
ful, proving  that  during  the  times  these  beads  readied  the 
Ashantis,  in  far  away  ages,  the  trade  of  the  Gold  Coast  must 
have  been  flourishing. 

The  Ashanti  method  of  extracting  the  gold  from  the  soil  is  verj^ 
primitive.  A  quantity  of  the  earth,  sand,  and  gravel  through 
which  the  scales  and  little  bits  of  gold  are  scattered,  is  dug  up  by 
means  of  a  hoe,  and  washed  in  a  calabash  by  a  sharp  rotiiry  move- 
ment, which  gradually  tosses  off  the  earth  and  sand,  and  allows 
the  heavier  gold  to  remain  at  the  bottom  of  the  vessel. 

It  is,  in  fact,  exactly  the  same  method  of  washing  gold  as  that 
known  in  California  as  "panning  out,"  a  plan  only  adopted  in 
that  coiuitry  for  the  purpose  of  testing  the  richness  of  a  "placer  " 


FEUDALISTIC   MONABCHy.  169 

or  gold  deposit.   .  The  g^Id  saved  by  this  method  of  washing  is 
then  put  into  quills  for  safe  keeping. 

So  thickly  impregnated  is  the  soil  with  gold  that  even  by  this 
iiide  mode  of  extraction  great  quantities  ai-e  obtained.  After 
eveiy  shower  of  i-ain  the  streams  carry  down  sand  Ifiden  with  the 
precious  metal,  which  on  their  subsiding  is  found  mixed  up 
with  the  alluvium  left  behind  on  the  banks. 

With  the  improved  appliances  now  used  in  gold  washing 
immense  quantities  might,  no  doubt,  be  obtained ;  an  experienced 
Ashanti  gfold  washer  calculates  tliat  in  the  coui-se  of  a  year  he 
will  obtain  about  twenty  "minkali,"  in  value  two  slaves,  or 
about  *80.00. 

Gold-buying  on  the  west  coast  of  Africa  is  not  a  trade  that  an 
inexperienced  hand  need  take  up.  The  weights  are  black  seeds 
called  "telekessi,"  and  each  bu3'er  has  his  own  weights  and 
scales,  so  it  is  a  pitched  battle  between  seller  and  purchaser  as  to 
who  can  cheat  the  other. 

"  Bogus  dust "  is  marnifactured  by  preparing  nuggets  of  copper 
and  silver  mixed,  and  the  fine  dust  gold  is  simulated  by  copper 
filings  and  red  conil  powder.  The  "telekessi"  weights  are 
soaked  in  butter  to  make  them  heavier,  and  imitation  ones  of 
pebble  are  even  put  in  their  place,  from  which  it  is  evident  that 
some  of  the  business  devices  of  our  modern  industrial  sjrstem  are 
in  vogue  among  the  savages. 

Mr.  Skertchly  mentions  that  in  a  small  factory  on  the  Gold 
Coast  he  hiis  seen  as  much  as  three  hundred  ounces  of  gold  taken 
in  a  single  day.  At  all  the  factories  there  are  professed  "gold- 
takew,"  whose  duty  it  is  to  assay  all  the  gold  before  it  passes 
into  the  ti*ader\s  hand,  so  as  to  detect  and  reject  the  "  Brummagem 
nuggets"  which  fire  continually  offered  them. 

A  half  naked  savage  will  arrive  in  the  factory  with  gold  dust 
to  exchange  for  guns,  powder,  or  cloth.  The  dust  is  carefully 
tied  up  in  small  pieces  of  paper  in  one  corner  of  his  waist  cloth, 
or  often  enough  conccjiled  in  the  intricate  mazes  of  his  wool. 
The  small  packet  is  opened,  and  the  gold-taker  empties  it  into 
a  copper  blow  pan,  shaped  like  a  banker's  sliovel  without  a 
liandle,  and  with  a  dexterous  movement  of  the  wrist  separates 
the  large  from  the  small  particles. 


170  THB   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

With  a  feather-tip  he  then  picks  out  all  the  suspicious  par- 
ticles and  bits  of  dust,  and  with  a  wonderfully  regulated  pufif 
blows  off  the  specks  of  mica  and  pyrites  which  would  otherwise 
have  escaped  unnoticed.  The  blown  gold  is  then  weighed  and 
handed  over  to  the  trader. 

The  wages  of  a  good  gold-taker  are  very  high,  and  some  over- 
acute,  but  penny-wise-and-pound -foolish  j)ersoiis,  who  have  dis- 
pensed with  the  services  of  these  gold-takers,  and  liave  relied  upon 
the  efficiency  of  aquafortis  and  touchstone,  have  found,  on  con- 
veying the  gold  dust  to  England,  that  they  have  been  buying 
silver  gilt,  or  even  gold  dust  made  in  Birmingham  itself. 

The  dress  of  the  Ashantis  consists  of  a  tunic  of  colored  calico 
or  some  other  cloth,  while  for  higher  occasions,  or  for  the  clothes 
of  rich  men,  silk  woven  in  the  native  looms  is  substituted.  Oma^ 
ments  of  gold,  silver,  and  "aggry  beads"  are  worn,  either  as 
decorations  or  as  charms  against  illness,  witxjhci-aft,  or  other  mis- 
fortune. 

The  grandees,  when  in  full  uniform,  add  "jujus,"  or  breast- 
plates of  gold,  and  other  glittering  omjiments,  and  cover  their 
heads  with  horned  helmets  of  an  cxtraordinarj'^  shape,  and  waving 
feather  plumes.  They  frequently  decorate  their  faces  with  deli- 
cately painted  imtterns  in  green  or  white  paint  on  the  cheeks  and 
forehead.  They  have  seveml  musical  instruments,  and  are  fond 
of  dancing,  mimicry,  story-telling,  songs,  and  all  sorts  of  fun. 

Each  nobleman  has  his  own  band  of  minstrels  and  heralds, 
who  used  to  patrol  the  city  at  stated  houi*s  of  certain  days, 
playing  the  tunes  which  belong  to  their  respective  mastei-s. 
Feudalism  is  apt  in  all  countries  to  have  the  same  belongings, 
and  hence  we  see  in  Africa  much  wliicli  will  remind  the  reader 
of  similar  scenes  in  Europe  during  the  sway  of  the  mediaeval 
chivalry. 

The  industries  of  the  Ashantis,  apart  from  mining,  though 
limited,  are  interesting.  Their  looms  are  formed  on  the  same 
principle  as  ours.  Their  cloths,  in  fineness,  brilliancy,  and  size, 
are,  when  we  consider  the  appliances  by  which  they  have  been 
produced,  and  the  innate  laziness  of  the  native  AfricJin,  admira- 
ble. They  also  paint,  with  great  ease  and  rapidity,  white  cloths, 
and  excel  in  pottery  and  goldsmith's  work. 


FEUDALISTIG  MONARCHY.  171 

Their  weights  are  very  neat  brass  casts  of  almost  every  animal, 
fruit,  and  vegetable  known  to  them,  though  the  original  ones  iu 
the  shape  of  seeds  are  still  occasionally  used,  and  univei*sally  so 
on  the  coast  for  weighing  gold.  They  also  do  good  work  in  iron^ 
tan  leather,  and  are  skilful  carpentei-s. 

The  Ashanti  army  is  recruited  from  all  able-bodied  men,  and 
is  very  numerous.  Bowdich  calculated  that  there  wei^e  150,000 
ready  forces,  and  204,000  fit  to  bear  arms.  The  number  has 
been  calculated  somewhat  higher  since  his  day,  viz.,  at  300,000. 

Looking  at  the  Ashanti  army,  as  compared  with  the  fierce 
rabbles  which  go  under  that  name  in  other  portions  of  Africa,  it  is 
almost  in  a  state  of  discipline.  War  is  begun,  if  not  with  all 
the  foiins,  yet  with  much  of  the  crnft,  diplomatic  duplicity,  and 
wholesale  lying  prevalent  in  more  civilized  communities^ 

When  the  Ashanti  monarch  proposes  to  invade  another  tribe  or 
nation,  he  despatches  envoys,  laden  witli  rich  presents,  to  the 
neighboring  powers,  appealing  with  one  hand  to  their  sense  of 
justice,  by  pointing  out  how  great  hjis  Ixjen  the  pi-ovocation,  and 
what  a  "  jutt  and  holy  war  "  is  the  systematic  murder  in  which 
he  is  about  to  engage;  and  with  the  other,  while  assuring  them 
of  his  friendship  and  affection,  he  takes  care  to  point  out  how 
they  can  be  benefited,  if  not  by  helping,  at  least  by  not  impeding 
him  in  his  proposed  operations. 

He  has  generals,  if  he  does  not  command  himself,  who  are 
accomplished  in  all  the  tactics  of  savage  warfare,  ambuscade, 
flanking  attacks,  and  feigned  retreats.  The  craft  of  the  diplom- 
atists in  the  council  is  equalled  by  the  courage  of  the  troops  iu 
the  field. 

Every  man  knows  his  place,  and  as  soon  as  war  is  declared  he 
accouties  himself  with  musket  and  cartouch  box,  and  provisioning 
himself  for  a  time  with  a  few  kalo  nuts  and  a  little  maize  meal, 
joins  the  company  to  which  he  belongs. 

The  enemy  will  supi)ly  the  rest  of  his  commissariat,  for,  like 
Stonewall  Jackson,  his  motto  is  "Always  forage  on  the  enemy." 
As  soon  as  the  army  is  on  the  march,  the  women,  daubing  them- 
selves with  white  clay,  and  stripping  themselves,  march  through 
the  towns,  beating  the  drum  and  belaboring  any  wight  who  may 
have  remained  at  home. 


172  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Carpenters,  blacksmiths,  and  other  ai-tisans  accompany  the 
army,  sutlei-s  sell  provisions  and  cheat  like  sutlers  the  world 
over,  while  money  lendera  advance  casli  to  impecunious  soldiera 
at  an  interest  of  120  to  300  per  cunt.  Lastly,  in  the  van 
follow  the  women  bearing  pots,  calabashes,  and  other  cooking 
utensils. 

In  battle  the  women  stand  behind  their  husbands,  supply  them 
with  powder,  and  animate  them  with  songs.  When  the  battle 
begins  skirmishers  advance  ;  these  are  slaves  whose  lives  are  of 
little  value.  The  secondaiy  captains  fight  in  the  front  ranks, 
while  the  great  nobles  and  the  king  sit  behind  on  stools,  shaded 
by  the  huge  umbrellas  which  denote  their  rank. 

They  are  like  the  officei-s  in  some  Spanish-American  republics, 
who,  after  the  battle  has  commenced,  take  to  the  rear  of  their 
troops,  and  shout  valiant  conmiands  to  them,  inculcating  in 
sonorous  language  how  glorious  it  is  to  fight,  or  even,  if  neces- 
sary, to  die  for  one's  country,  while  they  at  the  same  time  are 
preparing  to  falsify  their  maxim  by  flight. 

Hence  they  are  called  *'  encoumgei's  "  by  the  cynical  soldiery. 
In  the  same  manner  the  Ashanti  encoumgers  remain  in  the  rear, 
sunt)unded  by  young  men  who  cut  down  those  who  attempt  to 
reti*eat.  "It  is,"  says  the  Ashanti  soldier,  "just  iis  well  to  die 
fighting,  for  if  we  attempt  to  escape  we  are  killed  anyhow." 

The  commander-in-chief,  while  the  battle  is  raging,  sits  on  his 
stool  playing  some  kind  of  musical  instrument,  as  if  to  impress  the 
bystandei-s  that  he  is  so  confident  of  victoiy  as  to  be  perfectly 
easy  as  to  the  result.  In  case  of  defeat,  the  captains  are  expected 
to  commit  suicide. 

When  the  day  is  lost  they  seat  themselves  calmly  on  casks  of 
gunpowder,  and  blow  themselves  up  into  the  air,  that  the  Aslianti 
proverb  may  be  fullilled,  "It  is  shame  which. causes  the  chief  to 
die.'*  If  victorious,  they  never  pui-sue  the  enemy  when  it  is  near 
sunset. 

During  the  active  part  of  the  campaign  the  anny  is  forbidden 
all  other  food  except  meal,  a  quantity  of  which  each  soldier  carries 
in  the  bag  by  his  side,  and  mixes  with  the  fii*st  water  he  finds. 
No  fires  are  allowed  to  be  lit. 

They  eat  a  little  bit  of  the  heart  of  the  first  enemy  slain,  and 


FEUDALISTIC    MONARCHY. 


173 


wear  ornaments  of  liis  teeth  and  bones.  The  wliolc  fcinial  system 
of  Ashanti  is  favorable  to  military  discipline,  anil  at  the  same 
time  conducive  to  fostering  the  war  spirit  and  the  greed  of  mili- 
tary glory  and  gain. 

The  ))eople  are  a  nation  of  soldiers  as  well  disciplined  as  a 
barbarous  amiy  can  lie.  To  the  neighboring  jiowers  tliey  were, 
until  their  late  reveise  at  the  hands  of  the  British,  a  name  of 


terror.  The  Fantis  cnnHidered  it  useless  to  oppose  them;  the 
verj' name  of  "Shanti"  Wiw  almost  suiliciciit  to  make  tlieni  rmi. 
But  though  the  Asliaiitis  could  con<|iier,  thev  ccmid  not  govern, 
and  one  tribe  after  aiiotlifi  lias  revolted  from  their  rule,  and 
either  assei-te<l  their  piistiiu-  inde[>endence,  or  formed  a  new  com- 
bination fatid  ti>  tlieir  cojKpu'iois.  Since  the  monarchy  sustained 
its  last  shock,  at  tlie  hands  of  the  British,  sevenil  other  tributaries 
have  revolted  fi'om  under  its  sway,  tliough  they  are  likely,  before 
long,  to  be  i-econquered. 


174  THE   STORY   OP    GOVERNMENT. 

Police  i-egulations  are  strictly  followed  out  in  Coomassie,  the 
capital  of  this  feudal  kingdom;  none,  except  with  the  sanction 
of  the  king,  can  go  out  of  doors  at  night,  and  policemen  —  wild- 
looking  beings  with  heads  half  shaved,  long  hair  falling  over 
their  foreheads,  and  with  lances  in  their  hands  —  patrol  the 
btreets  to  see  that  this  tyrannical  regulation,  apparently  a  bit  of 
military  despotism  to  prevent  the  chance  of  plots  or  revolts,  is 
carried  out  with  i-elentless  rigor. 

Another  curious  regulation,  which  shows  that  the  Ashanti  laws 
are  not  the  poitentous  gro^vth  of  mere  wantonness  uncontrolled  by 
the  people,  or  undirected  by  some  sound  underlying  principle,  is 
that  the  king  must  attend  all  fires.  This  is  a  wise  provision, 
though  in  a  town  where  fires  must  be  common,  a  severe  tax  upon 
such  a  luxurious  monarch,  for  under  the  eye  of  the  royal  dis- 
penser of  life  and  death  the  acting  firemen  will  not  be  apt  to  be 
dilatoiy  in  their  duties  when  the  fire  horn  is  blown. 

When  an  Ashanti  dies  his  body  is  buried,  and  along  with  it  a 
quantity  of  the  gold  he  may  have  possessed;  a  similar  cus- 
tom to  one  prevalent  among  the  Fantis.  The  Bantama  is  the 
mausoleum  of  the  kings,  as  well  as  a  place  of  human  sacrifice, 
and  the  great  spiritual  stronghold  of  the  priests.  In  this  sacred 
place  is  kept  the  skull  of  Governor  Sir  Charles  Macarthy,  who 
was  killed  in  the  fii-st  war.  "By  Wednesday  and  Macarthy"  is 
a  sacred  Ashanti  oath. 

This  skull  the  Ashanti  kings  have  converted  into  a  drinking 
cup,  out  of  which,  on  solemn  occasions,  they  quaff  their  nim. 
Into  this  Bantama  no  stranger  is  allowed  to  set  his  profane  foot. 
A  trusty  chief  and  a  jiowerful  guard  watch  it  day  and  night.  It 
is,  according  to  the  varying  accounts,  from  half  a  mile  to  a  mile 
and  a  half  from  Cooma^isie,  and  is  connected  with  the  capital  by 
a  broad  road. 

On  tlie  decease  of  any  pei-son  of  rank,  numerous  human  lives 
are  sacrificed,  tlie  number  being  proportionate  to  the  dignity  of 
the  deceased.  On  the  death  of  the  mother  of  tlie  king  who  ruled 
the  country  in  Bowdicli's  time,  no  less  than  tluee  thousand 
human  beings  were  butchered;  and  on  his  own  death,  though 
we  have  no  certain  information,  most  probably  the  number  was 
doubled. 


176  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  funeral  rites  of  a  great  captain  are  often  repeated  regularly 
every  week  for  two  or  three  months  at  a  stretch,  and  on  each 
occasion  about  two  hundred  persons  sacrificed.  These  victims  are 
usually  slaves  or  culprits,  and  principally  females,  but  it  is  usual 
to  "wet  the  grave  "  with  the  blood  of  a  freeman  of  respectability. 

Among  the  rites  of  the  Ashanti  and  Daliomey  nations  few  are 
more  familiar  in  name  to  the  most  cui-sory  reader  of  books  of 
West  African  travel  than  the  so-called  murdei-ous  ceremonies 
kno\VTi  as  the  customs. 

The  word  is  an  Anglicized  or  corrupted  form  of  the  French 
coutume^  a  general  habit  —  the  "general  habit  "in  this  case  both  in 
Dahomey  and  Ashanti  —  being  the  slaughter,  in  a  more  or  less 
cruel  manner,  and  accompanied  with  immense  pomp  and  state 
ceremonial,  of  vast  numbers  of  people,  chiefly  slaves  and  criminals, 
at  certain  seasons  of  the  year.  Long  habit  has  rendered  the  per- 
formance of  these  ceremonies  imperative. 

Abominable  though  they  are,  they  have  even  met  a  faint,  half- 
hearted defence  or  apology  from  white  men  as  political  necessities, 
for  they  say  that  in  Ashanti  or  Dahomey  the  alx)lition  of  human 
sacrifice  would  deprive  the  people  of  one  of  their  great  annual 
spectacles,  and  thereby  endanger  the  very  monarc^hy  itself.  A 
parallel  piece  of  political  management  is  to  be  found  in  the  bloody 
gladiatorial  shows  with  which  the  Roman  despots  appeased  the  pas- 
sions of  the  populace.  The  ruling  idea  throughout  seems  to  lx> 
to  send  messengers  to  the  dead  or  to  the  gods  in  the  persons  of 
those  who  are  killed.  They  Ijelieve  tJiat  the  body  contains  a 
spirit  or  ghost  which  exists  after  death,  and  which  flits  alx)Ut 
the  neighborhood  of  the  grave,  and  even  revisits  its  old  home,  and 
holds  converse  with  those  it  formerly  loved,  or  plays  pranks  on 
those  it  disliked;  is,  in  fact,  an  ethereal,  disembodied  human  being, 
subject  to  all  the  passions  and  whims  of  such  a  one  in  the  flesh. 

By  the  grave  of  the  dead  man  are  accordingly  placed  food  that 
he  may  eat,  or  rather  that  he  may  eat  the  "  spirit "  of  the  food, 
and  vessels  tliat  he  may  cook  it. 

For  food  and  vessels,  in  fact  all  objects  animate  or  inaniniJite, 
liave  equally  souls  or  spirits  which  live  in  an  after  world,  and 
which  can  ticcompany  their  spirit  master  on  his  journeys  to  and 
from  that  shadowy  land.     They  also  believe  in  a  hades,  a  country 


FEUDALISTIG  MONARCHY.  177 

below  the  ground  wliere  the  '^dead  dwell  in  a  life  that  shall  have 
no  end/' 

In  the  other  world  only  kings,  princes,  and  nobles  enjoy  all 
voluptuous  delights ;  the  poorer  people  wait  on  them  and  share 
a  little  in  their  pleasures.  Not  only  in  this  hades,  or  heaven  — 
for  what  its  exact  character  is,  is  somewhat  dubious  even  in  their 
own  philosophy  —  do  men  come  to  life  and  revel  in  palm  wine 
and  wives,  but  they  also  believe  tliat  all  garments  a  man  has  woiti 
out  will  then  come  to  life  again  —  a  resurrection  of  old  clothes. 

Besides  this,  liis  relations  display  their  affection  by  giving 
him  an  outfit  of  weapons,  ornaments,  new  cloth,  crockery  ware, 
etc.,  so  that,  like  the  son  of  a  modem  rich  man,  he  may  go  to  the 
devil  like  a  gentleman.  But  who  is  to  carry  these  things  and  look 
after  them?  Evidently  his  wives  and  slaves.  Therefore,  a  num- 
ber of  these  are  killed  to  keep  him  company,  and  often  a  slave  is 
killed  some  time  after  his  de<ith  to  tivko  liim  a  message,  or  as 
an  addition  to  his  houseliold. 

In  Dahomey  this  custom  of  sending  messengera  is  organized 
into  a  system.  Thus  originated  human  sacrifice  which  is,  grant- 
ing the  truth  of  the  theor}'  on  which  it  is  based,  a  most  mtional 
custom.  Death  is  disagreeable  to  us  because  we  do  not  know 
where  we  are  going,  but  to  the  widow  of  an  African  chieftain  it 
is  merely  a  sui'gical  operation  and  a  change  of  existence.  That 
explains  why  Africans  submit  to  death  so  quietly. 

A  woman  at  Akropong  selected  for  the  sacrifice  was  stripped 
according  to  custom,  but  only  stunned,  not  killed  by  the  blows. 
She  I'ecovered  her  senses  and  found  hei-self  lying  on  the  ground 
surrounded  by  dead  bodies.  She  rose,  went  into  the  town  where 
the  elders  were  seated  in  council,  and  told  tliem  she  liad  been  to 
the  "Lord  of  the  Dead,"  and  had  ])een  sent  back,  because  she  was 
naked  ;  tlie  elders  must  dress  her  finely  and  kill  her  over  again.  This 
was  accordingly  done. 

But  there  is  another  kind  of  human  sacrifice,  the  slaying  of 
men  and  women  as  gifts  to  the  gods.  In  Ashanti  the  first  form 
of  sacrifice  is  pi-actised.  When  one  of  the  royal  family  dies, 
slaves  are  killed  by  the  hundred.  Horrible  as  it  may  seem  that 
such  a  thing  should  still  exist,  yet  it  is  true  that  human  sacrifices 
have  become  in  Ashanti,  as  in  Dahomey,  public  entertainments. 


178  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  sight  of  an  executioner,  in  a  shaggy  cap  of  black  monkey 
skin,  the  same  kind  that  is  used  for  ladies'  muffs,  chopping  off  the 
bead  of  a  slave,  is  to  the  Ashantis  what  the  sports  of  the  amphi- 
theatre were  to  the  Romans,  or  bull  tights  to  the  Spaniards  of  the 
present  day. 

Public  executions  in  all  countries  draw  large  crowds  of  specta- 
tors, and  in  Ashanti  this  penchant  of  the  multitude  has  been  culti- 
vated and  developed  into  an  artistic  feeling.  Decapitation  has 
become  with  them  an  art  as  various  as  music.  There  are  two 
movements  in  vogue,  tlie  allegro^  in  which  the  head  is  twisted  away 
by  a  sharp  knife  with  a  dexterous  turn  of  the  wrist  and  the 
adcyio^  in  which  the  head  is  sawn  off  in  slow  time. 

So  common  had  this  spectacle  become  in  the  days  prior  to  the 
fall  of  Coomassie,  that  when  the  little  son  of  one  of  the  German 
missionaries  —  who  was  freed  by  King  Coffee  on  the  approach  of 
the  English  troops  —  was  angiy  at  anyone,  he  would  exclaim, 
'*  Your  head  will  fall  to-morrow  I  " 

Slicing  off  heads  had  been  one  of  the  most  common  sights  that 
the  child  had  seen,  and  was  in  his  eyes  the  punishment  for  the 
most  trifling  offence.  The  place  where  the  bodies  are  cast  is  a 
swampy  place  near  the  town,  and  when  the  English  troops 
visited  it  the  effluvia  from  swollen,  putrefying  bodies  filled  the 
air  with  a  carrion  stench. 

The  whole  of  the  blood-stained  town  had  the  odor  of  death,  and 
every  breeze  that  was  wafted  over  it  bore  on  it  the  smell  of  decay- 
ing humanity,  wliile  piles  of  skulls  and  human  bones  testified  to 
the  long  continuance  of  these  horrible  sacrifices.  In  Ashanti  the 
two  great  seasons  of  sacrifice  are  the  Yam  and  tlie  Adai  customs. 

The  Yam  custom  occui-s  in  the  beginning  of  September,  at  the 
season  when  the  yams  are  ripe,  and  is  the  greatest  of  the  two 
customs;  it  consists  in  the  sacrifice,  with  much  ceremony  and 
many  rites,  of  large  numbers  of  human  beings  before  the  yams  are 
allowed  to  be  gathered. 

The  Adai  customs,  divided  into  the  "Great"  and  ''Little,"  are 
celebrated  every  three  weeks,  though  with  less  expenditure  of  life 
each  time  than  during  the  Yam  celebration.  In  November,  1881, 
a  report  reached  Europe  that  Mansah,  King  of  Ashanti  —  a  brother 
of  Koffee,  who  was  deposed  by  his  irat«  subjects  —  had  slain  two 


FEUDALISTip  HOKAROHT.  179 

hundred  girls  in  order  to  mix  their  blood  with  the  '^  swish/'  or 
clay,  for  his  new  palace. 

The  story  proved  unfounded,  though  quite  in  accord  with 
Ashanti  ideas  and  customs,  and  a  widespread  superstition  of  all 
countries  and  ages.  In  PoljTiesia,  for  example,  the  foundations 
of  some  of  the  temples  were  laid  amid  human  bodies ;  under  the 
gates  of  Mandalay  "spirit  watchera"  were  buried,  and  not  long 
ago  a  panic  pervaded  the  native  quarter  of  Madras  out  of  the 
rumor  that  the  English  government  were  about  to  ensure  the 
safety  of  the  new  harl)or  works  by  sacrificing  a  number  of  human 
beings. 

The  religion  of  the  Ashantis^is  as  rude  as  their  rites  in  honor  of 
it  are  bloody.  "Nyonmo"  is  their  Supreme  Being,  and  nearly 
evjpry  heavenly  or  terrestrial  phenomenon  is  one  of  his  manifesta- 
tions. They  worship  the  earth  and  the  sky  as  separate  deities, 
which  exercise  their  influence  over  mankind;  while  trees  auid 
rivers,  which  are  also  manifestations  of  their  gods,  can  only  exer- 
cise a  limited  power  over  particular  towns,  districts,  or  men. 

**Kra,"  or  the  soul  of  man,  existed,  in  their  belief,  before  the 
body,  and  is  transmitted  from  one  man  to  another,  so  that  the 
soul  which  left  the  body  of  an  old  man  may  liave  entered  the  body 
of  the  child  just  born.  The  priest  will  augur  in  regard  to  the 
destiny  of  the  babe  yet  unljoni,  by  asking  its  future  Km  to  tell 
one  as  to  its  foitune  in  life. 

This  Ki-a  is  distinct  from  the  body,  and  can  give  advice,  either 
good  or  bad,  according  to  its  sex  (for  there  are  male  and  female 
Kras),  to  the  body  which  it  inhabits.  Evil  spirits  and  ghosts  are, 
however,  what  the  Ashantis,  like  the  other  West  Africans,  mostly 
fear;  and  to  avert  their  displeasure,  resort  is  had  to  charms  or 
fetishes,  which  may  be  anything,  from  a  human  sacrifice  to  a  pot 
of  filth  compounded  by  the  fetish  priest. 

>  Mr.  Reade  who  lived  long  among  the  Ashantis  says  :  It  is  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  these 
Africans  are  a  stupid  people  because  they  liave  no  books,  and  do  not  wear  many  clotlics.  Tlie 
children  do  not  go  to  school,  but  they  sit  round  the  fire  at  night,  or  beneath  tlio  town  tree  in 
the  day,  and  listen  to  tlieir  el<ler5,  who  discuss  ]>o1itics,  and  matters  relating  to  government* 
law,  and  religion.  Every  man  in  a  tribe,  and  every  slave  belonging  to  a  tribe,  has  learned  at 
an  early  age  the  constitution  by  which  he  is  governed,  and  the  policy  pursued  towards  foreign 
tribes.  In  such  a  land  as  Ashanti  the  kings  and  chiefs  are  profoundly  skilled  in  the  arts  of 
diplomacy.  Their  weapon  of  offence  is  treachery  ;  the  weajMu  of  defence,  suspicion.  They^ 
hare  no  aoiiiples  and  no  delusions.  They  never  hesitate  to  betray,  and  always  hesitate  to 
beliflTO* 


180  THE   STORY   OP  GOVERNMENT. 

At  the  entrance  of  towns,  dwellings,  and  all  places  of  public 
resort,  are  fetislies  to  avert  evil ;  and  the  pathway  of  the  English 
army,  all  the  way  from  the  Pi-ah  to  Coomassie,  was  strewn  and 
littered  with  fetishes  to  avert  calamity  to  tlie  nation,  and  to  pre- 
vent the  sacred  city  being  reached  by  them. 

A  fetish  is  indeed  something  which  is  popularly  supposed  to  com- 
bine in  itself  the  god  or  his  attributes.  Fetishism  is  defined  by 
Lubbock  as  "the  stage  in  which  man  supposes  he  can  force  the 
Deity  to  comply  with  his  desires,"  and  Comte  has  used  it  to 
express  a  genei-al  theory  of  primitive  religion,  in  which  external 
objects  are  regarded  "as  animated  by  a  life  analogous  to  man's.'' 

Fetishism  thus  includes  the  woi-ship  of  "stocks  and  stones," 
and  thence  passes  by  an  imperceptible  gradation  into  idolatry. 
A  bit  of  rag,  the  claw  of  some  animal,  peculiarly  shaped  stones,  or 
I'oots,  bones,  birds'  beaks,  anything,  constitutes  a  fetish,  and 
"making  fetish"  consists  mainly  in  yelling  or  dancing. 

■  The  government  of  Dahome  or  Dahomey,  as  it  is  usually  spelled, 
presents  some  very  singular  points.  The  monarchy  is  absolute 
within  certain  limits,  yet  a  wise  king  always  takes  care  not  to  inin 
counter  to  the  wishes  of  his  subjects  in  any  matter  of  national 
imi)ortance,  or  when  the  public  sentiment  has  been  firmly  and 
unmistakably  expressed. 

But  the  curiousness  lies  in  the  fact  that  the  monarchy  is  of  a 
dual  character,  the  authority  of  the  real  sovereign  being  theoreti- 
cally supposed  to  be  shared  by  a  "bush-king,"  an  idea  which  wa.^ 
the  offspring  of  the  brain  of  Gfou,  the  eighth  king  of  the  present 
line. 

This  bush-king,  though  a  mythical  peraonage,  has  all  the 
honors,  privileges,  and  appurtenances  of  a  regular  sovereign,  and 
the  annual  "customs  "  are  prolonged  to  nearly  double  their  former 
length  in  order  to  do  him  honor.  He  has  a  palace  where  looms 
are  at  work,  making  cloth  for  his  household,  pipes,  and  other 
manufactures,  a  monopoly  of  which  is  granted  by  the  king  to  the 
landlord  or  keeper  of  the  palace  of  this  shadowy  being.  In  addi- 
tion, he  has  his  officers  of  state. 

In  a  word,  he  is  the  "c7ow5Ze"  of  the  real  king  or  "akhosu"; 
and  whatever  is  done  for  the  king  in  public  has  to  be  thrice 
repeated ;  once  for  the  Amazons,  or  female  guards,  then  for  Ad- 


FEUDALWTIU   MONARCHY. 


c]okpoii,  the  Imsli-kiiig,  and  lastly  fov  Addok- 
pcin's  Amazons.  The  ohject  of  the  iiiHtitution 
of  this  bush-kmg  is  amuaing- 

G»?zu  was  anxious  to  share  in  the  profits  of 
the  palm  oil,  imd  other  trades,  hut  could  not 
consent  to  demean  liis  royal  hands  hy  mingling 
in   commercial   transactions.     Aecoi-dingly  the 
idea  of   a  "donhle"   who  should  he 
the  tinding  monarch,  while  the  real 
sovereign  should  have  all  the  pleas- 
ure  of   spending  the   proceeds,   was 
seized   upon.       G^zu's    douhle    was 
called   Gahqpweh,    or    "Market-day 
coming." 

The  king  makes  most  of  tlie  laws, 
after  submitting  them  to  his  priiici- 
[wl  ministers,  whose  opinion  is  always 
accepted;  and  if  they  approve  of  the 

^* 


182  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

"Act  of  Parliament,"  hei-alds  are  sent  around  and  proclaim  it  to 
the  people.  The  people  have,  however,  the  privilege  of  pro- 
posing an  amendment  on  an  old  law,  when  the  'pro%  and  c<yn»  are 
discussed  fully  in  public,  without  any  fear  of  offence.  So  on  the 
whole,  the  legislative  element  is  in  mther  a  high  state  of  perfec- 
tion in  the  kingdom  of  Dahomey.  Minor  offences  are  judged 
by  the  caboceers,  or  nobles,  but  all  crimes  involving  capital 
punishment  are  heard  by  the  king,  who  alone  has  the  power  of 
life  or  death.  Many  of  the  laws  are  very  just  and  appropriate 
to  the  kingdom,  but  others  are  mere  caprices  of  a  despotic  and 
whimsical  monarch. 

Take  a  few  examples :  —  No  person  is  allowed  to  marry  a  wife 
imtil  he  has  fii-st  asked  permission  of  the  king,  who  can,  if  he 
likes,  enlist  her  in  the  Amazonian  corps;  no  subject  is  allowed 
to  sit  on  a  chair  in  public,  to  wear  shoes,  or  to  ride  in  a  hammock ; 
no  goods  landed  at  Wliydah  can  be  I'eshipped;  no  Dahomey 
woman  is  permitted  to  leave  the  country,  and  so  on. 

Every  man  is  liable  to  serve  as  a  soldier,  and  consequently  each 
individual  in  the  country  is  esteemed  according  to  his -military 
rank,  and  the  position  which  that  i-ank  entitles  him  to  hold  in 
the  different  wings  of  the  army,  these  being  of  unequal  honor  in 
public  esteem. 

The  "Ningan"  is  the  prime  minister  and  commander-in-chief 
of  the  kingdom,  in  addition  to  being  chief  magistrate,  superin- 
tendent of  police,  and  principal  executioner.  No  visitors,  unless 
they  are  created  war  captains,  can  hold  any  convei'sation  with 
him;  and  though  prime  minister,  he  has  no  dealings  with  civil 
business. 

All  such  contemptible  *affairs  as  trade  palavera  and  diplomacy 
are  beneath  the  dignity  of  an  official  whose  sole  business  in  life  is 
death.  He  alone,  of  all  the  Dahoman  subjects,  can  address  the 
king  with  tlie  prefix  "  Asah,"  a  word  supposed  to  resemble  a  lion's 
roar.  Like  all  the  high  dignitaries,  he  perfonns  most  of  his 
duties  by  deputies,  who  are,  liowevcr,  men  of  mark. 

The  second  minister  of  the  realm  is  the  "'Meu,"  whose  duties 
are  onerous  and  multifarious.  All  the  visitoi-s  to  the  court  are 
placed  under  his  care.  He  is  the  executioner  of  all  the  bush- 
kind's    victims   at   the    annual    customs,    and    collector    of    the 


184  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

revenue.  Next  to  the  Meu  is  the  Avogan  or  Viceroy  of  Whydah. 
In  addition,  there  are  several  other  officials  whose  positions  do 
not  seem  to  be  very  settled  and  who  perform  various  offices. 

The  eunuchs  rank  next  to  the  ministers.  They  superintend 
the  Amazons'  quarters,  and  have  many  privileges  not  accorded  to 
other  subjects.  The  night  guards  of  the  palace,  and  the  town 
police,  are  also  officials  of  high  rank.  The  trade  captains,  or 
"  Akhisin,"  inspect,  if  at  Whydah,  all  ships'  cargoes,  and  receive 
the  customs'  duties.  Last  of  all  come  the  commanders  of  the 
various  towns,  who  form  alx)ut  one  fifth  of  the  whole  army. 

The  soldiere  are  divided  into  several  corps,  distinguished  by 
different  uniforms.  Each  soldier  is  equipped  at  the  government 
expense,  but  they  receive  neither  pay  nor  rations,  and  on  the 
march  are  expected  either  to  cany  their  own  provisions,  to  pur- 
chase them,  or  to  forage  for  them  upon  the  enemy's  country. 
Fresh  elephant  steaks  on  such  mai-ches  are  frequently  eaten  raw, 
being  supposed  to  impart  cunning  as  well  as  courage. 

Every  soldier  is  expected  to  bring  back  a  head  or  a  prisoner; 
and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  campaign  the  prisoners  and  heads  are 
delivered  over  to  the  king,  who  pays  each  man  a  fixed  price  for 
his  human  plunder.  Sometimes,  in  war  time,  the  king  will,  at 
his  own  charge,  ransom  captives  of  his  people  taken  by  the  enemy. 

Surprise  is  the  chief  tactic  practised  in  war,  and  so  secret  is 
eveiything  kept  that,  on  the  declaration  of  hostilities,  it  is  rare 
that  the  king  tells  even  his  first  minister  which  town  he  intends 
to  attack  firet.  The  ai-my  marches  in  silence,  not  along  the 
regular  coast,  but  by  pathways  cut  in  the  bush;  no  fires  are  lit; 
and  all  stragglei's  are  taken  prisoners. 

In  the  dead  of  night  the  town  is  surrounded,  and  just  before 
daybreak,  when  all  is  quiet,  the  town  is  assailed,  and  all  the 
inhabitants,  if  possible,  captured,  the  object  of  all  such  attacks 
being  not  to  kill,  but  to  take  prisonei-s,  who  are  either  reserved 
for  the  annual  customs,  or  sent  as  slaves  to  different  parts  of  the 
kingdom,  or  enlisted  in  the  Dahoman  army,  where  the  highest 
offices  are  open  to  them. 

The  women  are  made  servants  to  the  Amazons,  and  reside 
witliin  the  precincts  of  the  palace.  The  town  itself  is  usually 
destroyed,  with  all  its  other  living  inhabitants.     If  resistance  is 


^yj^^N::?^) 


186  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

attempted,  then  the  struggle  is  bloody,  but  short,  for  African 
aboriginal  courage  is  but  a  spasmodic  quality;  once  let  it  evap- 
orate, it  never  returns  in  time  to  enable  the  scattered  army  to 
rally.     The  first  repulse  is  the  last. 

Disease  and  hardship  decimate  the  army  while  on  these  slave- 
hunting  expeditions  more  than  the  sword.  If  small-pox  breaks 
out  the  mortality  is  something  dreadful;  three  out  of  the  nine 
kings  of  the  present  dynasty  have  fallen  victims  to  this  disease. 

Perhaps  the  most  extraordinaiy  feature  in  Dahoman  economy 
is  the  corps  of  Amazons  or  female  warriors.  This  word  long  ago 
got  incorporated  from  the  Greek  into  our  language  as  expressing 
a  masculine  woman,  but  what  these  Amazons  really  ai-e  is  not  so 
generally  known.  Their  origin  among  the  Africans  dates  from 
1728,  when  the  exigencies  of  war  compelled  the  then  king  to 
organize  a  regiment  of  women,  with  whom  he  attacked  and 
defeated  the  old  Whydahs.  Since  then  they  liave  been  a  marked 
feature  in  the  military  establishment  of  the  Dahoman  kingdom. 

Under  Gdzu  the  corps  attained  its  maximum  of  gi*eatness.  With 
that  acuteness  which  distinguished  him  he  raised  the  Amazonian 
body  from  being  merely  a  subordinate  establishment  to  an  equal 
level  with  the  male  soldiers,  and  created  female  officers,  so  that, 
by  surrounding  himself  with  a  band  of  viragos,  bound  to  him 
by  all  the  ties  of  gratitude  and  interest,  he  could  at  once  put  a 
check  on  too  ambitious  subjects,  and  nip  in  the  bud  the  first  signs 
of  rebellion. 

On  a  certain  day,  once  in  three  years,  every  subject  must  pre- 
sent himself,  with  his  daughtens  above  a  certain  age,  before  the 
king.  The  most  promising  of  those  belonging  to  the  higher 
classes  he  selects  as  officers,  the  poorer  ones  b^ing  chosen  as  sol- 
diers, while  the  children  of  slaves  become  the  servants  of  the 
Amazons  who  reside  within  the  palace. 

This  done,  the  other  daughters  are  returned  to  their  parents  to 
be  disposed  of  as  they  may  find  proper.  Some  of  the  selected 
girls  are  "dashed"  or  presented  to  the  most  meritorious  soldiers 
as  wives,  and  all  the  female  children  of  these  Amazonian  wives 
are  Amazons  by  birth-right.  The  king,  too,  takes  several  Ama- 
zons as  concubines,  under  the  name  of  "leopard  wives,"  who 
enjoy  many  privileges. 


ISUDALISTIG   MONARCHY.  187 

With  these  exceptions,  every  Amazon  is  a  celibate;  but  as 
military  discipline  is  not  always  equal  to  preventing  the  little 
god  Cupid  from  his  mischievous  work,  a  fetish  —  called  ihe 
Demen  —  is  erected  over  one  of  the  palace  gates,  which  by  its 
power  at  once  discovers  any  Amazon  who  is  unfaithful  to  her 
military  oath  in  the  matter  of  celilxicy. 

Tlie  infoimera  also  —  who  in  these  cases  are  generally  jealous 
of  the  culprits  —  ai-e  never  backward  in  causing  the  misdemeanor 
of  the  erring  soldieress  to  reach  the  ears  of  the  king,  and  her  fears 
being  worked  on,  she  almost  invariably  confesses  the  name  of  her 
lover.  The  result  is  that  botli  are  punished,  he  assuredly  by  a 
cruel  death,  and  she  in  all  likelihood  by  blows  from  the  hands  of 
her  comrades. 

Though  the  flower  of  this  coi-ps  of  female  soldiers  perished 
under  the  walls  of  Abeokeuta  in  1864,  their  number  may  be  yet 
about  four  thousand.  They  are  divided  into  three  brigades,  each 
of  which  has  a  peculiar  head  dress  or  method  of  dressing  the  hair. 

Each  of  these  brigades  is  commanded  by  female  officers  and  sul>- 
officers,  and  is  again  divided  into  Agbaraya,  or  Blunderbuss 
women,  the  veterans  of  the  aimy  only  called  into  action  in  case  of 
urgent  need;  the  Gbeto,  or  Elephant-huntresses,  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  corps  in  the  army,  who  on  hunting  expeditions 
are  exposed  to  great  danger  from  the  infuriated  animals;  the 
Nyekpleh-hentoh,  or  Razor  women,  of  whom  there  are  only  a  few 
to  each  wing. 

Their  special  object  of  attack  is  the  king  of  the  enemy,  and  the 
huge  razors  which  they  carry  are  especially  intended  for  the  decapi- 
tation of  this  monarch.  Lastly,  there  are  the  Gulonentoh,  or 
Musketeei's,  and  the  Gohento,  or  Areheresses,  who  are  all  young 
girls,  and  more  of  a  show  coi^ps,  their  weapons  being  of  compara- 
tively little  use  in  active  warfare. 

In  addition  there  are  troops  of  camp-followers,  hewers  of  wood, 
and  drawers  of  water.  Even  they  enjoy  certain  privileges.  If 
met  with  in  the  pathway,  headed  by  a  beldame  ringing  a  bell, 
every  man,  unless  bearing  the  "king's  stick"  as  insignium  of 
rank,  must  instantly  disappear  to  the  right  or  left.  To  look  upon 
them  would  be  a  crime.  Accordingly  they  are  exceedingly  self- 
important  and  arrogantly  jealous  of  their  prerogatives. 


188  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

All  the  corps  of  Amazons,  with  the  exception  of  the  Aivh- 
eresses,  are  armed  with  muskets  or  blunderbusses,  kept  scrupu- 
lously clean,  but  though  these  female  warrioi-s  are  brave  to 
fei-ocity,  they  are  poor  markswomen,  hitting  a  haysfcick  being 
about  the  sum  of  their  rifle  accomplishments. 

The  bush-king  has  also  his  Amazons,  and  every  official,  high 
and  low,  has  also  his  '"'  double  "  among  them.  If  an  officer  is 
elevated  to  a  higher  rank,  an  Amazon  within  the  pilace  also  gets 
a  similar  title.  The  mothei-s  and  wives  of  deceased  kings  have 
also  their  representatives  among  the  Amazons,  who  are  called 
Akhosusi  (king's  wives  or  Mi  no,  mothei-s). 

The  term  "mother"  in  Dahomey  is,  however,  a  term  of  i-e- 
spect,  and  does  not  mean  a  maternal  relative.  Though  the  value 
of  the  Amazonian  corps  has  been  justly  celebrated  as  winning 
victories  for  the  Dahoman  king,  yet  at  the  same  time  we  must 
remember  that  its  existence  is  one  of  the  causes  of  the  slow  de- 
cadence of  that  kingdom.  The  pix)portion  of  celibates  is  too  gi-eat 
for  the  populfition,  being  somewhei-e  about  three  to  one. 

Four  thousand  women  represent  twelve  thousand  children, 
the  greater  numlxjr  of  whom  are  lost  to  the  State,  which  cannot 
afford  such  a  drain.  This,  combined  with  the  losses  by  disease 
and  war,  is  one  of  the  fertile  sources  of  the  national  loss  of  pres- 
tige, which  is  only  too  true;  and  ere  long,  unless  there  is  a 
change,  Dahomey  will  l)e  classed  among  the  nations  of  the  past. 
A  special  decoration  is  reserved  for  Amazons  who  have  slain 
enemies  in  battle.  This  is  a  cowry,  glued  by  the  blood  of  the 
slain  man  to  the  butt  of  the  musket,  one  cowTy  for  each  enemy  slain. 

Until  Burton's  time  we  knew  almost  nothing  of  the  fetishism 
which  constitutes  the  religion  of  the  Dahomans.  The  tradei*s  in 
charge  of  the  ''factories*'  on  the  coast  could  tell  little.  Their 
tiilk  was  of  oil,  dust,  and  ivory,  and  they  were  more  concerned 
about  how  much  was  to  l)e  made,  honestly  or  dishonestly,  out  of 
the  "black  ivory,"  than  what  their  religion  or  customs  w^ere.  So 
though  for  two  centuries  we  have  had  intercourse  with  Dahomey, 
we  are  still  much  in  the  dark  in  regard  to  the  nature  of  their 
deities  and  forms  of  worship.  This  we  know,  however,  that  they 
believe  in  a  Supreme  Being,  and  in  a  host  of  minor  deities. 

Mau,  the  Supreme  Being,  resides  in  a  wonderful  dwelling  above 


PKUDALI8TIC   MONARCHY.  189 

the  flky,  and  is  of  so  exalted  a  nature  as  to  care  very  little  for 
men  and  their  trials.  To  obtain  his  aid,  special  invocation  must 
he  directed  to  him.  Even  then  he  commits  the  care  of  human 
heinga  to  monkeys,  who  in  one  place  frequent  a  natnntlly  teiTaced 
river- bluft  to  ivhich  pilgrimages  are  made  and  wliicli  is  called  the 
Hill  of  the  Holy  Monkeys.  (Juaixliansliip  of  human  beings  is 
also  entrusted  to  leopai'ds,  snakes,  locusts,  alligatoi's,  and  inanimate 


objects  —  stones,   rags,   cowries,    leaves   of   certain    trees  —  in   a 
word,  to  anything  and  everything. 

Man's  assistiint  keeps  a  record  of  the  good  and  evil  deeds  of 
every  pei'son  by  means  of  notches  on  a  stick;  and  when  anyone 
dies  his  Itody  is  judged  according  to  tiie  records  on  this  monvl 
tally.  If  his  good  deeds  predominate  he  joins  his  spirit  in  Kut-o- 
men  or  the  "Dead-land";  but  if,  on  tlie  contrary,  his  evil  deeds 
pre[>onderate,  tlien  his  Ixxly  is  entirely  desti"oyeil,  and  a  new  one 
created  for  the  habitation  of  his  spirit  or  soul. 


190  THE  STORY  OP   GOVERNMBNT. 

In  this  belief  the  spirit  has  no  concern  with  the  body;  it  is 
released,  whether  the  deeds  of  the  person  have  been  good  or  evil, 
immediately  after;  and  whatever  is  the  social  condition  of  a  per- 
son when  he  leaves  this  world,  the  same  will  be  his  social  con- 
dition in  the  next. 

The  slave  on  earth  is  the  slave  in  the  spirit  land;  the 
king  is  still  the  monarch  there.  The  ghosts  of  parents  or  rela- 
tions take  great  interest  in  the  affairs  of  their  kin  on  the 
earth,  advising  them  as  to  their  conduct  and  affairs  out  of  the 
depth  of  knowledge  which  their  residence  in  the  spirit  world  has 
given  them.  If,  however,  the  misconduct  of  those  on  earth  is 
great,  then  this  protection  may  be  taken  from  them  and  given  to 
entire  strangers. 

The  "  customs  **  are  compliments  paid  to  these  guardian  spirits, 
and  to  stop  them  would  l)e  to  insult  these  all-powerful  and  useful 
beings.  When  the  Dahoman  monarch  requires  special  advice,  he 
applies  to  the  Bassajeh  or  holy  women,  who  consult  the  oracle  and 
obtain  an  answer.  The  common  people  in  the  same  way  apply  to 
a  fetish  priest,  who  will  act  as  a  medium  between  the  gods  and 
men. 

To  every  man  is  assigned  at  birth  a  certain  number  of  deeds, 
good  and  bad.  He  ^is  not  to  blame  for  those  bad  deeds  allotted 
to  him,  but  he  can  avoid  committing  them  by  making  certain 
offerings  to  the  deity  through  the  medium  of  the  fetish  priest. 
The  Dahoman  is  thus  an  eminently  religious  man.  Every  action 
of  his  life  is  mixed  up  -with  his  religious  ideas,  and  is  mingled 
with  the  desire  of  obtaining  a  status  in  eternity. 

Certain  priests  pi*etend  to  have  seen  this  far  away  land  of 
Kutomen;  and  if  a  person  is  dying  he  will  often  pay  a  handsome 
fee  to  the  priest  to  pay  a  visit  to  Kutomen,  with  a  view  to  beg 
the  spectral  ancestor  to  excuse  the  sick  man  attending  the  sum- 
mons. If  the  patient  recovers,  the  priest  gets  the  credit  of  per- 
suading the  ghost  to  jirolong  his  residence  on  the  earth ;  but  if 
not,  then  he  has  always  the  excuse  that  the  spirit  will  accept  of 
no  subterfuge,  and  commands  immediate  i)resence. 

Upon  one  occasion,  says  Mr.  Skertchly,  I  saw  a  priest  who  was 
about  to  depart  on  a  visit  to  Hades.  He  received  his  fee  beforehand, 
cautious  fellow,   and   went  into   an   empty  shed   near  the   patient's 


I'EITDALISTIC   MONARCHY.  191 

house.  He  then  drew  a  circle  on  the  ground,  and  took  oat  of  his 
M possible  sack"  a  number  of  charms,  all  tied  up  in  blood-stained  rags. 

Squatting  down  in  the  centre  of  this  magic  circle,  and  bidding  us  on 
no  account  to  step  within  it,  he  covered  himself  with  a  large  square  of 
grey  baft,  profusely  and  elaborately  ornamented.  In  a  few  minutes  he 
commenced  to  mutter  some  unintelligible  sounds  in  a  low  voice,  his 
body  and  limbs  quivering  like  an  aspen.  Half  an  hour  of  this  farce 
ensued,  when  the  fetisher  uncovered  himself  and  prepared  to  deliver 
the  message. 

He  said  that  he  had  found  considerable  difficulty  in  obtaining  access 
to  the  ghost  who  had  summoned  the  patient,  as  when  he  knew  that  a 
priest  was  coming  he  hid  in  the  bush.  He  said  that  the  ghost  was  that 
of  Nuage  (one  of  the  sick  man^s  dead  uncles),  and  that  he  was  much 
offended  by  this  summons  not  being  answered  in  person ;  but  in  con- 
sideration of  certain  sacrifices  offered  to  Guh,  he  would  think  over  the 
matter.  Rather  an  ambiguous  answer,  but  just  in  the  prevaricating 
manner  affected  by  all  priests,  whether  in  Japan  or  on  the  Yellowstone. 

From  the  statement  of  these  priests  it  appears  that  life  in  the  other 
world  is  much  the  same  as  in  this  —  wars,  palavers,  feasts,  dances,  and 
other  incidents  going  on  in  the  same  way  as  on  eartli.  It  appears  that 
the  clothes  in  which  the  deceased  is  buried  accompany  him  to  Kuto- 
men,  for  sometimes  a  priest  will  bring  back  with  him  a  necklace,  bead, 
or  other  small  article  known  to  have  been  buried  with  the  corpse  of 
the  person  who  summons  the  sick  man. 

Sir  Richard  Burton  mentions  the  case  of  a  priest  who,  "  after 
returning  with  a  declai-ation  that  he  had  left  a  marked  coin  in 
Dead-land,  drop{>ed  it  from  his  waistcloth  at  the  feet  of  the  payer 
while  drinking  rum."  A  singular  belief  is  that  a  spirit  may  be  m 
moi*e  places  than  one  at  the  same  time.  Hence  it  is  believed  that 
a  spirit  may  remain  in  spirit  land,  and  yet  be  in  the  person  of  a 
newly  bom  infant. 

Thus  all  the  king's  children  are  inhabited  by  the  tmnsmigrated 
spirits  of  former  kings,  their  ancestors.  The  African  cannot  gi-asp 
the  idea  of  a  deity  omniscient  and  omnipresent;  accordingly  he 
has  a  number  of  media  between  himself  and  Mau,  the  Supreme 
Being. 

The  Dahoman  denies  that  his  Supreme  Being  has  bodily  foim, 
but  yet  he  ascribes  to  him  human  passions ;  a  sti*ange  medley  of 
contradictions.     They  are  not  polytheists ;   they  worship  but  one 


192  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

god,  who  is  approached,  not  through  minor  deities,  but  through 
go-betweens,  viz.,  fetishes.  These  are,  in  a  word,  like  the  saints 
or  angels  of  Christendom,  "beings  who  have  powerful  influence 
for  good  or  evil  with  Mau." 

The  most  powerful  fetish  is  Danh-gbwe,  the  tutelary  saint  of 
Whydah,  which  is  pei-sonified  by  the  harmless  snake  so  named. 
Its  worship  was  introduced  into  Dahomey  when  the  kingdom  of 
Whydah  was  conquered  and  annexed.  In  Whydah,  hidden  from 
eyes  profane  by  a  thick  grove  of  fig  trees,  is  the  famed  Danh- 
hweh,  or  fetish  snake-house. 

This  is  nothing  more  than  a  circular  swish  hut,  the  very  model 
of  the  Parian  inkstand  to  be  seen  in  every  toyshop.  From  the 
roof  depend  pieces  of  cotton  yarn,  and  on  the  floor,  which,  in  com- 
mon with  the  walls,  is  whitewashed,  are  several  pots  of  water.  The 
pythons,  to  the  number  of  twenty-two,  are  coiled  on  the  top  of 
the  wall,  or  twined  around  the  rafters.  All  these  hideous  reptiles 
are  sacred. 

To  slay  one,  even  by  accident  —  for  to  do  so  purposely  would 
not  be  dreamt  of  —  used  to  entail  instant  sacrifice  to  the  gods^ 
and  confiscation  of  all  the  offender's  property  to  the  fetish  priests. 
Nowadays  his  punishment  is  not  so  severe,  but  still  exemplary 
enough.  The  offender,  after  a  meeting  of  all  the  fetishers  of  the 
neighborhood  is  convened,  is  seated  within  a  hut  of  stick, 
thatched  with  dry  grass,  and  built  in  the  enclosure  in  front  of 
the  snake-house.  His  clothes  and  body  are  well  daubed  with 
palm-oil,  mixed  with  the  fat  of  the  murdered  snake  god. 

At  a  given  signal  the  hut  is  fired,  and  the  materials  being  like 
tinder,  the  unfortunate  offender  against  tlie  majesty  of  the  snake 
is  enveloped  in  flames.  In  excmciating  torture  he  rushes  out  of 
the  flames,  his  clothes  on  fii-e,  to  the  nearest  water,  pursued  by 
the  infuriated  priests,  who  belabor  liini  with  sticks,  stones,  and 
all  sorts  of  rubbish. 

If  he  reaches  the  water  he  is  free,  and  should  he  survive  has  ex- 
piated his  crime.  Few  are  able  to  run  the  gauntlet,  and  gener- 
ally expire  before  reaching  the  cooling  water,  clubbed  to  death 
l)y  the  fetishnien,  the  Danh-yhive-no^  or  snake -mothers,  as  they 
are  called. 

As  the  door  of  the  snake  temple  is  always  open,  the  snakes  fre- 


FEDDALISTIC   MONAKCHY.  193 

quently  wander  out  after  nightfall.  If  any  peraon  meets  one,  he 
must  prostrate  himself  before  it,  carrying  it  tenderly  in  his  anna  to 
the  temple,  where  his  humanity  to  the  snake-god  is  rewarded  by 
his  being  fined  for  meeting  the 
snake;  and,  if  lie  cannot  or  will 
not  j)ay,  he  is  imprisoned  until 
the  uttemiost  cowry'  is  ex- 
tracted from  him. 

Ordiniiry  snakes  may  be  killf<l 
with  impunity,  but  woe  to  him 
who  injures  the  Danli-gbw 
The  snake  priests  have  viirio 
neophytes  or  pupils,  who  are 
instructed  in  the  mysteries  jiei- 
taining  to  ophio logical  theology. 

Tliese  neophytes  are  re- 
cruited in  the  following  ivay: 
If  a  child  is  tjmcheil  by  one  of 
these  snakes  in  his  nocturnal 
excursions,    it    it  devoted  ever 

after  to  the  priesthood  of  the  snake,  and  its  jnirents  are  forced  to 
pay  large  fees  for  its  lengthy  instruction  in  the  rites  of  the  fetish 
after  which  he  is  allowed  to  practi.se  for  liiniHt'lf. 

Snake  worship  is  one  of  the   most  widespii.'iid  forms  of  animal 
worship  known,  hiiviiig  been  pnictised  by   must  nf  the  nations  of 


of  eichange.  They  maile  iivi 
Ilie  »ilB  of  a  aixvie*  o(  /'yj 
•e'.tlcni  ibemiielves  ui'eil  It.    I 


H  been  practiced   by 
i-oninuin  "  hiir>l-!>liell 
•irini;  InUlanK 


!eorcowiies,  or  sheUs,  as  media  of  eichanjH'.o 

j^  nations.    The  I'ilerttn  Fathers  at  Plyiuoiilh 

K  the  nelKhl- 

vliile  froi 
ciinclitlie"  white  tFiiin/fr()»''  wan  manufactured.  The 
tunce.  In  inTI.  John  ni(^ln«m  bad  £IGO  voted  him  "  In 
cuuniry  produce."  which  he  wu:i;;lad  toeii^tianin!  fcirClin  Mdlilcnuh.  SolM  dL-ih  incliiilud 
beaver  AInt,  black  and  white  uiintpnm,  IwailH,  and  inuiikut-l>all»,  value  one  fartliliig.  Il'ttm- 
jiuni  was  also  made  ot  tlie  whelk-Bhell  (Bm-rinuai).  In  Xew  MfxIco  the  ear-eliell  (lln'lolla 
ni/ucciw),  the  rotmnnn  Catirnmlan  "  AhaliHie,"  Is  used  ax  ni'iiiey.  The  Indians  wlw  re- 
iilde<l  in  [lie  vicinity  iif  tlie  old  Ituulan  u'ttleiuent  ot  Boilei.'a,  on  tlie  nnrllicrn  roa«t  of  Call- 
lomla,  uMd  at  one  time  jileceH  of  a  clain-Bhell  (.•iitTlilomiig  aniliiK,  <;itt.}  aa  money.  To 
retnm  to  the  African  cowry.  It  U  the  Cm-nra  monria  of  natiiiallHO,  a  native  of  the 
Indian  rapine  walen.  It  In  utillzB.1  ax  money  by  the  native*  nl  xmie  |urt»  of  Ilindcwtan. 
and  is  exported  lor  twrtcr  wllh  the  WR>t  African  trllwa.  In  former  time  II  wo-i  eiten- 
*lvely  used  In  Illnilostan.  Rfwu  nientlmis  that  agenllcman  rei'ldlngat CuIIauk  Utald  to 
hoiepaldrortlieerecilonof  hts/mn/jofrw  entirely  In  these  ocjwrleK.  The  IniMilInK  ciwi  about 
4.«oa  nipeei  ilcni  i£(oa  Bterllii);) ;  and  as  Klxty.four  ot  the»e  sheUs  are  eituLvalent  In  value  to 
one  iHo!,  be  paid  for  It  with  over  K.OOD.OOO  of  lliene  pliell.i.  Tons  are  annuall;  nent  out  from 
Ureipool  to  the  Coast  ot  Africa  for  trading  purposes,  and  employed  in  the  manner  described. 


194  THE  STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

antiquity,  and  at  the  present  time  by  many  barbarous  or  savage 
tribes. 

Sir  John  Lubbock  considers  that  the  widespread  worship  of 
snakes  points  us  to  the  fact  of  the  worship  having  originated 
spontaneously  in  many  different  places  and  at  different  times,  and 
that  the  worship  of  the  seipent-god  commenced  originally  as  a 
malevolent  being,  who  was  flattered,  as  cruel  rulera  ever  are,  but 
that  in  process  of  time  this  flattery,  at  first  only  an  expression  of 
fear,  came  to  be  an  article  of  faith. 

In  ancient  times  Mr.  Fergusson  shows  that  serpent  worship 
prevailed  in  Egypt,  India,  Phoenicia,  Babylonia,  Greece,  and, 
to  a  smaller  extent,  in  Italy.  In  more  modern  times  tmces  have 
been  found  in  Persia,  Cashmere,  Cambodia,  Thibet,  India,  China, 
Ceylon,  America,  and  among  the  Kalmucks.  In  Africa  serpents 
were  adored  among  the  Abyssinians,  and  in  Upper  Egypt.  All 
along  the  Gold  and  Slave  Coasts,  viz.,  Guinea,  this  snake-worship 
prevailed  at  one  time. 

Bosman,  an  old  writer  on  Guinea,  mentions  that  some  English 
sailors  who  had  killed  one  of  these  serpents,  which  they  found  in 
their  house,  were  attacked  and  killed  by  the  natives.  Not  to 
enumerate  other  instances,  even  among  the  Mahommedan,  Foulahs, 
and  Mandingoes,  and  among  the  Christianized  people  of  Sierra 
Leone,  traces  of  ophiolatry  are  said  to  exist. 

The  given  reason  why  the  snake  is  so  reverenced  in  Whydah 
is  because,  during  an  attack  on  Ardra,  it  appeared  to  the  army, 
and  so  stimulated  it  tliat  the  victory  wiis  secured.  It  is  still 
looked  upon  with  equal  veneration,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that 
it  did  not  avail  against  the  conquering  Dahomans,  into  whose 
kingdom  Whydah  is  now  incorporated. 

Frequently  young  women  who  are  ill  are  taken  to  the  snake 
temple  to  be  cured  and  high  fees  ai*e  exacted  for  this  service.  In 
Astley's  "Collection  of  Voyages  and  Travels"  is  figured  "Agoye 
an  Idol  of  Whiddah,"  the  "God  of  Councils,"  in  the  form  of  a 
human  being  with  serpents  and  lizards  coming  out  of  the  top  of 
its  head. 

Though  nowadays  the  snake  is  looked  upon  as  equally  powerful 
in  obtaining  favors  for  its  worshippers,  yet  in  Whydah,  at  least,  it 
has  no  visible  representation  m  the  shape  of  an  image,  its  worship 


FEUDAUSTIC   MONARCHY.  195 

being  confined  to  an  adoration  of  the  living  snakes  kept  in  the 
snake-houses  in  all  the  principal  towns,  and  which,  wandering 
about  at  night,  are  a  perfect  nuisance  to  all  who  dwell  in  the 
vicinity   of  the   snake-temples. 

The  Danhsi,  or  snake-priests  ("'snake-mothers"  and  '* snake- 
wives  *'  they  ai*e  also  called),  number  upwards  of  one  thousand, 
and  are  of  both  sexes,  married  and  single.  They  generally  com- 
mence with  a  coui-se  of  preliminary  instruction  at  Whydah,  and 
finish  off  at  the  great  fetish  town  of  Somome. 

Another  deity,  almost  as  important,  is  Atin-bodun,  personified 
by  various  trees,  but  who  resides  in  some  curious  specimen  of 
ceramic  ware,  such  as  an  upturned  pot,  or  red  cullender.  He  is 
worshipped  by  offerings  of  water  poured  into  the  little  pot,  and 
is  especially  powerful  in  averting  and  curing  diseases,  especially 
fevers.  He  also  inhabits  any  tall  tree,  such  as  the  Loko  or 
poison  tree,  a  decoction  of  the  leaves  of  which  is  used  to  detect 
any  hidden  crime.  Atin-bodun  is  served  by  almost  as  many 
priests  as  the  snakes,  but  they  are  not  of  such  high  rank. 

Another  deity  is  Hu,  '"the  Dahonian  Nei)tune,'*  who  has  the 
sea  at  Whydah  in  his  charge.  Canoe  men  woi-ship  and  offer  up 
donations  of  food  to  him  to  induce  him  to  save  them  from  the 
rolling  surf.  Formerly  the  king  was  accustomed  to  send  a  man 
dressed  as  a  caboceer,  with  umbrella,  stool,  beads,  and  other 
insignia  of  his  rank,  to  the  beach,  where  he  was  j^laced  in  a 
canoe  by  the  Huno  [priest],  and,  after  sundry  offerings  and 
prayers,  caiTied  out  to  sea  and  thrown  overboard.  This  practice 
is  now  happily  discontinued. 

Khevyosoh,  the  thunder-god,  is  the  last  of  the  four  principal 
Dahoman  deities.  He  is  tlie  Slave  Coast  Jupiter,  who  presides 
over  the  weather,  and  slays  all  wlx)  offend  him  with  his  thunder- 
bolts, t.  «.,  abi^  the  lightning. 

In  considering  such  governments  as  those  of  Ashanti  and 
Dahomey  with,  their  dreadful  religious  rites,  and  their  curious, 
appalling  superstitions,  one  is  tempted  to  wonder,  when  taking 
into  account  the  vast  sums  which  have  been  subscribed  in  the  last 
hundred  years  for  missionary  purposes,  why  Christianity  has  made 
so  little  impression  on  the  African  mind. 

We  see  in  this  country  that  the  gentle  and  beautiful  teachings 


196  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

of  Him  who  was  born  on  the  wood  of  a  manger  and  died  on  the 
wood  of  a  cross  —  the  carpenter's  son  of  Galilee  —  have  from  the 
earliest  days  of  slaveiy  been  peculiarly  attractive  to  the  natures 
of  our  colored  brethren,  and  that  since  the  abolition  of  slavery 
Christianity  has  been  a  most  potent  factor  in  the  gradual  eleva- 
tion of  that  i-ace  which  politicians  have  been  wont  to  regard  as 
furnishing  the  most  perplexing  problem  of  our  American  attempt 
at  civilization. 

Why,  then,  have  so  much  noble  endeavor  and  so  much  wealth 
been  wasted  in  Africa?  Why  has  the  missionary  business  been 
a  most  pathetic  failure?  The  i)mctical  man  answers  these  ques- 
tions by  affirming  tliat  tlie  African  aborigines  must  be  commercially 
transfonned  and  held  under  the  dominion  or  at  least  the  protector- 
ate of  some  Euroi>ean  power,  before  any  efforts  to  plant  Chris- 
tianity can  be  crowned  with  a  satisfactory  harvest. 

The  French  are  engaged  at  present  in  attempting  to  convert 
Behanzin,  the  King  of  Dahomey,  ])y  force  of  anns,  to  certain  com- 
mercial views  which  they  think  he  ought  to  liold,  and  this  has 
been  the  English  method  with  all  African  tril)e8.  As  one  brilliant 
writer  i)uts  it,  commercialization  or  extermination  fire  tlie  only 
stepping-stones  to  civilization  in  interior  Africa  and,  indeed, 
while  the  Cliristian  powei-s  of  Europe,  for  the  sake  of  extending 
commerce  or  acquiring  territoiy,  maintain  a  martial  attitude 
towards  the  unfortuncate  natives,  there  would  seem  to  be  slight 
chance  for  the  successful  dissemination  of  the  doctrines  of  the 
Prince  of  Peace. 

Is  it  not  tlien  prolwible  that  those  niinistei-s  are  quite  right 
who  in  the  recent  meetings  of  missionary  societies  have  coun- 
selled the  expenditure  of  less  money  for  foreign  missions  jvnd  more 
for  the  improvement  of  the  environment  of  the  less  pictui-esque 
but  equally  needy  heathen  in  our  great  cities?  If  the  churches 
all  over  the  country  would  club  together  and  cooperate  in 
abolishing  the  tenement-house  rookeries  or  the  sweating  shops 
of  just  one  city  every  year,  it  would  not  be  long  before  the  foun- 
dations of  the  Temple  of  Univei>;al  Brotherhood  would  be  fairly 
and  firmly  laid. 


Pehsia  ii'i>reseiitji,  perhajw,  more 
perfectly  than  niiy  existing  natioui 
except  posaibly  some  small  kingdom  among 
barbarians,  tlio  principle  of  alisolutiani,  or  iiTe- 
lon^ible  antl  fetterless  power  in  the  hands  of  one 
man,  inid  tliis  has  been  so  for  inanj'  centaries,  although 
the  ]ireaent  Pei'sians  tire  no  more  descended  from  the 
famous  Medes  and  Persians,  or  from  the  i-ice  who  defeated 
Xenophon  and  his  ten  thousand,  tlian  the  present  inliabitants  of 
our  cosmopolitan  country  ai'e  from  tha  men  who  sketched  au 
outline  of  practical  socialistic  goveniment  in  the  cabin  of  the 
Mayflower. 

Persia  has  been  so  often  invaded,  and  so  many  iiiecs  have  con- 
tributed to  the  empire,  that  it  is  now  difficult,  if  not  impossible, 
to  trace  the  original  elements.  Rivera  flow  into  the  sea;  you  may 
trace  their  currents  for  a  little  way,  but  soon  they  ))h'nd  with  the 
ocean  and  their  elements  defy  a  chemic  auivl}-sis. 

So  with  nearly  all  ancient  realms,  Thero  has  been  a  blending 
of  namerons  nationalities;  yet  the  philologist  and  ethnologist 
may  now  and  then  detect  them  in  certain  eddies  of  the  einpire, 
where  they  have  feept  more  unmixed  than  elsewhere,  by  a  turn 


198  THE   STORY  OP   GOVBEKMENT. 

of  speech,  or  a  cast  of  countenance.  In  no  province  of  the 
country  is  the  population  wholly  Persian;  everywhere  there  are 
alien  elements. 

The  ancient  Persians  were  celebrated  for  their  handsome  per- 
sons, rather  tall  stature,  and  the  beauty  of  their  women.  The 
modern  race,  or  "Tadjiks,"  as  they  call  themselves,  have  a  fair 
share  of  good  looks;  their  features  are  regular,  their  countenances 
oval,  hair  glossy  and  luxuriant,  and  their  eyes  dark  and  soft. 
Witty,  cheerful,  frivolous,  idle,  luxurious,  and  fond  of  dress  and 
display  is  the  character  which  has  been  given  them,  an  opinion 
that  is  rather  too  sweeping  to  be  time. 

A  people  made  up  of  such  diverae  elements  is  difficult  to  char- 
acterize without  making  so  many  exceptions  thiat  the  rule  is  not 
proved,  except  to  have  no  existence.  However,  in  progress  of 
time,  notwithstanding  the  original  differences  of  the  people,  some 
few  general  chai-acteristics  will  be  found  to  have  become  common. 

These  we  may  briefly  sketch.  There  are  two  great  classes, 
the  fixed  and  the  wandering;  but  the  nomad  tribes  have  little 
voice  in  the  country,  and  it  is  from  the  fixed  inhabitants  of  the 
cities  and  country  seats  that  the  ruling  classes  and  those  who 
properly  constitute  the  stronghold  of  the  country  are  selected. 

We  may,  for  convenience,  divide  them  into  (1)  the  civil  and 
military  functionaries,  including  those  connected  with  the  couit, 
(2)  the  inhabitants  of  the  towns,  such  as  the  merchants,  shop- 
keepers, artisans,  membei"s  of  the  I'eligious  orders,  men  of  learn- 
ing, and  of  all  kinds  of  business;  (3)  the  agriculturists  or 
cultivators  of  the  soil;  and  lastly  (4)  there  may  be  added  the  wild 
wanderers  or  "Eeliauts." 

The  Persian  court  is  a  perfect  type  of  despotism.  Every  officer 
owes  his  elevation  to  the  favor  or  caprice  of  the  monarch,  and  is 
liable  at  any  moment  to  dismissal  without  a  chance  of  appeal 
either  to  his  superioi-s,  to  a  court  of  law,  or  to  that  greater  public 
opinion  which  controls  tyranny  and  injustice  in  other  countries. 

Treated  in  a  capricious  manner  by  his  sovereign,  he,  in 
his  turn,  rides  roughshod  over  all  his  inferiors.  Knowing  that 
he  may  fall  as  suddenly  as  he  was  raised  by  the  whim  of  the 
monarch,  he  endeavors,  during  his  uncertain  tenure  of  office,  to 
amass,  by  every  means  known  in  a  country  where  justice  and  right 


200  THB  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

are  merely  high  sounding  words  for  poets  to  mouth,  enough 
wealth  to  support  the  extravagance  which  his  ix)8ition  necessarily 
entails,  to  bribe  his  enemies  when  his  evil  day  arrives,  or  to  retire 
upon  to  a  quiet  comer  of  the  empire  if  he  be  fortunate  enough  to 
escape  the  bowstring  in  the  hour  of  his  fall. 

Deceitful,  treacherous,  venal,  aiTogant,  dishonest  and  overbear- 
ing, the  Persian  courtier  possesses  the  art  of  concealing  his  true 
character  under  a  polished  manner,  and  a  lively,  courteous,  and 
mild  countenance  which  rarely  betrays  the  workings  of  his   mind. 

Add  to  this,  he  is  often  an  acute  diplomatist,  well  informed, 
and  skilful  in  business.  A  court  so  constituted  camiot  but  be 
hated  by  all  the  poorer  classes,  who  are  the  chief  sufferers  by  it, 
and  its  pernicious  example  spreads  the  contagion  of  venality,  petty 
rascality,  and  other  evils  throughout  the  community. 

But  all  the  high  officere  of  State  are  not  selected  from  the  class 
of  nobles.  No  doubt,  as  in  most  countries,  the  **  upper  classes  " 
have  more  than  their  fair  share  of  power  and  place ;  yet  many  of 
the  public  functionaries  and  ministers  in  Persia  belong  to  the 
order  of  Mirzas,  secretaries,  or  "men  of  business." 

For  the  policy  of  the  monarchs  is  to  select  some  of  their  officers 
from  the  humblest  class  of  life,  under  the  idea  that  men  thus 
luised  to  dignity  by  the  favor  of  the  king  alone  will  be,  through 
gratitude,  more  attached  to  his  person  than  a  military  noble, 
whose  rank  would,  as  much  as  his  sovereign's  favor,  have  obtained 
for  him  power,  and  who,  at  the  beck  of  ambition  or  offended  pride, 
might  summon  to  his  aid  a  host  of  warlike  retainei's  and  plunge 
the  country  into  civil  war.  * 

These  Mirzas,  though  the  equals  of  the  nobles  in  treachery  and 
immorality,  are  yet  in  general  more  accomplished  than  they, 
being  well  versed  in  all  state-ci-aft,  mild  and  sulxlued  in  their 
address,  and  differing  from  the  nobles  in  not  indulging  in  martial 
or  athletic  exercises,  and  wearing,  instead  of  a  sword  or  dagger,  a 
eulumdaun^  or  ink  horn,  attached  to  their  girdle. 

Any  pei-son  can  get  access  to  the  king  to  lay  his  complaint 
before  him ;  but,  unless  there  be  a  desire  to  push  the  affair,  the 
comi)laint  only  is  heard.  However,  it  is  treasured  up  to  be 
brought  forth  in  due  time  when  the  functionary  complained  of 
^ets  into  disgrace,  and  an  excuse  is  desired  for  his  degradation* 


ABSOLUTISM.  201 

The  olBoe  of  collector  of  public  revenue  is  a  poor  one.  The 
people,  knowing  that  the  taxation  only  goes  to  enrich  the  court 
and  pays  for  no  work  of  public  utility,  are  unwilling  to  satisfy  the 
just  demands  of  the  collector,  and  frequently  even  threaten  to  take 
his  life.  This  unwillingness  to  meet  their  public  obligations  is  in- 
tensified by  the  fact  that  taxation  falls  chiefly  on  the  toilers. 

The  great  nobles,  foreigners  and  wealthy  native  merchants  are 
exempt  from  contributions  to  the  Shah's  exchequer,  though  the 
first  and  last  named  are  subject  to  irregular  extortions  which  are 
sometimes  even  less  bearable  than  the  systematic  bleeding  of  the 
collector. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  rapacious  officials  at  the  capital  do  every- 
thing in  their  power  to  extort  more  taxes,  and  frequently  threaten 
the  collector  with  punishment  on  the  plea  that  he  has  withheld 
taxes,  so  as  to  induce  him  to  "  squeeze  "  the  population  still  more 
thoroughly. 

Thus,  between  the  rebellious  j^eople  at  large  who  object  to  being 
bled,  and  the  officials  close  to  the  Shah  who  have  a  thirst  for  the 
silver  sweat  and  golden  blood  of  a  peo])le  (which  is  commonly 
called  taxes),  it  is  easy  to  see  that  a  revenue  collector  in  Persia 
needs  the  stubbornness  of  a  mule,  the  persistency  of  a  gadfly,  and 
the  nine  lives  of  a  cat. 

Such,  however,  is  the  accui"sed  thirst  for  gold  —  so  intense,  al- 
though it  is  an  artificial  or  accidental  and  not  an  innate  passion,  so 
insanely  intense  is  the  desire  to  acquire  property  —  that,  even  in 
the  most  dangerous  districts  of  the  Shah's  dominion,  this  post  of 
danger  is  eagerly  sought. 

Many  anecdotes  are  current  in  Persia  concerning  the  collector, 
his  cunning,  and  tlie  ill  luck  that  often  attends  him  like  a  shadow. 
Yet,  although  the  Prince  of  Sliiraz  once  in  irony  ordered  a 
notorious  thief  to  be  punished  by  being  made  manager  of  the 
i*e venue  of  a  district,  as  he  could  conceive  of  no  crime  for  which 
that  appointment  would  not  be  an  adequate  punishment,  there  is 
little  doubt  that  between  the  people  and  the  public  treasury  not  a 
little  of  the  public  cash  clings  to  the  fingers  of  the  collector,  and 
that  many  of  them  accumulate  gi*eat  wealth. 

Notwithstanding  the  power  of  the  nobles,  the  people,  either 
through  a  natura\ly  high  spirit,  not  effaced  by  long  oppression,  or 


202  THE  STOBY   OF  GOVEBNMENT. 

more  probably  owing  to  long  custom  which  allows  them  to  do  so 
with  impunity,  loudly  proclaim  their  wrongs  at  court,  if  they 
consider  themselves  injured;  yet,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  and 
expense  of  travelling,  this  is  denied  to  the  residents  in  the  more 
distant  parts  of  the  country.  The  common  people  are  frugal  and 
industrious.  Few  are  in  actual  want,  and  many  of  the  trading 
class  amass  considerable  wealth,  which  by  cunning  and  deceit 
they  manage  to  save  from  the  hands  of  the  rapacious  courtiers. 

**Eveiy  one,"  says  Sir  John  Malcolm,  "complains  of  poverty, 
but  this  complaint  as  often  pi-oceeds  from  a  desire  to  avoid  oppres- 
sion as  from  its  actual  privations."  The  government  officials  are 
paid  wretchedly  small  salaries,  and  even  these  payments  are  most 
unpunctually  made.  To  meet  his  daily  expenses  money  has  to  be 
borrowed  at  a  high  rate  of  interest,  debts  accumulate,  and  in  a 
few  years  a  government  servant,  if  honest,  would  be  ruined. 

Xo  position  can  be  more  ignominious  than  that  of  a  Pereian 
courtier  in  disgrace.  Should  he  incur  liis  master's  displeasiu^, 
without  the  slightest  warning  he  is  deprived  of  his  property, 
offices,  dignities  and  honors.  His  slaves  are  sold  or  handed  over 
to  the  favorite  of  the  hour,  his  wives  and  childi-en  are  insulted  or 
even  exposed  to  the  brutality  of  his  grooms  and  guards,  while  he 
himself  is  beaten  with  a  stick  or  mutilated  by  the  executioner's 
knife.     Tiie  new  favorite  is  often  a  mere  boy,  as  in  our  picture. 

Yet  these  revei-ses  of  fortune  are  not  final.  Tliey  are  philo- 
sophically accepted  as  accidents  which  must  always  happen  to  one 
who  embraces  the  precarious  life  of  a  courtier,  and  by  the  Orien- 
tal, who  considei-s  every  misfortune  as  pre-oidained  by  fate  and 
impossible  to  be  prevented,  are  viewed  in  a  way  not  widely  differ- 
ent from  that  in  which  a  European  Secretary  of  State  might  i-egard 
an  official  announcement  that  his  sovereign  had  been  pleased 
to  dispense  with  his  services,  or  an  unfavorable  expression  of 
public  opinion  in  the  shape  of  a  severe  newspaper  article  on  his 
policy. 

Indeed,  though  Persian  sovereigns  express  veiy  savagely  their 
displeasing  at  the  policy  of  a  minister,  he  may,  after  experiencing 
the  infelicity  of  being  disgraced,  be  received  again  into  royal  favor. 
His  family  in  such  a  case  is  sent  back  to  him,  with  as  many  of  his 
slaves  as  can  be  recovered ;  and  his  property,  pruned  of  all  danger- 


204  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

ous  exuberance,  is  returned.  A  bath  mollifies  his  bruised  feet, 
a  cap  conceals  his  cr()[)ped  ears,  and  the  white-washed  culprit  is 
often  reinstated  in  the  very  government  he  has  lost,  perhaps 
carrying  with  him  a  sentence  of  disgi^aee  to  his  successor  to  whose 
inti'igues  he  owed  his  temponiry  fall. 

It  is  indeed  surprising  how  carelessly  the  king  and  his  ministers 
l)estow  situations  of  confidence  on  strangers,  or  on  men  who,  from 
having  been  the  sufferei-s  of  great  injustice,  might  be  dreaded  as 
their  bitterest  enemies ;  yet  the  management  of  a  conquered  state 
is  frequently  intrusted  to  the  khan  or  prince  who  before  possessed 
it  in  his  own  right.  The  pardoned  rebel  of  one  province  is 
appointed  to  the  supi-eme  command  in  another;  and  the  disgraced 
noble  or  governor  is  sent  to  take  charge  of  a  district  where  the 
utmost  fidelity  and  zeal  are  required. 

No  official,  however  high,  can  be  sure  of  his  life;  it  lies  in  the 
hands  of  the  king  as  nmch  as  does  the  life  of  the  meanest  subject. 
The  death  of  an  official  is  detennined,  the  warrant  for  his  execu- 
tion is  made  out,  and  an  officer  is  despatched  to  execute  it.     The 
man  rides  as  fast  as  horses  pressed  into  his  service  can  carry  him 
until  he  arrives  at  the  city  where  the  doomed  man  lives.     He 
exhibits  his  mandate  to  the  governor  or  chief  man  of  the  city,  and 
commands  him  to  assist  him.     As  soon  as  the  door  of  the  victim's 
house  is  opened,   the    executioner  rushes  in,  and,   di*awing    his 
scimitar,  falls  on  the  unfortunate  man  with  the  exclamation,    "It 
is  the  king's  command,"  cuts  him  down,  and  strikes  off  his  head. 
Karely  is  any  resistance  offered. 

Cases  have  biien  known  in  which  a  powerful  man  has  attempted 
to  waylay  the  messenger  oji  the  road,  when  he  knew  his  errand, 
and,   depriving  him  of  the  warrant,   has  delayed  his  fate    until 
another  could  be  got,  or  until  he  has  had  time  to  obtain    paidon. 

But  usually,  suc^h  is  the  awe  of  the  king's  name  that  no  atttn:pt 
is  made  by  the  victim  to  escape  his  fate.  He  calmly  submits* 
"It  is  the  (lecrcc;  of  Allah  —  it  is  fjite  —  Allah  be  praised!  "  As 
for  his  nearest  kin,  they  fly  from  him  as  from  a  thing  accui«ed. 
The  dependcmts  whom  an  hour  ago  he  could  have  made  happy 
Avith  a  smile  desert  him  as  one  whose  touch  would  defile.  He  is 
like  an  infected  creature.  "All  nature  seems  to  be  roused  againitt 
liim,"  are  the  woi-ds  of  an  ancient  writer  in  Persia. 


206  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

The  Gholams  are  the  king's  guards,  and  ate  composed  of  young 
men  held  in  favor  by  him.  Generally  they  are  young  Circassian 
or  Georgian  captives,  and  accordingly  their  condition  is  that  of 
slaves,  though,  the  ]X)sition  being  one  of  honor  and  emolument, 
the  sons  of  tlie  highest  noblemen  may  be  found  there. 

The  Gholam  Corps  numbers  three  thousand  or  four  thousand 
men,  and,  in  addition  to  acting  as  escorts  to  the  king  and  guards 
to  his  palaces,  they  are  often  despatched  on  delicate  missions, 
such  as  that  we  have  described  in  relation  to  the  execution  of  a 
disgraced  ofScial.  In  the  execution  of  these  errands  they  often 
amass  large  sums  by  extortion ;  and  the  surest  pi-oof  of  the  in- 
vidious character  which  they  bear  is  the  fact  that  their  very  name 
carries  terror.  The  arrival  of  a  gholam  e  shahee  is  enough  to 
throw  a  whole  district  into  alaim;  it  has  even  depopulated  a 
village  for  a  time. 

The  inhabitants  of  different  districts  differ  considerably  in 
character,  and  in  their  reputation  for  courage  or  cowardice. 
The  inhabitiints  of  the  towns,  or  ShehereSs^  are  even  moi-e  mixed 
than  those  of  the  countrj-^  districts.  In  general,  though  by  no 
means  to  be  held  up  as  models  for  young  men,  they  are  of  a  better 
character  than  the  higher  ehisses,  and  are,  as  a  rule,  industrious, 
polite,  sociable,  good  servants  and  indulgent  masters,  though 
largely  imbued  with  deceit  and  greed. 

The  merchants  are  often  wealthy,  and  in  general  are  intelligent 
and  cultivated.     The  small  sliopkeepers  are  more  distinguished 
for  insincerity  and  cunning,  both  vices,  though  inherent  in    the 
race,  being  fostered  by  their  constnnt  diead  of  the  caprice  of  their 
superiors.     The  merchants,  on  the  other  hand,  are,  as  all  through 
the  East,  held  in  more  considenitiou,  being  looked  upon  not   only 
as  a  source  of  revenue,  but  also  as  a  useful  medium  for   main- 
taining friendly  relations  with  foreign  stiites. 

The  ecclesiastical  law  is  administered  by  a  numerous  body  of 
priests  of  all  ^rrades,  from  the  Sudder  al  Suddoor  down  to  the 
lowest  of  the  moUahs.  The  niooshteheds  are  the  highest  order, 
and  are  the  supnmie  pontiffs  of  the  kingdom,  who,  subject  to  the 
approbation  of  the  sovereign,  nominate  all  the  principal  judges. 
They  usually  number  three  or  four,  and  are  elected  by  the  people 
count  of  their  acknowledged  sanctity. 


aOo  THE  STORY   OF   €K>VEENMENT. 

The  Sheik  al  Islam,  or  niler  of  the  faith,  ranks  next^to  the 
mooshteheds.  He  is  a  salaried  judge,  his  duty  being  to  admin- 
ister the  written  law.  He  is  often  a  man  of  quite  as  great 
influence  as  the  mooshteheds,  his  official  superiors.  The  other 
ecclesiastical  ofiicials  are  those  ooanected  with  the  mosques. 

Eveiy  mosque,  except  the  very  inaigniiicant  ones,  has  a 
staff  of  three,  viz.,  tlie  mostwuUa,  who  manages  its  temporal 
affairs,  and  who  may  be  said  to  be  a  kind  of  churchwarden ;  the 
muezzin,  or  caller  to  prayers  (the  "beadle  "),  and  the  mollah,  or 
priest  proper,  who  conducts  the  ceremonial  of  the  Mohammedui 
religion.  They  also  preach  a  sort  of  sermon  on  texts  from  the 
Koran  —  the  Mohammedan  Bible, 

Besides  these,  there  are  in  every  city,  and  connected  with  all 
seminaries  of  learning,  a  crowd  of  moUahs,  who  live  by  their  arts, 
and  have  Httle  of  the  priest  but  the  name.  They  practise  astrol- 
ogy, write  letters  and  contracts  for  those  who  are  ignorant  of  pen- 
manship, and  thus  contrive  to  prolong  a  miserable  life. 

Nothing  can  be  lower  than  the  character  of  these  people. 
Their  hypocrisy,  profligacy  and  want  of  principle,  are  the  sub- 
jects of  stories,  epigrams,  and  proverbs  without  end.  "Take 
care,"  says  one  adage,  "of  the  face  of  a  woman  and  the 
heels  of  a  mule;  but  with  a  mollah  be  on  your  guard  at  all 
points."  "To  hate  like  a  mollah,"  and  "to  cheat  like  a  mollah  '* 
are  sayings  of  frequency  in  the  mouth  of  a  Persian. 

It  is  not  the  moUahs  alone  who  are  the  subject  of  Pereian 
jocularity.     All  classes  who  are  concerned  in  the  administration 
of  the  law  or  Mohammedan  religious  ceremonies  are  proverbial  for 
their  dishonesty  and  trickery.     Chief  among  these  are  the  seyeda, 
or  descendants  of   the    prophet,   who   are    accounted    rogues     hy 
nature  i  but  after  they  have  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,   to  the 
birthplace  of  Mohammed,  are  considered  to  have  graduated  in  all 
dishonesty  and  rascality.     In  the  repertory  of  Peraian    jests,  nine 
tenths  hinge  upon  what  a  mollah  or  a  hadji  (Mecca  pilgrim)  did, 
and  the  anecdotes  are  told  with  a  grave  humor  peculiarly   charac- 
teristic of  the  East.     The  aUtivatorg  of  the  sail,  in  Persia,    though 
^-M«ires.<;ed.  ;ire  hospitable,  active,  and  intelligent,  and  are    more 
^^^^fortiibli-   in    their   lives   than    the   average   woikman  in   any 
^^^^kr  overgrown  cities. 


AB80LT7TIS1C  .  209 

Penian  wameti,  like  those  of  all  other  Mohammedan  countries, 
aie  not  looked  upon  as  the  equals  of  the  men.  They  are  hy  some 
Moslem  priests  even  belieTed  not  to  have  souls,  and  in  every  case 
are  mere  slaves  who  minister  to  the  pleasure  of  their  haughly 
lords.  In  many  cases,  however,  their  sharp  wit  enables  them  to 
gain  an  ascendency  over  their  more  lethargic  husbands,  and  even 
to  sway  the  affairs  of  the  court  at  their  own  sweet  will. 

An  Eastern  seraglio  is  yet  a  "gilded  cage,'*  tenanted  by 
uneducated  women,  whose  only  thoughts  are  to  please  their  mas- 
ter and  amuse  their  aimless  existence.  Intrigue,  discontent  and 
crime  are  the  natural  sequence  of  such  a  state  of  matters.  The 
harem  life  has  been  often  described,  but  by  none,  it  is  said  by 
those  acquainted  with  the  subject,  in  more  faithful  colors  than  by 
the  French  writer  Chardin. 

The  seraglio  of  the  king,  says  M.  Chardin,  is  most  commonly  a 
perpetnal  prison,  from  whence  scarce  one  female  in  six  or  seven  has 
the  good  fortune  to  escape,  for  women  who  have  become  the  mothers 
of  living  children  are  provided  with  a  small  establishment  within  the 
walls,  and  are  never  suffered  to  leave  them.  But  privation  of  liberty 
is  by  no  means  the  worst  evil  that  exists  in  these  melancholy  abodes. 

Except  to  that  wife  so  fortunate  as  to  produce  the  firstborn  son, 
to  become  a  mother  is  the  most  dreaded  event  that  can  happen  to  the 
wretched  favorites  of  the  king.  When  this  occurs,  not  only  do  the 
mothers  see  their  last  chance  of  liberty  and  marriage  cut  off,  but 
they  live  in  the  dreadful  anticipation  of  seeing  their  children  de- 
prived of  life  or  sight,  when  the  death  of  their  lord  shall  call  a  new 
tyrant,  in  the  person  of  his  son,  the  brother  of  their  offspring,  to  the 
throne. 

Should  they  escape  having  children,  by  an  assiduous  court  paid  to 
the  king's  mother,  or  to  the  mother  of  his  eldest  son,  it  sometimes 
happens  that  they  obtain  the  good  fortune  of  being  bestowed  upon 
some  of  the  officers  about  the  court;  for  the  ministers  and  grandees, 
who  are  always  intriguing  with  these  influential  ladies,  seldom  fail  of 
soliciting  a  female  of  the  royal  harem  either  for  themselves  or  their 
sons. 

Indeed,  it  is  no  uncommon  thing  for  the  king  liimself  to  bestow 
one  of  these  fair  captives  upon  one  of  his  favorites,  or  his  courtiers;  and 
sometimes,  when  the  harem  gets  crowded,  this  is  done  to  a  great  extent 
as  a  measure  of  economical  expediency.  Happy  the  woman  thus  freed 
from,  her  prison,  for  she  at  once  exchanges  the  situation  of  a  slave  for 


202  THE  8T0BY  OF   GOVEBNMENT. 

more  probably  owing  to  long  custom  which  allows  them  to  do  so 
with  impunity,  loudly  proclaim  their  wrongs  at  court,  if  they 
consider  themselves  injured;  yet,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  and 
expense  of  travelling,  this  is  denied  to  the  residents  in  the  more 
distant  parts  of  the  country.  The  common  people  are  frugal  and 
industrious.  Few  are  in  actual  want,  and  many  of  the  trading 
class  amass  considerable  wealth,  which  by  cunning  and  deceit 
they  manage  to  save  from  the  hands  of  the  rapacious  courtiers. 

**Evei7  one,"  says  Sir  John  Malcolm,  "complains  of  poverty, 
but  this  complaint  as  often  pi-oceeds  from  a  desire  to  avoid  oppres- 
sion as  from  its  actual  privations.'*  The  government  officials  are 
paid  wretchedly  small  salaries,  and  even  these  payments  are  most 
unpunctually  made.  To  meet  his  daily  expenses  money  has  to  be 
borrowed  at  a  high  rate  of  interest,  debts  accumulate,  and  in  a 
few  years  a  government  servant,  if  honest,  would  be  ruined. 

No  position  can  be  more  ignominious  than  that  of  a  Persian 
courtier  in  disgrace.  Should  he  incur  his  master's  displeasure, 
without  the  slightest  warning  he  is  deprived  of  his  property, 
offices,  dignities  and  honors.  His  slaves  are  sold  or  handed  over 
to  the  favorite  of  the  Iiour,  his  wives  and  childi*en  are  insulted  or 
even  exposed  to  the  brutality  of  his  grooms  and  guards,  while  he 
himself  is  beaten  with  a  stick  or  mutilated  by  the  executioner's 
knife.     The  new  favorite  is  often  a  mere  boy,  as  in  our  picture. 

Yet  these  revei-ses  of  foi-tune  are  not  final.  They  are  philo- 
sophically accepted  as  accidents  which  must  always  happen  to  one 
who  embraces  the  precarious  life  of  a  courtier,  and  by  the  Orien- 
tal, who  considei-s  every  misfortune  as  pre-oniained  by  fate  and 
impossible  to  be  prevented,  are  viewed  in  a  way  not  widely  differ- 
ent fi'om  that  in  which  a  European  Secretary  of  State  might  regard 
an  otlicial  announcement  that  his  sovereign  had  been  pleased 
to  dispense  with  his  services,  or  an  unfavomble  expression  of 
public  opinion  in  the  shape  of  a  severe  newspaper  article  on  his 
policy. 

Indeed,  though  Persian  sovereigns  express  veiy  savagely  their 
displeasure  at  the  policy  of  a  minister,  he  may,  after  experiencing 
the  infelicity  of  being  disgraced,  be  received  again  into  royal  favor. 
His  family  in  such  a  case  is  sent  back  to  him,  with  as  many  of  his 
slaves  as  can  be  recovered ;  and  his  property,  pruned  of  all  danger- 


196  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

of  Him  who  was  born  on  the  wood  of  a  manger  and  died  on  the 
wood  of  a  cross  —  the  carpenter's  son  of  Galilee  —  have  from  the 
earliest  days  of  slavery  been  peculiarly  attractive  to  the  natures 
of  our  colored  brethren,  and  that  since  the  abolition  of  slavery 
Christianity  lias  been  a  most  potent  factor  in  the  gradual  eleva- 
tion of  that  race  which  politicians  have  been  wont  to  regard  as 
furnishing  the  most  perplexing  problem  of  our  American  attempt 
at  civilization. 

Why,  then,  have  so  much  noble  endeavor  and  so  much  wealth 
been  wasted  in  Africa?  Why  has  the  missionary  business  been 
a  most  pathetic  failure?  The  pmctical  man  answers  these  ques- 
tions by  aflRrming  that  the  African  aborigines  must  be  commercially 
transformed  and  held  under  the  dominion  or  at  least  the  protector- 
ate of  some  European  powei-,  before  any  efforts  to  plant  Chris- 
tianity can  be  crowned  with  a  satisfactory  harvest. 

The  French  are  engaged  at  present  in  attempting  to  convert 
Behanzin,  the  King  of  D«ahomey,  by  force  of  anus,  to  certain  com- 
mercial views  which  they  think  he  ought  to  hold,  and  this  has 
been  the  English  method  with  all  African  tril)es.  As  one  brilliant 
writer  puts  it,  commercialization  or  extermination  «are  the  only 
stepping-stones  to  civilization  in  interior  Africa  and,  indeed, 
while  the  Christian  powei's  of  Europe,  for  the  sake  of  extending 
commerce  or  acquiring  temtoiy,  maintain  a  martial  attitude 
towards  the  unfortunate  natives,  there  would  seem  to  be  slight 
chance  for  the  successful  dissemination  of  the  doctrines  of  the 
Prince  of  Peace. 

Is  it  not  then  probable  that  those  niinistei-s  are  quite  right 
who  in  the  recent  meetings  of  missionary  societies  have  coun- 
selled the  expenditure  of  less  money  for  foreign  missions  and  more 
for  the  improvement  of  the  environment  of  the  less  pictui-esque 
but  equally  needy  heathen  in  our  great  cities?  If  the  churches 
all  over  the  country  would  club  together  and  cooperate  in 
abolishing  the  tenement-house  rookeries  or  the  sweating  shops 
of  just  one  city  every  year,  it  would  not  be  long  before  the  foun- 
dations of  the  Temple  of  Univei*sal  Brotherhood  would  be  fairly 
and  firmly  laid. 


Peusia  i-e]i  reset  its,  perhaps,  more 
perfectly  tliaii  any  existing  nation, 
except  possibly  some  small  kingdom  iimong 
barbarians,  the  pfinciple  of  absolutism,  oi-  irre- 
sponsible ami  fetterless  power  lit  tlie  lianilw  nf  one 
man,  and  tliis  has  been  so  for  many  centuries,  iilllumgli 
the  present  Persians  are  no  moiB  descended  fmni  l!ie 
famous  Medes  and  Persians,  or  fi'om  the  i.iee  who  defeated 
Xenophon  and  his  ten  thousand,  than  tlie  present  inliabitants  of 
our  cosmopolitan  country  are  from  ths  men  who  slcet(!bed  an 
outline  of  practical  socialistic  government  in  the  cabin  of  the 
Mayflower. 

Pemia  has  been  so  often  invaded,  and  so  many  nun's  have  eon- 
tribnted  to  the  empire,  that  it  is  now  difficult,  if  not  impossible, 
toti-ace  the  original  elements.  Rivew  flow  into  the  sea;  you  may 
ti-ace  their  currents  for  a  little  «-a\-,  but  soon  thi'v  blend  with  the 
ocean  and  their  elements  defy  a  ehemic  analysis. 

So  with  neatl)-  all  ancient  realms.  Tliere  has  been  a  blending 
of  nnmerons  nationalities;  yet  the  philologist  and  ethnologist 
may  now  and  then  detect  them  in  certain  eddies  of  the  empire, 
where  they  have  tept  more  unmixed  than  elsewhert-,  by  a  turn 


198  THE  STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

of  speech,  or  a  cast  of  countenance.  In  no  province  of  the 
country  is  the  population  wholly  Persian;  everjrwhere  there  are 
alien  elements. 

The  ancient  Persians  were  celebrated  for  their  handsome  per- 
sons, rather  tall  stature,  and  the  beauty  of  their  women.  The 
modern  race,  or  "Tadjiks,"  as  they  call  themselves,  have  a  fan- 
share  of  good  looks;  their  featui'es  are  regular,  their  countenances 
oval,  hair  glossy  and  luxuriant,  and  their  eyes  dark  and  soft. 
Witty,  cheerful,  frivolous,  idle,  luxurious,  and  fond  of  dress  and 
display  is  the  character  which  has  been  given  them,  an  opinion 
that  is  rather  too  sweeping  to  be  true. 

A  people  made  up  of  such  diveree  elements  is  difficult  to  char- 
acterize without  making  so  many  exceptions  that  the  rule  is  not 
pi-oved,  except  to  have  no  existence.  However,  in  progress  of 
time,  notwithstanding  the  original  differences  of  the  people,  some 
few  genei'al  chai-acteristics  will  be  found  to  have  become  common. 

These  we  may  briefly  sketch.  There  are  two  great  classes, 
the  fixed  and  the  wandering;  but  the  nomad  tribes  have  little 
voice  in  the  country,  and  it  is  from  the  fixed  inhabitants  of  the 
cities  and  country  seats  that  the  ruling  classes  and  those  who 
properly  constitute  the  stronghold  of  the  country  are  selected. 

We  may,  for  convenience,  divide  them  into  (1)  the  civil  and 
military  functionaries,  including  those  connected  with  the  comt, 
(2)  the  inhabitiints  of  the  towns,  such  as  the  merchants,  shop- 
keepers, artisans,  merabei-s  of  the  religious  ordei*s,  men  of  learn- 
ing, and  of  all  kinds  of  business;  (3)  the  agriculturists  oi 
cultivators  of  the  soil ;  and  lastly  (4)  there  may  be  added  the  wild 
wanderers  or  "Eeliauts." 

The  Persian  couit  is  a  perfect  type  of  despotism.  Every  officer 
owes  his  elevation  to  the  favor  or  caprice  of  the  monarch,  and  is 
liable  at  any  moment  to  dismissal  without  a  chance  of  appeal 
either  to  his  superioi-s,  to  a  court  of  law,  or  to  that  greater  public 
opinion  which  controls  tyranny  and  injustice  in  other  countries. 

Treated  in  a  capricious  manner  by  his  sovereign,  he,  in 
his  turn,  rides  roughshod  over  all  his  inferiors.  Knowing  that 
he  may  fall  as  suddenly  as  he  was  raised  by  the  whim  of  the 
monarch,  he  endeavors,  during  his  uncertain  tenure  of  office,  to 
amass,  by  every  means  known  in  a  country  where  justice  and  right 


198  THE   STOEY  OF   QOVKEMMEKT. 

of  speech,  or  a  cast  of  countenance.  In  no  province  of  the 
country  is  the  population  wholly  Persian;  everywhere  there  are 
alien  elements. 

The  ancient  Persians  were  celebrated  for  their  handsome  per- 
sons, rather  tall  stature,  and  the  beauty  of  their  women.  The 
modern  race,  or  "Tadjiks,"  as  they  call  themselves,  have  a  fair 
aliaits  of  good  looks;  their  featui'es  are  regular,  their  countenances 
oval,  hair  glossy  and  luxuriant,  and  their  eyes  dark  and  soft. 
Witty,  cheerful,  frivolous,  idle,  luxurious,  and  fond  of  dress  and 
display  is  the  character  which  has  been  given  them,  an  opinion 
that  is  rather  too  sweeping  to  be  ti-ue. 

A  people  made  up  of  such  diverse  elements  is  difficult  to  char- 
acterize without  making  so  many  exceptions  that  the  rule  is  not 
proved,  except  to  have  no  existence.  However,  in  progress  of 
time,  notwithstanding  the  original  differences  of  the  people,  some 
few  general  ehai-acteristics  will  be  found  to  have  become  common. 

These  we  may  briefly  sketch.  There  are  two  great  classes, 
the  fixed  and  the  wandering;  but  the  nomad  tribes  have  little 
voice  in  the  country,  and  it  is  from  the  lixed  inhiibitants  of  the 
cities  and  country  seats  that  the  ruling  classes  and  those  who 
properly  constitute  the  stronghold  of  the  country  are  selected. 

We  may,  for  convenience,  divide  them  into  (1)  the  civil  and 
military  functionaries,  including  those  connected  with  the  couit, 
(2)  the  inhabitants  of  the  towns,  such  as  the  merchants,  shop- 
keepers, artisans,  membei'S  of  the  religious  orders,  men  of  learn- 
ing, and  of  all  kinds  of  business;  (3)  tlie  agriculturists  or 
cultivators  of  the  soil ;  and  lastly  (4)  there  may  be  added  the  wild 
wanderers  or  "Eeliauts." 

The  Persian  court  is  a  perfect  type  of  despotism.  Every  officer 
owes  his  elevation  to  the  favor  or  caprice  of  the  monarch,  and  is 
liable  at  any  moment  to  dismissal  without  a  chance  of  appeal 
either  to  his  superiors,  to  a  court  of  law,  or  to  that  greater  public 
opinion  which  controls  tyranny  and   injustice   in  other  countries. 

Treated  in  a  e^ricioua  manner  by  his  sovereign,  he,  in 
his  turn,  rides  rqil^h<{^^*iytBr  all  his  inferiors.  Knowing  that 
^  liu  may  fnil  w  iu(Uutiu^!jlrjre  was  laised  by  the  whim  of  the 
[  bis  utiifrtain  tennri'  of  office,  to 
Inhere  justice  and  right 


200  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

are  merely  high  sounding  words  for  poets  to  mouth,  enough 
wealth  to  support  the  extravagance  which  his  position  necessarily 
entails,  to  bribe  his  enemies  when  his  evil  day  arrives,  or  to  retire 
upon  to  a  quiet  corner  of  the  empire  if  he  be  fortunate  enough  to 
escape  the  bowstring  in  the  hour  of  his  fall. 

Deceitful,  treacherous,  venal,  aiTogant,  dishonest  and  overbear- 
ing, the  Persian  courtier  possesses  the  art  of  concealing  his  true 
character  under  a  polished  manner,  and  a  lively,  courteous,  and 
mild  countenance  which  rarely  betrays  the  workings  of  his   mind. 

Add  to  this,  he  is  often  an  acute  diplomatist,  well  informed, 
and  skilful  in  business.  A  court  so  constituted  camiot  but  be 
hated  by  all  the  poorer  classes,  who  are  the  chief  sufferers  by  it, 
and  its  pernicious  example  spreads  the  contagion  of  venality,  petty 
rascality,  and  other  evils  throughout  the  community. 

But  all  the  high  officei's  of  State  are  not  selected  from  the  class 
of  nobles.  No  doubt,  as  in  most  countries,  the  *'  upper  classes '' 
have  more  than  their  fair  share  of  power  and  place ;  yet  many  of 
the  public  functionaries  and  ministers  in  Persia  belong  to  the 
order  of  Mirzas,  secretaries,  or  "men  of  business." 

For  the  policy  of  the  monarchs  is  to  select  some  of  their  officers 
from  the  huni])lest  class  of  life,  under  the  idea  that  men  thus 
raised  to  dignity  by  the  favor  of  the  king  alone  will  be,  through 
gratitude,  more  attached  to  his  pereon  than  a  military  noble, 
whose  rank  would,  as  much  as  his  sovereign's  favor,  have  obtained 
for  him  power,  and  who,  at  the  beck  of  ambition  or  offended  pride, 
might  summon  to  his  aid  a  host  of  warlike  i*etainera  and  plunge 
the  country  into  civil  war.  • 

These  Mii-zas,  though  the  equals  of  the  nobles  in  treachery  and 
immorality,  are  yet  in  general  more  accomplished  than  they, 
being  well  versed  in  all  state-ci*aft,  mild  and  sulxlued  in  their 
address,  and  differing  from  the  nobles  in  not  indulging  in  martial 
or  athletic  exercises,  and  wearing,  instead  of  a  sword  or  dagger,  a 
cuhimdaun^  or  ink  horn,  attached  to  their  girdle. 

Any  pei-son  can  get  access  to  the  king  to  lay  his  complaint 
before  him ;  but,  unless  there  be  a  desire  to  push  the  affair,  the 
complaint  only  is  heard.  However,  it  is  treasured  up  to  Ix? 
brought  forth  in  duc^  time  when  the  functionary  complained  of 
gets  into  disgrace,  and  an  excuse  is  desired  for  his  degradation. 


ABSOLUTISM.  201 

The  office  of  collector  of  public  revenue  is  a  poor  one.  The 
people,  knowing  that  the  taxation  only  goes  to  enrich  the  court 
and  pays  for  no  work  of  public  utility,  are  unwilling  to  satisfy  the 
just  demands  of  the  collector,  and  frequently  even  threaten  to  take 
his  life.  This  unwillingness  to  meet  their  public  obligations  is  in- 
tensified by  the  fact  that  taxation  falls  chiefly  on  the  toilers. 

The  great  nobles,  foreigners  and  wealthy  native  merchants  are 
exempt  from  contributions  to  the  Shah's  exchequer,  though  the 
first  and  last  named  are  subject  to  irregular  extortions  which  are 
sometimes  even  less  bearable  than  the  systematic  bleeding  of  the 
collector. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  rapacious  officials  at  the  capital  do  every- 
thing in  their  power  to  extort  more  taxes,  and  frequently  threaten 
the  collector  with  punishment  on  the  plea  that  he  has  withheld 
taxes,  so  as  to  induce  him  to  "  squeeze  "  the  populati6n  still  more 
thoroughly. 

Thus,  between  the  rebellious  people  at  large  who  object  to  being 
bled,  and  the  officials  close  to  the  Shah  who  have  a  thirst  for  the 
silver  sweat  and  golden  blood  of  a  people  (which  is  commonly 
called  taxes),  it  is  easy  to  see  that  a  revenue  collector  in  Persia 
needs  the  stubbornness  of  a  mule,  the  persistency  of  a  gadfly,  and 
the  nine  lives  of  a  cat. 

Such,  however,  is  the  accui*sed  thirst  for  gold — so  intense,  al- 
though it  is  an  artificial  or  accidental  and  not  an  innate  passion,  so 
insanely  intense  is  the  desire  to  acquire  property  —  that,  even  in 
the  most  dangerous  districts  of  the  Shah's  dominion,  this  post  of 
danger  is  eagerly  sought. 

Many  anecdotes  ai-e  current  in  Persia  concerning  the  collector, 
his  cunning,  and  the  ill  luck  that  often  attends  him  like  a  shadow. 
Yet,  although  the  Prince  of  Shiraz  once  in  irony  ordered  a 
notorious  thief  to  be  punished  by  being  made  manager  of  the 
revenue  of  a  district,  as  he  could  conceive  of  no  crime  for  which 
that  appointment  would  not  be  an  adequate  punishment,  there  is 
little  doubt  that  between  the  people  and  the  public  treasury  not  a 
little  of  the  public  cash  clings  to  the  fingers  of  the  collector,  and 
that  many  of  them  accumulate  gi*eat  wealth. 

Notwithstanding  the  power  of  the  nobles,  the  people,  either 
through  a  natura\ly  high  spirit,  not  effaced  by  long  oppression,  or 


202  THE  STOBY  OF  60VEBKMENT. 

more  probably  owing  to  long  custom  which  allows  them  to  do  so 
with  impunity,  loudly  proclaim  their  wrongs  at  court,  if  they 
consider  themselves  injured;  yet,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  and 
expense  of  travelling,  this  is  denied  to  the  residents  in  the  more 
distant  parts  of  the  country.  The  common  people  are  frugal  and 
industrious.  Few  are  in  actual  want,  and  many  of  the  trading 
class  amass  considerable  wealth,  which  by  cunning  and  deceit 
they  manage  to  save  from  the  hands  of  the  rapacious  courtiers. 

**Eveiy  one,"  says  Sir  John  Malcolm,  "complains  of  poverty, 
but  this  complaint  as  often  pit)ceeds  from  a  desire  to  avoid  oppres- 
sion as  from  its  actual  privations."  The  government  officials  are 
paid  wretchedly  small  salaries,  and  even  tliese  payments  are  most 
unpunctually  made.  To  meet  his  daily  expenses  money  has  to  be 
borrowed  at  a  high  rate  of  interest,  debts  accumulate,  and  in  a 
few  years  a  government  servant,  if  honest,  would  be  ruined. 

No  position  can  be  more  ignominious  than  that  of  a  Peraian 
courtier  in  disgrace.  Should  he  incur  his  master's  displeasure, 
without  the  slightest  warning  he  is  deprived  of  his  property, 
offices,  dignities  and  honors.  His  slaves  are  sold  or  handed  over 
to  the  favorite  of  the  hour,  his  wives  and  childi-en  are  insulted  or 
even  exposed  to  the  bi-utality  of  his  grooms  and  guards,  while  he 
himself  is  beaten  with  a  stick  or  mutilated  by  the  executioner's 
knife.     The  new  favorite  is  often  a  mere  boy,  as  in  our  picture. 

Yet  these  revei-ses  of  fortune  are  not  final.  They  are  philo- 
soi^hically  accepted  as  accidents  which  must  always  happen  to  one 
who  embraces  the  precarious  life  of  a  courtier,  and  by  the  Orien- 
tal, who  considei's  every  misfortune  as  pre-oidained  by  fate  and 
impossible  to  be  prevented,  are  viewed  in  a  way  not  widely  differ- 
ent from  that  in  which  a  European  Secretary  of  State  might  regaixl 
an  otlicial  announcement  that  his  sovereign  had  been  pleased 
to  dispense  with  his  services,  or  an  unfavorable  expression  of 
public  opinion  in  the  shape  of  a  severe  newspaper  article  on  his 
policy. 

Indeed,  though  Persian  sovereigns  express  veiy  savagely  their 
displeasure  at  the  policy  of  a  minister,  he  may,  after  experiencing 
the  infelicity  of  being  disgraced,  be  received  again  into  royal  favor. 
His  family  in  such  a  case  is  sent  back  to  him,  with  as  many  of  his 
slaves  as  can  be  recovered ;  and  his  property,  pruned  of  all  danger- 


k 


202  THE  STOBY  OF  60VEBKMENT. 

more  probably  owing  to  long  custom  which  allows  them  to  do  so 
with  impunity,  loudly  proclaim  their  Avrougs  at  court,  if  they 
consider  themselves  injured;  yet,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  and 
expense  of  travelling,  this  is  denied  to  the  residents  in  the  more 
distant  parts  of  the  country.  The  common  people  are  frugal  and 
industrious.  Few  are  in  actual  want,  and  many  of  the  trading 
class  amass  considerable  wealth,  which  by  cunning  and  deceit 
they  manage  to  save  from  the  hands  of  the  rapacious  courtiers. 

**Eveiy  one,"  says  Sir  John  Malcolm,  "complains  of  poverty, 
but  this  complaint  as  often  proceeds  from  a  desire  to  avoid  oppres- 
sion as  from  its  actual  privations."  The  government  officials  are 
paid  wretchedly  small  salaries,  and  even  tliese  payments  are  most 
unpunctually  made.  To  meet  his  daily  expenses  money  has  to  be 
borrowed  at  a  high  rate  of  interest,  debts  accumulate,  and  in  a 
few  years  a  government  servant,  if  honest,  would  be  ruined. 

No  position  can  be  more  ignominious  than  that  of  a  Persian 
courtier  in  disgrace.  Should  he  incur  liis  master's  displeasure, 
without  the  slightest  warning  he  is  deprived  of  his  property, 
offices,  dignities  and  honors.  His  slaves  are  sold  or  handed  over 
to  the  favorite  of  the  hour,  his  wives  and  childii>n  are  insulted  or 
even  exposed  to  the  brutality  of  his  grooms  and  guards,  while  he 
himself  is  beaten  with  a  stick  or  mutilated  by  the  executioner's 
knife.     The  new  favorite  is  often  a  mere  boy,  as  in  our  picture. 

Yet  these  revei-ses  of  fortune  are  not  final.  They  are  philo- 
soi^hically  accepted  as  accidents  which  must  always  happen  to  one 
who  embraces  the  precarious  life  of  a  courtier,  and  by  the  Orien- 
tal, who  considei-s  every  misfortune  as  pre-oi*dained  by  fate  and 
impossible  to  be  prevented,  are  viewed  in  a  way  not  widely  differ- 
ent from  that  in  which  a  European  Secretary  of  State  might  regaixl 
an  official  announcement  that  his  sovereign  had  been  pleased 
to  disi^ense  with  his  services,  or  an  unfavorable  expression  of 
public  opinion  in  the  shape  of  a  severe  newspaper  article  on  his 
policy. 

Indeed,  though  Persian  sovereigns  express  veiy  savagely  their 
displeasure  at  the  policy  of  a  minister,  he  may,  after  experiencing 
the  infelicity  of  being  disgraced,  be  received  again  into  royal  favor. 
His  family  in  such  a  case  is  sent  back  to  him,  with  as  many  of  his 
slaves  as  can  be  recovered ;  and  his  property,  pruned  of  all  danger- 


196  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

of  Him  who  was  born  on  the  wood  of  a  manger  and  died  on  the 
wood  of  a  cross  —  the  carpenter's  son  of  Galilee  —  have  from  the 
earliest  days  of  slavery  been  peculiarly  attractive  to  the  natures 
of  our  colored  brethren,  and  that  since  the  abolition  of  slavery 
Christianity  has  been  a  most  potent  factor  in  the  gitidual  eleva- 
tion of  that  itice  which  politicians  have  been  wont  to  regard  as 
furnishing  the  most  perplexing  problem  of  our  American  attempt 
at  civilization. 

Why,  then,  have  so  much  noble  endeavor  and  so  much  wealth 
been  wasted  in  Africa?  Why  has  the  missionary  business  been 
a  most  pathetic  failure?  The  pi-actical  man  answers  these  ques- 
tions by  affirming  that  the  African  aborigines  must  be  commercially 
transformed  and  lield  inider  the  dominion  or  at  least  the  protector- 
ate of  some  European  power,  l)efore  any  efforts  to  plant  Chris- 
tianity can  be  crowned  with  a  satisfactoiy  harvest. 

The  French  are  engaged  at  present  in  attempting  to  convert 
Behanzin,  the  King  of  Dahomey,  l)y  force  of  arms,  to  certain  com- 
mercijil  views  which  they  think  he  ought  to  hold,  and  this  has 
been  the  English  method  with  all  African  tribes.  As  one  brilliant 
writer  puts  it,  commercialization  or  extermination  are  the  only 
stepping-stones  to  civilization  in  interior  Africa  and,  indeed, 
while  the  Christian  powers  of  Europe,  for  the  sake  of  extending 
commerce  or  acquiring  temtory,  maintain  a  martial  attitude 
towards  tlie  unfortunate  natives,  there  would  seem  to  be  slight 
chance  for  the  successful  dissemination  of  the  doctrines  of  the 
Prince  of  PeJice. 

Is  it  not  then  ])rol)al)le  that  those  ministei's  are  (juite  right 
who  in  the  recent  meetings  of  missionarj^  societies  have  coun- 
selled the  expenditure  of  less  money  for  foreign  missions  and  more 
for  the  improvement  of  the  environment  of  the  less  ])i(itui'esque 
but  equally  needy  heathen  in  our  great  cities?  If  the  churches 
all  over  the  country  would  club  together  and  coiiperate  in 
abolishing  the  tenement-house  rookeries  or  the  sweating  shops 
of  just  one  city  every  year,  it  would  not  be  long  liefore  the  foun- 
dations of  the  Temple  of  Univei-sal  Brotherhood  would  be  fairly 
and  firmlv  laid. 


Peusia  it'prfseiits,  perliaps,  more 
perfectly  than  any  fsisting  nation, 
except  jiosaibly  some  small  kingdom  Eimonff 
barbarians,  the  primjipie  nf  alisolutisin,  or  iiTC- 
sponsiblL'  and  fetterless  i>owcr  in  llie  hands  nf  one 
man,  and  this  has  been  sn  for  many  ociituries,  although 
ihf  ]iresent  PersiaiiH  Hre  no  more  descended  from  the 
famous  Medes  and  Persians,  or  fniin  the  i.u'c  hIio  defeated 
Xenoplion  and  his  ten  thousiind,  than  i\iv  prt-sent  inhabitants  of 
our  cosinoix>litiin  country  are  fi-oni  th^  men  who  sketched  .111 
outline  of  pi-actical  socialistic  goviTiimi'iit  in  the  i-ahin  of  the 
Mayflower. 

Persia  has  Ix'cn  so  often  invaded,  and  so  niiiny  races  have  con- 
tributtid  to  the  empire,  that  it  is  now  dilheull.  if  not  impossible, 
to  tince  the  original  elements.  Hiveis  flow  into  the  sea;  you  may 
tiTice  their  cuiTents  for  a  little  w;iy,  hut  soon  they  lilenil  with  the 
ocean  and  their  elements  defy  a  chemii-  analysis. 

So  with  nearly  all  ancient  realms.  Thci-c  lias  lx?en  a  blending 
of  numerous  nationalities;  yet  the  philologist  and  ethnol^^^ist 
may  now  and  then  detect  them  in  certain  eddies  of  the  cmpii'e. 
where  they  have  kept  more  unmixed  than  elsewhere,  by  a  turn 


198  THE  STORY  OF   GOVERNMENT. 

of  speech,  or  a  cast  of  countenance.  In  no  province  of  the 
country  is  the  population  wholly  Persian;  everjrwhere  there  are 
alien  elements. 

The  ancient  Persians  were  celebrated  for  their  handsome  per- 
sons, rather  tall  stature,  and  the  beauty  of  their  women.  The 
modern  race,  or  "Tadjiks,"  as  they  call  themselves,  have  a  fair 
sliare  of  good  looks;  their  featui'es  are  regular,  their  countenances 
oval,  hair  glossy  and  luxuriant,  and  their  eyes  dark  and  soft. 
Witty,  cheerful,  frivolous,  idle,  luxurious,  and  fond  of  dress  and 
display  is  the  character  which  has  been  given  them,  an  opinion 
that  is  rather  too  sweeping  to  be  tiTie. 

A  people  made  up  of  such  diverse  elements  is  difficult  to  char- 
acterize without  making  so  many  exceptions  tliat  the  rule  is  not 
pioved,  except  to  have  no  existence.  However,  in  progress  of 
time,  notwithstanding  the  original  differences  of  the  people,  some 
few  general  chamcteristics  will  be  found  to  have  become  common. 

These  we  may  briefly  sketch.  There  are  two  great  classes, 
the  fixed  and  the  wandering;  but  tlie  nomad  tribes  have  little 
voice  in  the  country,  and  it  is  from  the  fixed  inhabitants  of  the 
cities  and  country  seats  that  tlie  ruling  classes  Jind  those  who 
properly  constitute  the  stronghold  of  the  country  are  selected. 

We  may,  for  convenience,  divide  them  into  (1)  the  civil  and 
military  functionaries,  including  those  connected  with  the  couit, 
(2)  the  inhabitants  of  the  towns,  such  as  the  merchants,  shop- 
keepers, artisans,  merabei*s  of  the  i*eligious  orders,  men  of  learn- 
ing, and  of  all  kinds  of  business;  (3)  the  agriculturists  or 
cultivators  of  the  soil ;  and  lastly  (4)  there  may  be  added  the  wild 
wanderers  or  "Eeliauts." 

The  Pei-sian  couit  is  a  perfect  type  of  despotism.  Every  officer 
owes  his  elevation  to  the  favor  or  caprice  of  the  monarch,  and  is 
liable  at  any  moment  to  dismissal  without  a  chance  of  appeal 
either  to  his  superioi-s,  to  a  court  of  law,  or  to  that  greater  public 
opinion  which  controls  tyranny  and  injustice  in  other  countries. 

Treated  in  a  capricious  manner  by  his  sovereign,  he,  in 
his  turn,  rides  rouglishod  over  all  his  inferiors.  Knowing  that 
he  may  fall  as  suddenly  as  he  was  raised  by  the  whim  of  the 
monarch,  he  endeavors,  during  his  uncertain  tenure  of  office,  to 
amass,  by  every  means  known  in  a  country  where  justice  and  right 


200  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

are  merely  high  sounding  words  for  poets  to  mouth,  enough 
wealth  to  support  the  extravagance  which  his  ix)sition  necessarily 
entails,  to  bribe  liis  enemies  when  his  evil  day  arrives,  or  to  retire 
upon  to  a  quiet  corner  of  the  empire  if  he  be  fortunate  enough  to 
escape  the  bowstring  in  the  hour  of  his  fall. 

Deceitful,  treacherous,  venal,  arrogant,  dishonest  and  overbear- 
ing, the  Persian  courtier  possesses  the  art  of  concealing  his  true 
character  under  a  polished  manner,  and  a  lively,  courteous,  and 
mild  countenance  which  rarely  betrays  the  workings  of  his   mind. 

Add  to  this,  he  is  often  an  acute  diplomatist,  well  informed, 
and  skilful  in  business.  A  court  so  constituted  camiot  but  be 
hated  by  all  the  poorer  classes,  who  are  the  chief  sufferers  by  it, 
and  its  pernicious  example  spreads  the  contagion  of  venality,  petty 
rascality,  and  other  evils  throughout  the  community. 

But  all  the  high  officei*s  of  State  are  not  selected  from  the  class 
of  nobles.  No  doubt,  as  in  most  countries,  the  '*  upper  classes  " 
have  more  than  their  fair  share  of  power  and  place ;  yet  many  of 
the  public  functionaries  and  ministers  in  Persia  belong  to  the 
order  of  Mirzas,  secretaries,  or  "men  of  business." 

For  the  policy  of  the  monarchs  is  to  select  some  of  their  officers 
from  the  1  nimblest  class  of  life,  under  the  idea  that  men  thus 
rnised  to  dignity  by  the  favor  of  the  king  alone  will  be,  through 
gratitude,  more  attached  to  liis  person  than  a  military  noble, 
whose  rank  would,  as  much  as  his  sovereign's  favor,  have  obtained 
for  him  power,  and  who,  at  the  beck  of  ambition  or  offended  pride, 
might  summon  to  his  aid  a  host  of  warlike  retainei's  and  plunge 
the  country  into  civil  war.  • 

These  Mirzas,  though  tlie  equals  of  the  nobles  in  treachery  and 
immorality,  are  yet  in  geneml  more  accomplished  than  they, 
being  well  versed  in  all  state-craft,  mild  and  sulnlued  in  their 
address,  and  differing  from  tlie  nobles  in  not  indulging  in  martial 
or  athletic  exercises,  and  wejiring,  instead  of  a  sword  or  dagger,  a 
cuhimdaun^  or  ink  horn,  attached  to  their  girdle. 

Any  pei-son  can  get  access  to  the  king  to  lay  his  complaint 
before  him ;  but,  unless  there  be  a  desire  to  push  the  affair,  the 
complaint  only  is  heard.  However,  it  is  treasured  up  to  l)e 
brought  forth  in  duo  time  when  the  functionarv  complained  of 
gets  into  disgrace,  and  an  excuse  is  desired  for  his  degradation. 


ABSOLUTISM.  201 

The  office  of  collector  of  public  revenue  is  a  poor  one.  The 
people,  knowing  that  the  taxation  only  goes  to  enrich  the  court 
and  pays  for  no  work  of  public  utility,  are  unwilling  to  satisfy  the 
just  demands  of  the  collector,  and  frequently  even  threaten  to  take 
his  life.  This  unwillingness  to  meet  their  public  obligations  is  in- 
tensified by  the  fact  that  taxation  falls  chiefly  on  the  toilers. 

The  great  nobles,  foreigners  and  wealthy  native  merchants  are 
exempt  from  contributions  to  the  Shah's  exchequer,  though  the 
first  and  last  named  are  subject  to  irregular  extortions  which  are 
sometimes  even  less  beai*able  than  the  systematic  bleeding  of  the 
collector. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  rapacious  officials  at  the  capital  do  every- 
thing in  their  power  to  extort  more  taxes,  and  frequently  threaten 
the  collector  with  punishment  on,  the  plea  that  he  has  withheld 
taxes,  so  as  to  induce  him  to  "  squeeze  "  the  population  still  more 
thoroughly. 

Thus,  between  the  rebellious  people  at  large  who  object  to  being 
bled,  and  the  officials  close  to  the  Shah  who  have  a  thirst  for  the 
silver  sweat  and  golden  blood  of  a  peoj)le  (which  is  commonly 
called  taxes),  it  is  easy  to  see  that  a  revenue  collector  in  Persia 
needs  the  stubbornness  of  a  mule,  the  persistency  of  a  gadfly,  and 
the  nine  lives  of  a  cat. 

Such,  however,  is  the  accursed  thirst  for  gold  —  so  intense,  al- 
though it  is  an  artificial  or  accidental  and  not  an  innate  passion,  so 
insanely  intense  is  the  desire  to  acquire  property  —  that,  even  in 
the  most  dangerous  districts  of  the  Shah's  dominion,  this  post  of 
danger  is  eagerly  sought. 

Many  anecdotes  are  current  in  Persia  concerning  the  collector, 
his  cunning,  and  the  ill  luck  that  often  attends  him  like  a  shadow. 
Yet,  although  tlie  Prince  of  Sliiraz  once  in  irony  ordered  a 
notorious  thief  to  be  punished  by  being  made  manager  of  the 
revenue  of  a  district,  as  he  could  conceive  of  no  crime  for  which 
that  appointment  would  not  be  an  adequate  punishment,  there  is 
little  doubt  that  between  the  people  and  the  public  treasury  not  a 
little  of  the  public  cash  clings  to  the  fingei-s  of  the  collector,  and 
that  many  of  them  accumulate  great  wealth. 

Notwithstanding  the  power  of  the  nobles,  the  people,  either 
through  a  naturally  high  spirit,  not  effaced  by  long  oppression,  or 


202  THE  8T0EY   OF  OOVEBNMENT. 

more  probably  owing  to  long  custom  which  allows  them  to  do  so 
with  impunity,  loudly  proclaim  their  wrongs  at  court,  if  they 
consider  themselves  injured;  yet,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  and 
expense  of  travelling,  this  is  denied  to  the  residents  in  the  more 
distant  parts  of  the  coimtry.  The  conmion  people  are  frugal  and 
industrious.  Few  are  in  actual  want,  and  many  of  the  trading 
class  amass  considerable  wealth,  which  by  cunning  and  deceit 
they  manage  to  save  from  the  hands  of  the  rapacious  courtiers. 

"Eveiy  one,"  says  Sir  John  Malcolm,  "complains  of  poverty, 
but  this  complaint  as  often  proceeds  from  a  desire  to  avoid  oppres- 
sion as  from  its  actual  privations."  The  government  officials  are 
paid  wretchedly  small  salaries,  and  even  these  payments  are  most 
unpunctually  made.  To  meet  his  daily  expenses  money  has  to  be 
borrowed  at  a  high  rate  of  interest,  debts  accumulate,  and  in  a 
few  years  a  government  servant,  if  honest,  would  be  ruined. 

No  position  can  be  more  ignominious  than  that  of  a  Pei-sian 
courtier  in  disgrace.  Should  he  incur  his  master's  displeasure, 
without  the  slightest  warning  he  is  deprived  of  his  property, 
offices,  dignities  and  honors.  Ilis  slaves  are  sold  or  handed  over 
to  the  favorite  of  the  hour,  his  wives  and  chilcb-en  aro  insulted  or 
even  exposed  to  the  brutality  of  his  grooms  and  guards,  while  he 
himself  is  beaten  with  a  stick  or  mutilated  by  the  executioner's 
knife.     The  new  favorite  is  often  a  mere  boy,  as  in  our  picture. 

Yet  these  revei-ses  of  fortune  are  not  final.  They  are  philo- 
sophically accepted  as  accidents  which  must  always  happen  to  one 
who  embraces  the  precarious  life  of  a  comtier,  and  by  the  Orien- 
tal, who  considei-s  every  misfortune  as  pre-oidained  by  fate  and 
impossible  to  be  prevented,  are  viewed  in  a  way  not  widely  differ- 
ent from  that  in  which  a  European  Secretary  of  State  might  regard 
an  official  announcement  that  his  sovei-eign  had  been  pleased 
to  dispense  with  his  sei*vices,  or  an  unfavorable  expression  of 
public  opinion  in  the  shape  of  a  severe  newspaper  article  on  his 
policy. 

Indeed,  though  Persian  sovereigns  express  veiy  savagely  their 
displeasure  at  the  policy  of  a  minister,  he  may,  after  experiencing 
the  infelicity  of  being  disgraced,  be  received  again  into  royal  favor. 
His  family  in  such  a  case  is  sent  back  to  him,  with  as  many  of  his 
slaves  as  can  be  recovered ;  and  his  property,  pruned  of  all  danger- 


204  THE   STORY    OF   GOVERNMENT. 

ous  exuberance,  is  returned.  A  batli  mollifies  his  bruised  feet, 
a  cap  conceals  his  cropped  ears,  and  tlie  white- washed  culprit  is 
often  reinstat(Kl  in  the  very  government  he  has  lost,  perhaps 
carrying  with  him  a  sentence  of  disgmce  to  his  successor  to  whose 
inti'igues  he  owed  liis  temporary  fall. 

It  is  indeed  surprising  how  carelessly  the  king  and  his  ministers 
bestow  situations  of  confidence  on  strangers,  or  on  men  who,  from 
having  been  the  sufferei-s  of  great  injustice,  might  be  dreaded  as 
their  bitterest  enemies ;  yet  the  management  of  a  conquered  state 
is  frequently  intrusted  to  the  klian  or  prince  who  before  possessed 
it  in  his  own  right.  The  pardoned  rebel  of  one  province  is 
appointed  to  the  supreme  command  in  another;  and  the  disgraced 
noble  or  governor  is  sent  to  take  charge  of  a  district  where  the 
utmost  fidelity  and  zeal  are  required. 

No  ofiicial,  however  higli,  can  Ixj  sure  of  his  life;  it  lies  in  the 
hands  of  the  king  as  mucli  as  does  the  life  of  the  meanest  subject. 
The  death  of  an  official  is  determined,  the  warrant  for  his  execu- 
tion is  made  out,  and  an  officer  is  despatched  to  execute  it.    The 
man  rides  as  fiust  as  horses  pressed  into  his  service  can  carry  him 
until  he  arrives  at  the  city  wliere  the  doomed  man  lives.     He 
exhibits  hil^  mandati^  to  the  governor  or  chief  man  of  the  city,  and 
commands  him  to  tissist  him.     As  soon  as  the  door  of  the  victim's 
house  is  opened,   the    executioner  rushes   in,   and,   diawing    his 
scimitar,  falls  on  the  unfortunate  man  with  the  exclamation,    "It 
is  thj  king's  connnand,"  cuts  him  down,  and  strikes  oflf  his  bead. 
llarely  is  any  resistance  offered. 

Cases  have  IxM^n  known  in  which  a  powerful  man  has  attempted 
to  waylay  the*  messenger  on  the  road,  when  he  knew  his  errand, 
and,  depriving  him  of  the  warrant,  has  delayed  his  fate  until 
another  could  be  got,  or  until  he  has  had  time  to  obtain    paidon. 

But  iLsually,  such  is  the  awe  of  the  king's  name  that  no  Htttn:pt 
is  made;  In'  the  victtim  to  escape  his  fate.  He  calmly  submit^. 
"It  is  the  decrci*  of  Allah  —  it  is  fate  —  Allah  be  praised!  "  As 
for  his  near(\st  kin,  they  fly  from  him  as  from  a  thing  accursed. 
The  dependent's  whom  an  hour  ago  he  could  have  made  happy 
witli  a  smile  desert  liim  as  one  whose  touch  would  defile.  He  is 
like  an  infected  creature.  "All  nature  seems  to  be  roused  againut 
him,"  are  the  words  of  an  ancient  writer  in  Persia. 


206  THE  8T0EY  OF  GOVERNMENT. 

The  Gholams  are  the  king's  guards,  and  ai-e  composed  of  young 
men  held  in  favor  by  him.  Generally  they  are  young  Circassian 
or  Georgian  captives,  and  accordingly  their  condition  is  that  of 
slaves,  though,  the  position  being  one  of  honor  and  emolument, 
the  sons  of  tlie  highest  noblemen  may  be  found  thei'e. 

The  Gholam  Corps  numbers  three  thousand  or  four  thousand 
men,  and,  in  addition  to  acting  as  escorts  to  the  king  and  guards 
to  his  palaces,  they  are  often  despatched  on  delicate  missions, 
such  as  that  we  have  described  in  relation  to  the  execution  of  a 
disgraced  official.  In  the  execution  of  these  errands  they  often 
amass  large  sums  by  extortion ;  and  the  surest  pi*oof  of  the  in- 
vidious character  which  they  bear  is  the  fact  that  their  very  name 
carries  terror.  The  aiTival  of  a  gholam  e  shahee  is  enough  to 
throw  a  whole  district  into  alaim;  it  has  even  depopulated  a 
village  for  a  time. 

The  inhabitants  of  different  districts  differ  considerably  in 
character,  and  in  their  reputation  for  courage  or  cowardice. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  towns,  or  Shehere^s^  are  even  more  mixed 
than  those  of  the  country  districts.  In  general,  though  by  no 
means  to  be  held  up  as  models  for  young  men,  they  are  of  a  better 
character  than  the  higher  chisses,  and  are,  as  a  rule,  industrious, 
polite,  sociable,  good  servants  and  indulgent  masters,  though 
largely  imbued  with  deceit  and  greed. 

The  merchants  are  often  wealthy,  and  in  general  are  intelligent 
and  cultivated.  The  small  shopkeepers  are  more  distinguished 
for  insincerity  and  cunning,  both  vices,  though  inherent  in  the 
race,  being  fostered  by  their  constant  diead  of  the  caprice  of  their 
superiors.  The  merchants,  on  the  other  hand,  are,  as  all  through 
the  East,  held  in  more  consideration,  being  looked  upon  not  only 
as  a  source  of  revenue,  but  also  as  a  useful  medium  for  main- 
taining friendly  relations  with  foreign  states. 

The  ecclesiastical  law  is  administered  by  a  numerous  body  of 
priests  of  all  grades,  from  the  Sudder  al  Suddoor  down  to  the 
lowest  of  the  mollahs.  The  mooshteheds  are  the  highest  order, 
and  are  the  supreme  pontiffs  of  the  kingdom,  who,  subject  to  the 
approbation  of  the  sovereign,  nominate  all  the  principal  judges. 
They  usually  number  three  or  four,  and  are  elected  by  the  people 
cunt  of  their  acknowledged  sanctity. 


208  THE   STORY   OF   OOVBRNMENT. 

The  Sheik  al  Islam,  or  ruler  of  the  faith,  ranks  next* to  the 
mooshteheds.  He  is  a  salaried  judge,  his  duty  being  to  admin- 
ister the  written  law.  He  is  often  a  man  of  quite  as  great 
influence  as  the  mooshteheds,  his  official  superiors.  The  other 
ecclesiastical  officials  are  those  connected  with  the  mosques. 

Eveiy  mosque,  except  the  very  insignificant  ones,  has  a 
staff  of  three,  viz.,  the  mostwuUa,  who  manages  its  temporal 
affairs,  and  who  may  be  said  to  be  a  kind  of  churchwarden ;  the 
muezzin,  or  caller  to  prayers  (the  "  beadle  "),  and  the  mollah,  or 
priest  proper,  who  conducts  the  ceremonial  of  the  Mohammedan 
religion.  They  also  preach  a  sort  of  sermon  on  texts  from  the 
Koran  —  the  Mohammedan  Bible. 

Besides  these,  there  are  in  every  city,  and  connected  with  all 
seminaries  of  learning,  a  crowd  of  moUahs,  who  live  by  their  arts, 
and  have  Uttle  of  the  priest  but  the  name.  They  practise  astrol- 
ogy, write  letters  and  contracts  for  those  who  are  ignorant  of  pen- 
manship, and  thus  contrive  to  prolong  a  miserable  life. 

Nothing  can  be  lower  than  the  character  of  these  people. 
Their  hypocrisy,  profligacy  and  want  of  principle,  are  the  sub- 
jects of  stories,  epigrams,  and  proverbs  without  end.  "Take 
care,''  says  one  adage,  "of  the  face  of  a  woman  and  the 
heels  of  a  mule;  but  with  a  mollah  be  on  your  guard  at  all 
points."  "To  hate  like  a  mollah,"  and  "to  cheat  like  a  mollah  ** 
are  sayings  of  frequency  in  the  mouth  of  a  Persian. 

It  is  not  the  mollahs  alone  who  are  the  subject  of   Persian 
jocularity.     All  classes  who  are  concerned  in  the  administration 
of  the  law  or  Mohammedan  religious  ceremonies  are  proverbial  for 
their  dishonesty  and  trickery.     Chief  among  these  are  the  seyeds, 
or  descendants  of  the   prophet,  who   are   accounted   rogues    by 
nature ;  but  after  they  have  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  to  the 
birthplace  of  Mohammed,  are  considered  to  have  graduated  in  all 
dishonesty  and  rascality.    In  the  repertory  of  Persian    jests,  nine 
tenths  hinge  upon  what  a  mollah  or  a  hadji  (Mecca  pilgrim)  did, 
and  the  anecdotes  are  told  with  a  grave  hiunor  peculiarly  charac- 
teristic of  the  East.     The  cultivators  of  the  soil^  in  Persia,    though 
oppressed,  are  hospitable,  active,  and  intelligent,  and  are    more 
comfortable   in   their   lives   than   the   average   workman  in   any 
of  our  overgrown  cities. 


AB80LUTIS1C  209 

Penian  wamen^  like  those  of  all  other  Mohammedan  countries, 
are  not  looked  upon  as  the  equals  of  the  men.  They  are  bjr  some 
Moslem  priests  even  belieyed  not  to  have  souls,  and  in  every  case 
are  mere  slaves  who  minister  to  the  pleasure  of  their  haughty 
lords.  In  many  cases,  however,  their  sharp  wit  enables  them  to 
gain  an  ascendency  over  their  more  lethargic  husbands,  and  even 
to  sway  the  affairs  of  the  court  at  their  own  sweet  will. 

An  Eastern  seraglio  is  yet  a  "gilded  cage,"  tenanted  by 
uneducated  women,  whose  only  thoughts  are  to  please  their  mas- 
ter and  amuse  their  aimless  existence.  Intrigue,  discontent  and 
crime  are  the  natural  sequence  of  such  a  state  of  matters.  The 
harem  life  has  been  often  described,  but  by  none,  it  is  said  by 
those  acquainted  with  the  subject,  in  more  faithful  colors  than  by 
the  French  writer  Chardin. 

The  seraglio  of  the  king,  says  M.  Chardin,  is  most  commonly  a 
perpetual  prison,  from  whence  scarce  one  female  in  six  or  seven  has 
the  good  fortune  to  escape,  for  women  who  have  become  the  mothers 
of  living  children  are  provided  with  a  small  establishment  within  the 
walls,  and  are  never  suffered  to  leave  them.  But  privation  of  liberty 
is  by  no  means  the  worst  evil  that  exists  in  these  melancholy  abodes. 

Except  to  that  wife  so  fortunate  as  to  produce  the  firstborn  son, 
to  become  a  mother  is  the  most  dreaded  event  that  can  happen  to  the 
wretched  favorites  of  the  king.  When  this  occurs,  not  only  do  the 
mothers  see  their  last  chance  of  liberty  and  marriage  cut  off,  but 
they  live  in  the  dreadful  anticipation  of  seeing  their  children  de- 
prived of  life  or  sight,  when  the  death  of  their  lord  shall  call  a  new 
tyrant,  in  the  person  of  his  son,  the  brother  of  their  offspring,  to  the 
throne. 

Should  they  escape  having  children,  by  an  assiduous  court  paid  to 
the  king's  mother,  or  to  the  mother  of  his  eldest  son,  it  sometimes 
happens  that  they  obtain  the  good  fortune  of  being  bestowed  upon 
some  of  the  officers  about  the  court;  for  the  ministers  and  grandees, 
who  are  always  intriguing  with  these  influential  ladies,  seldom  fail  of 
soliciting  a  female  of  the  royal  harem  either  for  themselves  or  their 
sons. 

Indeed,  it  is  no  uncommon  thing  for  the  king  himself  to  bestow 
one  of  these  fair  captives  upon  one  of  his  favorites,  or  his  courtiers ;  and 
sometimes,  when  the  harem  gets  crowded,  this  is  done  to  a  great  extent 
as  a  measure  of  economical  expediency.  Happy  the  woman  thus  freed 
from  her  prison,  for  she  at  once  exchanges  the  situation  of  a  slave  for 


210 


THB   STOEY   OP   GOVERNMEH's- 


that  of  a  legitimate  and 
inflaential  wife,  and  the 
head  of  a  domestic  estab- 
lishment, where  uhe  ia 
ever  treated  with  the  at- 
tention due  to  one  who 
has  been  the  favorite  of 
a  king. 

In  the  case  of  the 
women  of  villagers  and 
laborers  the  veil  is  en- 
tirely dispensed  with, 
and  they  may  be  seen 
following  their  occupa- 
tions like  women  of 
their  class  in  Europe, 
or  other  parts  of  the 
world  where  the  Mo- 
hammedan faith  has  not 
instilled  the  idea  that 
the  females  of  the  na- 
tion are  to  be  carefully 
watched  and  excluded 
from  the  gaze  of  all  but 
their  loids.  Most  of 
the  harem  women  are  of 
Circassian,  Georgian,  or 
Armenian  blood,  and 
are  often  fair  in  com- 
plexion, well  formed, 
and  handsome,  with 
large  black  languish- 
ing eyes,  rich  red  lips 
and  pearly  teeth.  Their 
natural  c  It  a  r  m  s  are, 
however,  often  de- 
stroyed by  the  custom  they  have  of  painting  their  cheeks  with 
various  colors,  by  constantly  smoking,  which  spoils  their  teeth, 


I   PEBBIAM  TILLAGE   BELLE. 


ABSOLUTISM.  211 

and  by  the  habit  of  tattooing  on  their  persons  various  fanciful 
figures.  A  fine  head  of  hair  is  looked  upon  as  indispensable  to 
a  harem  beauty.  If  nature  denies  this  adornment,  it  is  supplied, 
either  wholly  or  in  part,  by  artificial  means,  a  custom  which  is 
not  absolutely  unknown  in  a  certain  civilized  (country,  of  whicli 
Teheran  is  not  the  capital. 

A  shift  find  trousei-s  of  colored  silk  or  cotton  constitute  the 
dress  worn  within  doors,  supf)lemente(l,  if  the  weather  be  cold,  by 
a  jacket,  shawl,  cloak,  or  fui-s.  The  head  is  enveloped  in  a  silk 
handkerchief,  so  arranged  as  to  form  a  kind  of  turban.  When 
the  women  go  outside,  they  fold  themselves  in  a  wrap[)er  of  *'blue 
checked  stuff,"  which  covei-s  them  from  head  to  foot,  only  leaving 
a  small  laced  opening  for  their  eyes,  through  which  it  is  impossi- 
ble for  even  the  lady's  husband  to  detect  the  pei"souality. 

Like  the  Peruvian  Ladies,  the  Pei'sians  ding  to  their  incognita 
with  the  keenest  relish,  as  one  of  the  few  fragments  of  personal 
liberty  which  they  possess.  Frankish  civilization  is  slowly  pen- 
etrating Iran,  a,s  the  empire  of  Persia  is  called;  but  it  has  not 
yet  progressed  so  far  as  to  induce  the  women  to  wear  gowns. 
These  they  call  '' trousers  with  one  leg,"  and  prefer  to  possess 
this  garment  with  the  nonnal  number  of  divisions. 

The  following  description  of  the  gala  dress  of  a  lady  of  high 
rank  as  given  by  Lady  Slieil,  who  spent  much  time  in  Persia,  will 
be  read  with  relish  by  all  women  who  take  a  natural,  innocent  and 
commendable  interest  in  dress:  — 

The  Shah's  mother  wore  a  pair  of  trousers  made  of  gold  brocade. 
These  Persian  trousers  are  always  very  wide,  each  leg  b^ing,  when  the 
means  of  the  wearer  permit  it,  wider  than  the  skirt  of  a  govn,  so  that 
they  have  the  effect  of  an  exceedingly  ample  petticoat ;  and,  as  crino- 
lines are  unknown,  the  elegatites  wear  ten  or  eleven  pairs  of  trousers, 
one  over  the  other,  in  order  to  make  up  for  the  want  of  the  above 
important  invention.  But  to  return  to  the  Shah's  mother.  Her 
trousers  were  edged  with  a  border  of  pearls  embroidered  on  braid  ;  she 
had  a  thin  blue  crepe  chemisette,  also  trimmed  with  pearls.  This 
chemisette  hung  down  a  little  below  the  waist  nearly  meeting  the  top 
of  the  trousers,  wliich  are  always  fastened  by  a  running  string.  A 
small  jacket  of  velvet  was  over  the  chemisette,  reaching  to  the  waist, 
but  not  made  close  in  front,  and  on  the  head  a  small  shawl   pinned 


204  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

ous  exuberance,  is  returned.  A  batli  mollifies  his  bruised  feet, 
a  cap  conceals  his  cropped  ears,  and  tlie  white-washed  culprit  is 
often  reinstated  in  the  very  government  he  has  lost,  perhaps 
carrying  with  him  a  sentence  of  disgmce  to  his  successor  to  whose 
intrigues  he  owed  his  temporary  fall. 

It  is  indeed  surprising  how  carelessly  the  king  and  his  ministers 
bestow  situations  of  confidence  on  strangers,  or  on  men  who,  from 
having  been  the  sufferei-s  of  great  injustice,  might  he  dreaded  as 
their  bitterest  enemies ;  yet  the  management  of  a  conquered  state 
is  frequently  intrusted  to  the  khan  or  prince  who  before  possessed 
it  in  his  own  right.  The  pardoned  rebel  of  one  province  is 
appointed  to  the  supreme  command  in  another;  and  the  disgraced 
noble  or  governor  is  sent  to  take  charge  of  a  district  where  the 
utmost  fidelity  and  zeal  are  required. 

No  ofiicial,  however  high,  can  be  sure  of  his  life;  it  lies  in  the 
hands  of  the  king  as  nmcli  as  does  tlie  life  of  the  meanest  subject. 
The  death  of  an  official  is  determined,  the  warrant  for  his  execu- 
tion is  made  out,  and  an  officer  is  despatched  to  execute  it.    The 
man  rides  as  fast  iis  horses  pressed  into  his  service  can  carry  him 
until  he  arrives  at  the  city  where  the  doomed  man  lives.     He 
exhibits  liis  mandate  to  the  governor  or  chief  man  of  the  city,  and 
commands  him  to  assist  him.     As  soon  as  the  door  of  the  victim's 
house  is  opened,   the    executioner  rushes  in,   and,   drawing    his 
scimitar,  falls  on  the  unfortunate  man  with  the  exclamation,    "It 
is  the  king's  command,"  cuts  him  down,  and  strikes  off  his  bead. 
Rarely  is  any  resistance  offered. 

Cases  have  Ix^en  known  in  which  a  powerful  man  has  attempted 
to  waylay  the  messenger  on  the  road,  when  he  knew  his  errand, 
and,  depriving  him  of  the  wantint,  has  delayed  his  fate  until 
another  could  be  got,  or  until  he  has  had  time  to  obtain    paidon. 

But  usually,  such  is  the  awe  of  the  king's  name  that  no  atttffpt 
is  made  by  the  victim  to  escape  his  fate.  He  calmly  submit^. 
*'It  is  the  decree  of  Allah — it  is  fate  —  Allah  be  praised!  "  As 
for  his  nearest  kin,  they  fly  from  him  as  from  a  thing  accursed. 
The  dependents  whom  an  hour  ago  he  could  have  made  happy 
with  a  smile  desert  him  as  one  whose  touch  would  defile.  He  is 
like  an  infected  creature.  "All  nature  seems  to  be  roused  agaiimt 
him,"  are  the  words  of  an  ancient  writer  in  Persia. 


206  THE  8T0EY  OF  GOVERNMENT. 

The  Gbolams  are  the  king's  guards,  and  are  composed  of  young 
men  held  in  favor  by  him.  Generally  they  are  young  Circassian 
or  Georgian  captives,  and  accordingly  their  condition  is  that  of 
slaves,  though,  the  position  being  one  of  honor  and  emolument, 
the  sons  of  tlie  highest  noblemen  may  be  found  there. 

The  Gholam  Corps  numbers  three  thousand  or  four  thousand 
men,  and,  in  addition  to  acting  as  escorts  to  the  king  and  guards 
to  his  palaces,  they  are  often  despatched  on  delicate  missions, 
such  as  that  we  have  described  in  relation  to  the  execution  of  a 
disgraced  official.  In  the  execution  of  these  eiTands  they  often 
amass  large  sums  by  extortion ;  and  the  surest  proof  of  the  in- 
vidious character  which  they  bear  is  the  fact  that  their  very  name 
<}arries  terror.  The  aiTival  of  a  gholam  e  shahee  is  enough  to 
throw  a  whole  district  into  alaim;  it  has  even  depopulated  a 
village  for  a  time. 

The  inhabitants  of  different  districts  differ  considerably  in 
character,  and  in  their  reputation  for  courage  or  cowardice. 
The  inhabitiints  of  the  towns,  or  Shehere^s^  are  even  more  mixed 
than  those  of  the  country  districts.  In  general,  though  by  no 
means  to  be  held  up  as  models  for  young  men,  they  are  of  a  better 
character  than  the  higher  classes,  and  are,  as  a  rule,  industrious, 
polite,  sociable,  good  servants  and  indulgent  masters,  though 
largely  imbued  with  deceit  and  greed. 

The  merchants  are  often  wealthy,  and  in  general  are  intelligent 
and  cultivated.  The  small  shopkeepers  are  more  distinguished 
for  insincerity  and  cunning,  both  vices,  though  inherent  in  the 
race,  being  fostered  by  their  constant  dread  of  the  caprice  of  their 
superiors.  The  merchants,  on  the  other  hand,  are,  as  all  through 
the  East,  held  in  more  consideration,  being  looked  upon  not  only 
as  a  source  of  revenue,  but  also  as  a  useful  medium  for  main- 
taining friendly  relations  with  foreign  stixtes. 

The  ecclesiastical  law  is  administered  by  a  numerous  body  of 
priests  of  all  grades,  from  the  Sudder  al  Suddoor  down  to  the 
lowest  of  the  mollahs.  The  mooshteheds  are  the  highest  order, 
and  are  the  supreme  pontiffs  of  tlie  kingdom,  who,  subject  to  the 
approbation  of  the  sovereign,  nominate  all  the  principal  judges. 
They  usually  number  three  or  four,  and  are  elected  by  the  people 
on  account  of  their  acknowledged  sanctity. 


208  THE  STORY   OF  eOVERNMENT. 

The  Sheik  al  Islam,  or  ruler  of  the  faith,  ranks  next* to  the 
mooshteheds.  He  is  a  salaried  judge,  his  duty  being  to  admin- 
ister the  written  law.  He  is  often  a  man  of  quite  as  great 
influence  as  the  mooshteheds,  his  official  superiors.  The  other 
ecclesiastical  officials  are  those  connected  with  the  mosques. 

Every  mosque,  except  the  very  insignificant  ones,  has  a 
staff  of  three,  viz.,  the  mostwulla,  who  manages  its  temporal 
affairs,  and  who  may  be  said  to  be  a  kind  of  churchwarden ;  the 
muezzin,  or  caller  to  prayers  (the  "beadle"),  and  the  mollah,  or 
priest  proper,  who  conducts  the  ceremonial  of  the  Mohammedan 
religion.  They  also  preach  a  sort  of  sermon  on  texts  from  the 
Koran  —  the  Mohammedan  Bible. 

Besides  these,  there  are  in  every  city,  and  connected  with  all 
seminaries  of  learning,  a  crowd  of  mollahs,  who  live  by  their  arts, 
and  have  Kttle  of  the  priest  but  the  name.  They  practise  astrol- 
ogy, write  letters  and  contracts  for  those  who  are  ignorant  of  pen- 
manship, and  thus  contrive  to  prolong  a  miserable  life. 

Nothing  can  be  lower  than  the  character  of  these  people. 
Their  hypocrisy,  profligacy  and  want  of  principle,  are  the  sub- 
jects of  stories,  epigrams,  and  proverbs  without  end.  "Take 
care,**  says  one  adage,  "of  the  face  of  a  woman  and  the 
heels  of  a  mule;  but  with  a  mollah  be  on  your  guard  at  all 
points.'*  "To  hate  like  a  mollah,"  and  "to  cheat  like  a  mollah  '' 
are  sayings  of  frequency  in  the  mouth  of  a  Persian. 

It  is  not  the  mollahs  alone  who  are  the  subject  of   Persian 
jocularity.     All  classes  who  are  concerned  in  the  administration 
of  the  law  or  Mohammedan  religious  ceremonies  are  proverbial  for 
their  dishonesty  and  trickery.     Chief  among  these  are  the  seyeds, 
or  descendants  of  the   prophet,  who  are   accounted   rogues    by 
nature  ^  but  after  they  have  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,   to  the 
birthplace  of  Mohammed,  are  considered  to  have  graduated  in  all 
dishonesty  and  rascality.    In  the  repertory  of  Persian    jests,  nine 
tenths  hinge  upon  what  a  mollah  or  a  hadji  (Mecca  pilgrim)  did, 
and  the  anecdotes  are  told  with  a  grave  humor  peculiarly  charac- 
teristic of  the  East.     The  cultivators  of  the  soil^  in  Persia,    though 
oppressed,  are  hospitable,  active,  and  intelligent,  and  are    more 
comfortable   in   their  lives   than   the   average   workman  in   any 
of  our  overgrown  cities. 


ABSOLUTISM.  209 

Penian  wamen^  like  those  of  all  other  Mohammedan  countries, 
are  not  looked  upon  as  the  equals  of  the  men.  They  are  hj  some 
Moslem  priests  even  believed  not  to  have  souls,  and  in  every  case 
are  mere  slaves  who  minister  to  the  pleasure  of  their  haughty 
lords.  In  many  cases,  however,  their  sharp  wit  enables  them  to 
gain  an  ascendency  over  their  more  lethargic  husbands,  and  even 
to  sway  the  affairs  of  the  court  at  their  own  sweet  will. 

An  Eastern  seraglio  is  yet  a  ** gilded  cage,'*  tenanted  by 
uneducated  women,  whose  only  thoughts  are  to  please  their  mas- 
ter and  amuse  their  aimless  existence.  Intrigue,  discontent  and 
crime  are  the  natural  sequence  of  such  a  state  of  matters.  The 
harem  life  has  been  often  described,  but  by  none,  it  is  said  by 
those  acquainted  with  the  subject,  in  more  faithful  colors  than  by 
the  French  writer  Cliardin. 

The  seraglio  of  the  king,  says  M.  Chardin,  is  most  commonly  a 
perpetual  prison,  from  whence  scarce  one  female  in  six  or  seven  has 
the  good  fortune  to  escape,  for  women  who  have  become  the  mothers 
of  living  children  are  provided  with  a  small  establishment  within  the 
walls,  and  are  never  suffered  to  leave  them.  But  privation  of  liberty 
is  by  no  means  the  worst  evil  that  exists  in  these  melancholy  abodes. 

Except  to  that  wife  so  fortunate  as  to  j)roduce  the  firstborn  son, 
to  become  a  mother  is  the  most  dreaded  event  that  can  happen  to  the 
wretched  favorites  of  the  king.  When  this  occurs,  not  only  do  the 
mothers  see  their  last  chance  of  liberty  and  marriage  cut  off,  but 
they  live  in  the  dreadful  anticipation  of  seeing  thoir  children  de- 
prived of  life  or  sight,  when  the  death  of  their  lord  shall  call  a  new 
tyrant,  in  the  person  of  his  son,  the  brother  of  their  offspring,  to  the 
throne. 

Should  they  escape  having  children,  by  an  assiduous  court  paid  to 
the  king's  mother,  or  to  the  mother  of  his  eldest  son,  it  sometimes 
happens  that  they  obtain  the  good  fortune  of  being  bestowed  upon 
some  of  the  officers  about  the  court ;  for  the  ministers  and  grandees, 
who  are  always  intriguing  with  these  influential  ladies,  seldom  fail  of 
soliciting  a  female  of  the  royal  harem  either  for  themselves  or  their 
sons. 

Indeed,  it  is  no  uncommon  thing  for  the  king  himself  to  bestow 
one  of  these  fsur  captives  upon  one  of  his  favorites,  or  his  courtiers;  and 
sometimes,  when  the  harem  gets  crowded,  this  is  done  to  a  great  extent 
as  a  measure  of  economical  expediency.  Happy  the  woman  thus  freed 
from  her  prison,  for  she  at  once  exchanges  the  situation  of  a  slave  for 


210 


THE   STOEY   OP   GOVBENMENI- 


that  of  a  legitimate  and 
inflnential  wife,  and  the 
head  of  a  domestic  estab- 
liabment,  where  she  ia 
ever  treated  with  the  at- 
tention due  to  one  who 
has  been  the  favorite  of 
a  king. 

Ia  the  case  of  tbe 
wotneD  of  villagers  and 
laborers  the  veil  is  en- 
tirely dispensed  with, 
and  they  may  be  seen 
following  their  occupa- 
tions like  women  of 
their  class  in  Europe, 
or  other  parts  of  the 
world  wliere  the  Mo- 
hammedan faith  has  not 
instilled  the  idea  that 
the  females  of  the  na- 
tion are  to  be  carefully 
\vatched  and  excluded 
from  the  gaze  of  all  but 
their  loids.  Most  of 
the  harem  women  are  of 
Circassian,  Georgian,  or 
Armenian  blood,  and 
are  often  fair  in  com- 
plexion, well  formed, 
and  hand!st»nie,  with 
large  black  languish- 
ing eyes,  rich  red  lips 
and  pearly  teeth.  Their 
natural  charms  are, 
however,  often  de- 
stroyed by  tbe  custom  they  have  of  painting  their  cheeks  with 
various  colors,  by  constantly  smoking,  which  spoils  their  teeth. 


A  PEBSIAH  TILLAGE  BELLE. 


ABSOLUTISM.  211 

and  by  the  habit  of  tattooing  on  their  pei*sons  various  fanciful 
figures.  A  fine  head  of  hair  is  looked  upon  jis  indispensable  to 
a  harem  l)eauty.  If  nature  denies  this  adornment,  it  is  supplied, 
either  wholly  or  in  part,  by  artificial  means,  a  custom  which  is 
not  absolutely  unknown  in  a  certain  civilized  countrv,  of  which 
Teheran  is  not  the  capital. 

A  shift  and  trousens  of  colored  silk  or  cotton  constitute  the 
dress  worn  within  doors,  sup[)lementc(l,  if  the  weather  be  cold,  by 
a  jacket,  shawl,  cloak,  or  fui-s.  The  head  is  enveloped  in  a  silk 
handkerchief,  so  arranged  as  to  form  a  kind  of  turban.  When 
the  women  go  outside,  they  fold  themselves  in  a  wrapi)er  of  "blue 
checked  stuff,"  which  covei-s  them  from  head  to  foot,  only  leaving 
a  small  laced  opening  for  their  eyes,  through  which  it  is  impossi- 
ble for  even  the  lady's  husl)and  to  detect  the  pei-sonality. 

Like  the  Peruvian  ladies,  the  Pei*sians  cling  to  their  incognita 
with  the  keenest  relish,  as  one  of  the  few  fragments  of  i)ersonal 
liberty  which  they  possess.  Frankish  civilization  is  slowly  pen- 
etrating Iran,  as  the  empire  of  Persia  is  called;  but  it  has  not 
yet  progressed  so  far  as  to  induce  the  women  to  wear  gowns. 
These  they  call  ''trousers  with  one  leg,"  and  j)refer  to  possess 
this  garment  with  the  nonnal  num])er  of  divisions. 

The  following  description  of  the  gala  diess  of  a  lady  of  high 
rank  as  given  by  Lady  Slieil,  who  s})ent  much  time  in  Pei-sia,  will 
be  read  with  relish  by  all  women  who  tak(j  a  natural,  innocent  and 
commendable  interest  in  dress:  — 

The  Shah's  inother  wore  a  pair  of  trousers  made  of  gold  brocade. 
These  Persian  trousers  are  always  \qv\  wide,  each  leg  being,  when  the 
means  of  the  wearer  permit  it,  wider  than  the  skirt  of  a  govyn,  so  that 
they  have  the  effect  of  an  exceedingly  ample  petticoat ;  and,  as  crino- 
lines are  unknown,  the  elegantes  wear  ten  or  eleven  pairs  of  trousers, 
one  over  the  other,  in  order  to  make  up  for  the  want  of  the  above 
important  invention.  But  to  return  to  the  Shah's  mother.  Iler 
trousers  were  edged  with  a  border  of  pearls  embroidered  on  braid  ;  she 
had  a  thin  blue  cr^pe  chemisette,  also  trimmed  with  pearls.  This 
chemisette  hung  down  a  little  below  the  waist  nearly  meeting  the  top 
of  the  trousers,  which  are  always  fastened  by  a  running  string.  A 
small  jacket  of  velvet  was  over  the  chemisette,  reaching  to  the  waist, 
but  not  made  close  in  front,  and  on  the  head  a  small  shawl    pinned 


212  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

under  the  chin.  On  the  8hawl  were  fastened  strings  of  large  pearls  and 
diamond  sprigs.  Her  arms  were  covered  with  handsome  bracelets, 
and  her  neck  with  a  variety  of  costly  necklaces.  Her  hair  was  in 
bands  and  hung  down  under  the  shawl  in  a  multitude  of  small  plaits. 
She  wore  no  shoes,  her  feet  being  covered  with  cashmere  stockings. 
The  palms  of  her  hands  and  the  tips  of  her  fingers  were  dyed  red  with 
an  herb  called  henna,  and  the  edges  of  the  inner  part  of  the  eyelids  were 
colored  with  antimony.  All  the  Kajars  [the  Tartar  tribe  to  which  the 
present  dynasty  belongs]  have  naturally  large  arched  eyebrows,  but 
not  satisfied  with  this,  the  women  enlarge  them  with  great  streaks  of 
antimony.  Her  cheeks  were  well  rouged,  as  is  the  invariabla  custom 
among  Persian  women  of  all  classes.  In  fact,  like  their  contemporaries 
in  Europe,  the  Persian  ladies 

*'  With  carious  artft  dim  charms  revive, 
And  triumph  in  the  bloom  of  lifty-five.  '* 

Ignorant,  sensual,  frivolous,  with  no  intellectual  resources  to 
fall  back  upon,  except  the  occasional  introduction  of  some  femin- 
ine elocutionist  or  story-teller,  the  conversation  of  a  harem  party 
is  wearisome  in  the  extreme. 

All  that  delicacy  which  we  associate  with  a  woman  is  absent 
from  their  discourse;  scandal  and  gossip  are  the  only  subjects 
of  conversation,  and  on  every  topic  they  express  themselves  with 
the  most  disgusting  grossness.  A  friendly  tete-d-tSte  is  every  now 
and  then  broken  up  by  a  violent  quarrel  among  the  beauties,  when 
invective  and  abuse,  the  indecency  of  which  would  bar  their 
repetition  almost  in  a  police  court  or  the  pages  of  some  of  our 
*' progressive  "  daily  papers,  are  said  to  flow  from  their  Eastern 
tongues  with  a  fluency  which  long  practice  and  a  freedom  from 
anything  like  shamefacedness  can  only  supply. 

The  marriage  ceremonies  are  elaborate  and  peculiar.  Like  all 
other  Mohammedans,  they  are  not  allowed  more  than  four  legal 
wives,  but  they  can  have  as  many  concubines  as  they  can  purchase. 
A  girl  is  often  l>etrothed  to  her  future  husband  in  infancy,  and  never 
sees  him  until  they  stand  before  the  priest  to  complete  the  bargain. 
She  has,  however,  the  option  of  refusing  to  do  so ;  but  this  is  a 
privilege  so  hedged  round  with  difficulties  as  to  be  practically 
useless.  Of  late,  however,  it  has  become  customary  to  allow  the 
future  husband  and  wife  to  see  each  other,  but  only  "under  the 


214  THE   STOEY    OF   GOVEENME^'T. 

rose."  The  marriage  can  be  witnessed  by  two  men,  or  by  one 
man  and  two  women.  The  certificate  is  carefully  preserved  by 
the  woman,  for  in  case  there  be  a  divorce,  the  possession  of  it  is 
the  only   means    by   which  she  can  recover  her  dowry. 

Great  rejoicings  take  place  at  every  marriage,  and  in  the  case 
of  even  the  middle  classes  ai-e  accompanied  by  an  expenditure  so 
profuse  as  to  be  often  almost  ruinous.  The  feasting  will  hist 
from  three  to  forty  days,  according  to  the  mnk  of  the  contract- 
ing parties;  thi*ee,  at  least,  are  necessary.  On  the  first,  the  com- 
pany assembles;  on  the  second,  the  bride's  hands  are  stained  with 
henna ;  on  the  third,  the  rite  takes  place,  with  much  ceremony 
and  not  a  little  humor.  This  brief  account  of  the  conclusion 
of  a  wedding  by  an  eye-witness  is  full  of  curious  points.  The 
bride  has  retired  to  her  room. 

The  husband,  who  in  this  case  is  a  middle-aged  widower,  makes  his 
ap])earance,  and  a  looking-glass  is  immediately  held  up  in  such  a  posi- 
tion as  to  reflect  the  face  of  his  bride,  whom  he  now  for  the  first  time 
sees  unveiled.  It  is  a  critical  and  anxious  moment,  for  it  is  that  in 
which  the  fidelity  of  his  agents  is  to  be  proved,  and  the  charms  of  his 
beloved  to  be  compared  with  those  pictured  to  him  by  his  ardent 
imagination,  while  the  young  ladies  in  attendance,  as  well  as  the 
gossiping  old  ones,  are  eager  to  catch  the  first  glimpse,  and  communi- 
cate to  all  the  world  their  opinion  of  her  claims  to  beauty. 

Then  the  bridegroom  takes  a  bit  of  sugar-candy,  and  biting  it  in  two 
eats  one  half  himself,  and  presents  the  other  to  his  bride,  a  custom 
apparently  traceable  to  the  ancient  confarreatio^  <»r  ^'  eating  together," 
a  portion  of  the  marriage  ceremony  in  an  early  state  of  society,  of 
which  the  modern  bridecake  is  a  remnant.  On  tlie  present  occasion 
he  had  no  teeth  to  bite  with,  jin<l  so  he  broke  the  sugar  with  his 
fingers,  which  offended  tlie  yoiuig  woman  so  much  tliat  she  cast  her 
portion  away.  He  then  took  her  stockings,  threw  one  over  his  left 
shoulder,  placed  the  other  under  his  ri^lit  foot,  and  ordered  all  the 
spectators  to  withdraw.  They  retired  accordingly  and  tlie  happy 
couple  were  left  alone. 

One  passage  in  this  descri})lioii  illustrates  a  f(^atuie  in  the  Per- 
sian women  that  we  have  not  yet  mentioned,  namely,  that,  though 
little  better  than  slaves,  they  exert  their  rights  in  a  manner 
sometimes  far  fron;  agreeable,  (^f  ungovernable  temper,  and  with 
no  moral  training  wliieli  would  teacli  them  to  resti*ain  their  pas- 


AB80LTTTI8H.  816 

sions,  they  exert  their  will  in  a  most  pronoimoed  maonei',  go  in 
and  out  of  the  harem  when  it  pleases  them  (that  is,  the  harems  of 
the  middle  clasises),  and  when  their  deaii-es  aiB  thwiirted,  will  not 
unfrequently  give  forcible  expi'eaaiou  to  their  opinion  with  the 
sharp  point  of  their  slipijur  on  their  husband's  body.  Slaves, 
generally  Circassians  and  Georgians,  lire  sometimes  so  far  admitted 
to  their  master's  good  graces  as  to  liecome  inmates  of  the  harem ; 
but  slavery  in  Persia  is  of  im  exceedingly  mild  character.  In 
all  Peraian  families  of  consequence,  the  major  domo,  or  person  in 


PKOCESDIOH. 


trust  —  the  house  steward  in  faet^will  generally  be  found  to  be 
a  khanezadeh,  or  slave  bom  in  tJie  house  —  the  offspring  of  domestic 
slaves,  bought  when  young,  and  reared  and  manicd  under  their 
owner's  auspices. 

The  third  mode  of  union  noticeable  in  Persia  is  accounted  dis- 
reputable in  most  Moslem  countries,  namely,  that  of  a  woman 
living  with  a  man  as  his  wife  for  a  specified  {wriod.  This  insti- 
tution, peculiar  to  Persia,  is  not  looked  upon  even  there  as  com- 
mendable in  the  highest  degree.  Only  men  of  rank  make  these 
limited  marri^;es  and,  practically,  such  marriages  are  for  life, 
the  contract  being  for  ninety  years,  and  the  children  of  such  mar- 
riages enjoying  all  the  privileges  of  those  of  the  regular  wives. 


216  THE  STORY  OF    GOVEENMENT. 

Divoi-ce,  however,  can  be  at  any  time  had  by  the  man,  yet  most 
husbands  hesitate  to  adopt  this  mode  of  disposing  of  a  bad  matri- 
monial bargain.  The  scandal,  and,  above  all,  the  necessity  of 
returning  her  dowry,  are  motives  which  eflfectually  restrain  him. 

If  the  wife,  through  ill-usage  or  other  cause,  sues  for  divorce 
and  obtains  it,  she  forfeits  all  right  to  receive  back  any  part  of 
her  dowry,  and  cases,  as  might  be  expected,  are  not  unknown  in 
which  the  baser  sort  have  taken  advantage  of  this  law  to  force,  by 
continued  ill-usage,  the  wife  to  demand  a  divorce.  Bad  temper, 
extravagance,  and  such  like,  are  the  usual  pleas  brought  forwai*d 
as  grounds  for  a  divorce.  Adultery  is  never  one  of  these,  for  if 
this  were  proved  to  have  been  committed,  capital  punishment, 
without  recourae  to  legal  proceedings,  would  be  the  fate  of  the 
unhappy  delinquent. 

Harassed  by  repeated  invasions,  plunderings,  and  long  ages  of 
misrule,  Persia  has  fallen  from  the  position  she  once  occupied  as 
the  granary  of  the  world.  Her  irrigation  works,  and  other  means 
by  which  the  arid  ground  was  made  to  blossom  with  heavy  crops, 
have  been  long  allowed  to  fall  into  decay. 

Famine  is  often  a  visitor  in  the  land.  Few  manufactures 
flourish,  and  a  countr}'  which  has  great  capabilities  is  allowed  to 
lie  half  waste,  a  few  miserable  cultivatoi-s,  or  petty  artisans, 
being  the  only  source  from  which  the  taxes  to  supply  the  luxury 
and  extravagance  of  the  court  can  be  extracted.  In  modern 
Persia  there  is  no  more  a  Darius  or  a  Xerxes  than  there  are  the 
hosts  whom  they  led  to  victory  or  to  spoil.  No  longer  do  the 
Medean  cohorts  advance,  "all  gleaming  in  purple  and  gold.", 

There  are  scarcely  any  roads  in  the  countrj-  fitted  foi  wheeled 
carriages,  and  nearly  all  the  goods  are  borne  on  the  backs  of 
horses,  mules,  or  camels ;  accordingly,  the  di-awbacks  of  bad 
government  put  one  side,  it  is  hardly  possible  for  a  dense 
population  to  subsist.  From  all  accounts,  the  population  of  Per- 
sia, though  the  wandering  tribes,  or  Eeliauts,  it  is  impossible  to 
give  with  anything  like  accumcy,  is  less  than  8,000,000.  In 
Chardin's  day,  the  population  of  Ispahan,  the  then  capital,  was 
estimated  to  be  upwards  of  700,000.  In  1800,  Sir  John  Malcolm 
considered  that  it  could  not  contain  more  than  100,000  souls; 
and  owing  to  the  devastation  it  has  suffered  from  famine  since  that 


ABSOLUTISM.  217 

date,  it  is  probable  that  a  census  would  now  show  a  much  smaller 
number  of  inhabitants,  perhaps  60,000.  Teheran  has  200,000, 
Meshed  60,000,  and  Tauris  is  credited  with  165,000  inhabitants. 

Mention  has  been  made  of  bad  roads.  Navigable  rivers  there 
are  none ;  and,  although  telegraphs  have  been  erected,  railways 
are  a  thing  of  the  future.  They  may  be  built  after  the  coal  fields 
are  developed.  Every  imported,  or  even  home-produced,  article 
which  has  to  be  carried  any  distance,  is  thus  necessarily  dear. 
Silk,  cottoft,  tobacco,  rice,  a  little  grain,  dried  fruits,  sulphur, 
horses,  wax,  and  gall  nuts,  are  the  chief  exports.  Of  manu- 
feustured  articles,  she  exports  a  little  gold  and  silver  brocade,  and 
some  silk  and  cotton  stuffs,  chiefly  to  Russia. 

The  whole  revenue  of  the  empire  is  considerably  less  than  $10,- 
000,000,  and  is  expended  by  the  court,  the  cost  of  which  is  great, 
tiiough,  in  justice,  it  ought  to  be  mentioned,  that  during  the 
reign  of  the  present  Shah  the  income  has  increased  $3,500,000 
per  annum.  Notwithstanding  the  Mohammedan  law,  Persian 
kings  often  marry  more  than  four  wives.     The  late  Shah  had  thirty. 

The  military  force  varies,  the  standing  army  being  usually 
about  50,000  men,  in  addition  to  about  30,000  irregular  cavalry, 
who  are  called  out  in  case  of  necessity ;  but,  on  an  emergency, 
the  Persian  monarch  could  put  into  the  field  150,000  men, 
exclusive  of  camp  followers. 

How  well  this  army  was  equipped  in  former  times  may  be 
inferred  from  the  story  told  regarding  the  Sliah  who  besieged 
the  mud-walled  town  of  a  Kurdish  chief.  A  big  gun  was  brought 
up  against  it,  but  it  was  found  that  only  three  balls  could  be  pro- 
cured which  would  fit  it.  After  two  were  tired,  the  town  was 
summoned  to  surrender;  but  the  only  result  was  a  request  to  his 
Persian  majesty  to  *'fire  his  third  ball,  and  be  done,  and  leave 
them  alone  in  peace  I'* 

In  modem  times  European  arms  have  been  obtained,  and  the 
whole  military  force  is  being  drilled  after  the  modern  methocb, 
by  English  and  other  officers  in  the  service  of  the  present  Shah. 
The  system  may  be  more  satisfactory  to  the  Persian  government 
than  to  the  officers  concerned,  as  they  find  that,  beyond  specious 
promises,  they  have  considerable  difficulty  in  rescuing  any  of  their 
pay  out  of  the  hands  of  the  officials  through  which  it  has  to  pass. 


218  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

The  average  pay  of  a  private  is  about  $20  per  annum,  in 
addition  to  a  ration  of  three  pounds  of  bread.  A  captain  receives 
about  sixty  tomans,  and  a  lieutenant-colonel  commanding  a  regi- 
ment 500  tomans ;  while  the  colonel  commanding  two  regiments, 
the  highest  rank  in  the  army,  only  enjoys  pay  to  the  extent  of 
about  1,000  tomans.     A  toman  is  at  present  worth  about  $2.15. 

The  monarch  is  known  as  the  Shah^  and  lias  been  from  the 
earliest  times  an  absolute  sovereign,  having  despotic  authority 
over  the  lives  and  property  of  all  his  subjects,  from  the  highest  to 
the  lowest.  Though  usually  his  eldest  legitimate  son  succeeds 
him,  yet  he  has  the  power  to  put  any  of  his  male  oflEspring  —  the 
son  of  a  slave  it  may  be  — on  the  throne;  and  at  one  time  it  was 
common  for  the  reigning  sovereign  either  to  destroy  or  to  put  out 
the  eyes  of  all  his  other  sons,  so  that  the  heir  might  reign  in 
peace. 

If  the  new  sovereign  proves  weak,  some  of  his  enemies  soon 
discover  this,  and  the  most  probable  result  is  that,  after  a 
rebellion  and  a  series  of  murders,  a  new  dynasty,  in  the  person  of 
a  successful  soldier,  is  established.  It  thus  follows  that,  though 
the  Shah  of  Pei-sia  is  absolute,  yet  he  has  to  keep  his  power  by  the 
force  of  circumstances,  and,  if  a  wise  man,  will  hesitate  to  exercise 
it  in  a  manner  which  would  excite  the  hatred  of  his  subjects. 

The  Koran  and  the  numerous  traditional  sayings  of  the 
immediate  successors  of  Mohammed  form  the  basis  of  the  whole 
civil  and  criminal  law,  as  administered  by  the  priests  in  Persia, 
as  in  other  Mohammedan  countries.  But  in  Pei^sia  there  is  also 
the  urf^  or  "common  law,"  administered  by  secular  magistrates. 

The  Sheik-al-Islam  is  the  head  of  the  first-named  court,  though 
greatly  controlled  by  the  mooshteheds,  or  high  priests,  while 
the  urf  is  administered  by  the  king  in  person,  by  his  lieuten- 
ants, governors  of  provinces,  chief  magistmtes  of  towns,  col- 
lectors of  the  revenue  of  districts,  and  by  thqt  officials  who  act 
under  them.  The  power  of  life  and  death  rests  with  the  king, 
who  rarely  delegates  it,  except  to  princes  of  the  blood  royal,  or  to 
governors  of  remote  provinces.  The  governing  principle  in 
Mohammedan  law  is  what  has  been  called  the  lex  talionis^  an  eye 
for  an  eye,  and  a  tooth  for  a  tooth.  Murder,  though  a  capital 
offence,   can  yet  be  compounded  with  the  heirs  of   a  murdered 


ABSOLUTISM. 


219 


man.  The  punishment  of  death  is  often  aggravated  by  the  bar- 
barous methods  in  which  it  is  inflicted.  Decapitation,  strangling, 
or  stabbing  i:3  the  common  mode  of  execution ;  but  impalement, 
or  tearing  asunder  by  horses  or  by  the  bent  boughs  of  trees,  is  not 
uufrequently  practised  when,  in  the  opinion  of  the  judge,  the 
offence  warrants  this  addition  to  the  punishment.  Tortures  are 
sometimes   introduced  with  a  view  to   the   discovery  of  hidden 


treasure,  but  rarely  in  any  other  case,  Tim  loss  of  the  eyes  is  the 
common  penalty  for  political  offences.  Mutilation  is  the  punish- 
ment meted  out  to  a  tliJef,  tliiiugli  he  may  be  forgiven  or  his  sen- 
tence lightened  at  the  option  of  the  injured  party.  The  king's 
relatives  fill  nearly  all  the  chief  posts,  such  as  the  governorships 
of  provinces;  while  the  other  offices  of  state  are  given,  as  already 
related,  to  persons  of  lowly  rank,  whose  influence  miglit  there- 
after be  expected  through  gratitude  to  l)e  exeix;ised  in  the  kinjf's 


220 


THE   STOBY  OF  GOVERNMENT. 


behalf.  Every  province  has  a  sum  fixed  for  which  it  is  taxed. 
Accordingly,  the  governor  and  his  agents  use  every  means  to 
squeeze  this  sum,  and  whatever  more  they  can,  out  of  the  i)eople. 

The  overplus  remains  in  the  official's  hands  as  his  salary  or 
perquisite.  At  all  events,  no  one  troubles  him  so  long  as  the 
royal  treasury  in  Teheran  receives  the  quotum  at  which  the  pro- 
vince his  been  rated.  Extortion,  therefore,  as  might  be  expected, 
flourishes  in  Persia,  especially  if  the  district  be  far  removed  from 
the  capital  and  in  a  soil  congenial  to  it. 

The  ancient  religion  of  the  Persians  (the  religion  of  the  Magi) 
long  ago  gave  place  to  Mohammedanism  and  now  lingers  only 
among  the  Guebres,  a  persecuted  sect  in  Persia,  and  among  the 
Parsees  of  India  —  an  ancient  colony  of  Persians  who  have  almost 
monopolized  the  financial  business  of  Bombay  and  other  cities. 

It  was  an  extremely  elaborate  system,  the  central  principle 
being  the  worship  of  fire  and  of  light.  In  its  main  features  it  was 
reformed  and  restored  by  Zoroaster  who  seems  to  have  lived  about 
five  or  six  hundred  years  before  Christ  and  whose  "  Zendavesta  "  is 
one  of  the  most  ancient  books  in  the  Persian  language. 

The  Parsees  and  the  Guebres  never  willingly  throw  filth  into 
fire  or  water.  The  trade  of  a  smith  is  proscribed  among  them  by 
custom  though  not  by  law.  They  use  no  firearms  as  a  rule,  nor 
extinguish  a  fire,  though  in  cases  of  very  destructive  fires  they 
have  been  known  to  assist  in  putting  them  out.  A  Parsee  or  a 
Guebre  is  rarely  found  as  a  sailor,  his  fear  of  defiling  the  sea 
deterring  him  from  following  this  occupation.  When  a  person  is 
dying,  they  keep  a  dog  near  to  drive  away  the  evil  spirits. 

They  neither  bury  nor  burn  their  dead,  but  inter  the  body  in 
a  circular  tower  called  dockmetis^  or  dokhma.  In  these  towers 
are  inclined  planes  on  which  the  corpses  are  deposited,  and  the 
birds  of  the  air  are  invited  to  devour  them.  They  even  augur 
as  to  the  happiness  or  misery  of  the  deceased,  according  as  the 
left  or  right  eye  is  fii-st  pecked  out  by  the  vultures.  Our  illus- 
tration represents  the  burial  of  a  Parsee  traveller  on  the  plains  of 
Hindostan. 

The  Parsees,  like  the  Jews,  are  a  persecuted  race,  and  both 
have  daily  the  mortification  of  seeing  their  saci*ed  lands  in  the 
possession  of  the  Mohammedans.     The  former  are,  nevertheless. 


222  THE  STORY  OP  GOVERNMENT. 

much  fewer  than  the  latter,  for,  except  the  colony  which  has  found 
an  asylum  in  India,  and  the  few  thousands  who  still  cling  to 
Persia,  it  is  rare  to  find  one  in  any  other  country. 

Our  picture  shows  a  persecuted  Guebre  making  himself  known 
to  others  by  a  secret  sign.  He  has  been  wandering  from  village 
to  village  to  elude  the  attentions  of  Mohammedan  priests  who 
have  suspected  his  pockets  of  being  as  full  of  gold  as  his  head 
was  of  heresy.  At  last,  on  the  edge  of  Kurdistan,  he  has  found  a 
town  where  he  can  safely  rest.  In  India,  the  Parsees  would 
be  lost  in  the  vast  sea  of  people  inhabiting  that  empire,  were  it 
not  for  their  distinctive  dress  and  other  peculiarities  which  mark 
them  out  prominently  from  the  Mussulmans  or  Hindoos. 

Their  high,  brimless  hats,  set  a  little  back  so  as  to  form  an 
angle  with  the  head,  at  once  proclaim  the  nationality  of  the  wearer, 
be  it  seen  in  any  Indian  city,  or  in  the  streets  of  London  or  Liver- 
pool ;  for,  though  not  a  widely  scattered  people,  no  fear  of  caste 
pollution  stands  in  their  way  should  they  desire  to  seek  fortune 
in  countries  beyond  the  sea,  albeit,  theoretically  at  least,  they  ought 
not  to  pass  any  length  of  time  on  the  surface  of  water. 

But  the  Parsee,  though  a  monotheist,  is  the  worshipper  of  a 
second  god,  and  that  is  the  rupee.  He  despises,  he  loathes,  the 
hideous  idolatry  of  the  Hindoos;  but  he  bows  do\vn  before  the 
silver  image  which  Victoria,  Kaisar-i-Hind,  has  set  up  in  her 
Indian  dominions. 

With  the  Mohammedan  religion  all  the  learning  of  which 
Persia  can  boast  came  into  the  country;  but  that  is  little.  Logic, 
metaphysics,  judicial  astrology,  astronomy,  mathematics  and  medi- 
cine, are  about  the  only  branches  of  knowledge  cultivated  with 
any  degree  of  success.  Much  of  their  astronomy,  as  well  as  their 
logic  and  metaphysics,  is  puerile  in  the  extreme.  Geography  is 
little  understood,  though  mathematics  is  taught  on  much  better 
principles,  owing  to  their  possessing  the  works  of  Euclid. 

Alchemy  is  a  favorite  study,  but  chemistry  is  unknown.  Their 
knowledge  of  medicine  is  on  a  par  with  the  state  of  the  science  as 
left  by  Galen  and  Hippocrates,  whose  disciples  they  profess  to  be. 
A  few  colleges  have  been  established,  but  are  not  very  prosperous, 
and  the  experiment  of  sending  promising  young  men  to  be  edu- 
cated in  Europe  does  not  meet  with  much  approval. 


ABSOLUTIBM.  22& 

Sine  art;  is  at  a  low  ebb,  it  being  repugnant  to  the  Mohammedim 
&ith  to  make  tepresentations  of  any  created  thing.  The  stone 
and  seal  cutters  of  Shiniz  and  Ispahan  are,  however,  famous  for 


A  OnXBHB  MAKIMQ  IIIMBBLF  KlIOWIT  BY  A  SECRET  SIGH. 

their  skill,  as  Cashan  is  for  lacquered  tiles.  Herat,  Meshed,  and 
Shiniz  are  equally  celebrated  for  sword-blades  and  steel  work 
generally.  Their  coins  were  at  one  time  struck  by  the  hammeT, 
but  in  1872  a  mint  was  established  at  Sultanet-Abed.  near 
Tdunui. 


S24  THE   BTORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

The  literature  of  Persia  consists  chiefly  of  writings  on  theology 
and  polemics,  and  some  works  of  history,  romance,  and  iKwtrj-. 
Some  of  their  manuseriptjj  are  Ixjautifully  illuminated.  Persia, 
indeed,  was  once  noted  for  her  bai-ds,  and  the  flowurj-,  historical 
songs  of  Meerkhond  and  Khoudeniir  are  sung  to  this  day. 

We  have  been  pictiu-ing  Persia  as  it  is ;  but,  as  elsewhere  in  the 
East,  European  habits  are  creeping  in.  French  millinery  can  be 
seen  in  Teheran,  and  Krupp  guns  in  Shiraz. 

Telegraph  lines  worke<l  by  Europeans  span  the  kingdom,  greatly 
to  the  amusement  of  the  Shah,  though  with  less  diversion  to  the 
distant  officials,  especially  about  the  time  that  the  taxes  are 
due. 

How  "a  dog,  witli  its  tail  in  Teheran  and  its  muzzle  in  Lon- 
don, can  bark  in  the  one  place,  when  it  is  pinched  in  the 
other,"  is  not  easy  to  explain  to  the  averse  Persian  mind,  though 
regarding  the  fact  of  the  case  there  is  painfully  little  doubt. 

In  a  few  more  decades  probably  the  absolutism  of  Persia  will 
be  a  darkness  of  the  past  and  over  the  markets  of  Meshed  and 
t^e  gardens  of  Ispahan  Progress  m'IU  throw  tlie  radiance  of  elec- 
tric light. 


VI. 


f{ulc  of   Castc^ 


INDIA,  whicli  is  regarded  by  biologistij  aa  the  birth-place  of  the 
human  race,  has  been  for  centuries  a  marvel  and  a  mystery 
to  western  minds,  and  its  government,  before  the  East  India 
Company  took  possession  of  many  of  the  provinces,  was  a 
curious  mixture  of  absolutism  such  as  we  have  depicted  in  Persia, 
and  of  a  kind  of  religious  despotism. 

The  absolutism  has  ceased,  even  in  those  provinces  which, 
though  not  exactly  under  British  rule,  are  yet,  by  their  adjacency, 
under  British  eye;  but  the  religious  despotism  still  flourishes 
thi-oughout  the  vast  domain  which  liails  Victoria  as  Empress. 

This  religious  government  within  a  government  is  the  rule  of 
caste,  and  is  what  we  shall  examine  in  this  chapter;  Ixicause, 
although  India  is  nominally  and  (tonmiercially  under  Englisli  dom- 
ination the  tyranny  of  caste  is  still  paramount  there  and  is  liable, 
as  in  the  Indian  mutiny,  if  sufficient  provocation  be  given,  to  cause 
a  tremendous  popular  outbreak. 

For,  though  Disraeli  cleverly  souglit  to  enlist  tlie  loyalty  of  the 
Oriental  fancy  })y  making  Victoria  Empress  of  India,  that  is,  lunk- 
ing  her  higher  in  relation  to  her  Indian  than  to  her  English  subjects, 
yet  her  natural  distance  from  India  cannot  be  overcome  in  the 
popular  mind  by  a  mere  juggle  of  words,  and  it  must  Jbe  admitted 
that,  despite  tlieir  governing  India  the  English  are  a  mere  fringe 

225 


226  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

on  its  vastness  —  a  dewdrop  on  a  lion's  mane,  liable  to  be  shaken 
off  if  his  dormant  majesty  should  awake. 

So  with  Christianity,  which  has  made  but  little  headway  against 
the  dominant  Superstition  of  the  Hindoos,  whose  religion  is  one  of 
the  few  Pagan  faiths  that  liave  had  sacred  books.  In  these  books 
are  embalmed  sound  maxims  of  morality,  and  sentiments  of  such 
nobility  that  in  this  fact  alone  the  Indian  faith  soars  above  those 
of  ancient  Greece,  Home,  or  Assyria,  where  ideas  of  religion  were 
bounded  by  the  erection  of  temples  and  statues  to  deities  Avho 
spoke  to  their  worshippers  in  no  higher  form  than  what  appealed 
to  the  eye. 

The  Vedas,  or  Hindoo  Scriptures,  describe  a  state  of  society 
widely  at  variance  with  Hindoo  life  and  the  religious  tenets 
of  the  present;  so  that  if  these  sacred  books  are  to  be  viewed 
as  the  foundations  of  the  prevailing  religions  of  India,  much  of 
Hindooism  must  have  been  invented  by  the  Brahmins  of  a  later 
date. 

The  "  Code  of  Menu  "  is  another  of  the  sacred  books  of  Hin- 
dooism. It  is  of  a  much  more  recent  date  than  the  Vedas,  though 
at  the  time  it  was  written  the  Hindoo  race  had  not  extended 
beyond  the  Vindhya  Mountains.  It  is  one  of  the  deepest  and 
most  subtle  of  all  holy  books,  and  though  now  "  olwolete  in  many 
respects,"  is  really  the  foundation  of  modem  Hindooism  —  legal, 
social  and  political. 

The  religion  of  the  Hindoos,  like  nearly  every  other  form  of 
worship,  savage  and  civilized,  has  altered  much  since  their  Bible 
was  written.  It  was  purer  in  former  times,  but  it  appears  to  have 
adopted  from  time  to  time  the  deities  of  the  black-skinned 
aborigines  whom  they  had  conquered,  and  to  have  imbibed  many  of 
their  superstitions. 

The  foundation  of  Braliminism  consists  in  a  triad,  or  "trimurti," 
in  which  Brahmd  ii  the  creator,  Vishnoo  the  preserver,  and  Siva 
the  destroyer.  Beneath  these  there  seems  to  lie  the  idea  of  "an 
Unspeakable  Unity,  Brahm  or  Brihm."  These  three  members  of 
the  Hindoo  Trinity  were  not,  however,  coeval.  Vishnoo  worship 
is  of  a  much  younger  date  than  that  of  Siva,  whose  popularity 
was  near  its  height  at  the  birth  of  Christ. 

Hindoo  woi"ship  is  now  almost  entirely  concentmted  on  Vishnoo 


THE  BULE   OV  CABIB. 


227 


and  Siva,  aiid  the  female  divioities  associated  with  tbem,  and 
BrahmA  is  now  little  regarded,  having  but  one  existing  temple 
in  India.  Unlike  the  gods  of  Greece  and  Rome,  Avho  took  upon 
themselves  the  form  of  mankind,  only  to  gratify  some  passion,  as 
a  rule,  or  at  best  to  &vor  some  frieud,  the  great  Hindoo  deities 
only  do  so  for  some  good  and  beneficent  purpose.  They  are 
generally  sculptured  and  worshipped  in  human  form,  more  or  less 


UKMAKKH   FKOU   Till 


altered  according  to  the  idealistic  tendencies  of  the  priest  or  tlie 
aiiists. 

Thus  Vishnoo  undertakes  ten  "avatars,"  or  incarnations,  in 
iirder  to  save  the  world.  These  incarnations  form  the  subject  of 
one  of  tlie  loftiest  portions  of  Hindoo  theology,  and  under  one 
of  these  forms  —  that  of  the  beautiful  Krishna,  or  Kama  tlie  Hero 
—  he  is  moat  frequently  adored  by  his  devotees. 

When  the  "Rig- Veda"  was  written,  Siva — ^who  is  now  a  most 
frightful  and  revolting  deity  —  was  looked  upon  as  aomethii^ 


228  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

very  different,  namely,  as  the  "  god  of  prayer  and  religfious  asceti- 
cism, perfect,  infinite ;  the  refuge  of  worlds,  the  succorer  of  mis- 
fortune, the  spring  of  wealth,  monarch  of  the  world,  lord  of 
Brahmd  himself,  yet  giving  in  his  own  person  the  example  of  pen- 
ance and  pain."  Compared  with  the  Greek  mythology,  that  of 
India  is  infinitely  deeper,  more  mysterious,  and  vastly  more  sub- 
lime.^ 

Much,  however,  of  the  most  beautiful  portions  of  Hindoo 
theology  dates  from  a  period  subsequent  to  the  Christian  era. 
Accordingly,  some  writers  of  good  repute  —  Wilson  in  England, 
and  Lassen  in  Germany,  for  example  —  are  of  the  belief  that 
traces  of  Christian  influence  may  be  detected  in  it.  Most  of  the 
grosser  forms  of  materialism  exist  among  the  modern  Hindoos, 
mingled  with  the  brighter  and  more  excusable  worship  of  the 
elements. 

For  instance,  water^vorship^  a  form  of  religion  widely  spread 
among  nations  both  savage  and  civilized,  is  a  part  of  their  faith. 
To  this  day,  the  Brahmin  prays  to  the  Ganges  as  the  Roman 
offered  up  his  petition  to  Father  Tiber,  and  the  devout  children 
of  a  believer  consider  his  soul  safe,  if  he  dies  by  its  l)anks,  choked, 
it  may  be,  by  the  Ganges  mud.  The  dead  are  thrown  into  the 
stream,  and  mothers  even  offer  up  their  children  to  the  Holy 
River. 

No  place  is  with  the  Hindoo  so  appropriate  for  piuyer  as  the 
banks  of  "  the  river,"  which  to  him  is  what  the  Nile  is  to  the 
Egyptian.  Here  they  bathe  and  offer  up.  their  vows,  their  prayers, 
and  their  offerings  of  fruit,  flowei's,  rice  and  sweetmeats.  Even 
in  places  where  the  liver  is  of  considerable  breadth,  garlands  of 
flowers  are  suspended  across  it. 

Though  all  of  the  sue  red  river  is  holy  to  the  devout  Hindoo, 
yet  so  peculiarly  sanctifying  is  one  particular  spot,  near  the  eon- 
Iluence  of  the  Ganges  with  the  Jumna,  that  all  who  bathe  therein 


1  "I  cannot  help  saying,"  remarks  Ludlow,  •*  that  when  I  compare  Greek  mythology  with 
Hin('.oo  I  am  reminded  of  the  saylnj?  of  the  old  Egyptian  prteftt,  that  the  Greeks  were 
mere  children;  so  immca.su rably  decider  does  the  Hindoo  mind  api)ear  to  go  in  Hounding  the 
mysteries  of  the  universe,  of  our  own  selves.  The  pervading  yearning  which  manifests  itself 
for  an  abiding  union  with  God,  the  linu  hold  wliich  it  has  of  what  I  take  to  l>e  the  truth  of 
truths  for  mankind  —  that  God  must  take  flesh  for  the  salvation  of  the  world  —appear  to  me 
principles  which  make  the  noblest  of  Greek  myths  seem  but  as  babbling  nursery  rhymes 
beside  the  Hindoo." 


THE  KITLB  OF  CASTK.  229 

must  of  necessity — their  souls  l)eing  purified  from  every  sinful 
taint  —  go  straight  to  the  gates  of  Paradise.  To  ensure  this 
blissful  end  of  life,  every  year  numbers  of  devotees  commit  suicide 
by  drowning  themselves  in  the  river,  and  so  systematically  is  this 
superstition  fostered  that  the  Bnihmins  keep  lK)ats  for  the  pur- 
ixjse  of  assisting  their  clients  to  perfonn  this  last  holy  office. 

The  intending  suicide  rows  into  the  stream,  into  which,  after 
fastening  to  his  legs  jai-s  full  of  stones,  he  tlirows  himself,  or  he 
simply  walks  into  the  8tre«am  with  jars  fastened  in  front  and 
behind  his  body,  and  reaching  the  middle  of  the  stream,  he 
leisurely  fills  the  jars  with  water.  The  jard  have  hitherto  buoyed 
him  up,  but  as  they  fill  the  bearer  sinks  into  the  sacred  sti-eam. 
Corpses  ai-e  sunk  in  the  same  manner,  the  devont  relfitives  towing 
the  body  into  mid-stream,  after  its  purification  hy  a  quantity  of 
straw  ignited  round  it. 

What  becomes  of  the  body  after  bein^  sunk  concerns  no  one ; 
the  alligator  may  devour  it,  or  the  hungry  jatrkal  tear  it  to  pieces 
as  it  strands  on  the  muddy  shore ;  but  the  sacred  Ganges  has . 
received  it,  and  the  soul  has  Ixjen  wafted  to  Paradise.  This  method 
of  sinking  bodies  is,  however,  only  pi-actised  by  those  too  poor  to 
bear  the  exjKjnse  of  a  funeral  pile ;  the  richer  classes  invariably 
bum  the  body  and  thi-ow  the  ashes  into  the  river.  At  Benares, 
where  self-immolation  by  drowning  was  once  common,  the  police 
now  have  orders  to  prevent  it  as  far  as  possible. 

All  the  Bi-ahmins,  but  especially  the  priests,  are  propitiated 
with  divine  honors ;  and,  indeed,  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year, 
the  Brahmin  is  himself  worshipped  by  his  wiie.  Their  daughters 
under  eight  years  of  age  are  worshipped  as  forms  of  the  goddess 
Bhavani,  and  gifts  of  flowere,  fruit,  water,  garlands,  and  incense 
are  offered  to  them. 

The  wives  of  Brahmins  are  worshipped  by  other  men,  and  it  is 
not  uncommon  for  a  hundred  of  these  ladies  to  he  invited  to  the 
house  of  a  rich  man,  who,  after  having  rei>eated  prayers  and  pmise 
before  them,  concludes  the  ceremony  by  offering  them  rich  gifts. 
These  people  of  Brahminic  caste  are  venerated  as  descendants  of, 
and  endowed  with  some  of  the  divine  substance  of,  their  progeni- 
tor Brahm&,  who  was  at  one  time  worshipi)ed  as  the  Creator. 

On  the  decay  of  the  worship  of  Brahm&,  Siva  and  Vishnoo  came 


280  THE   STOBY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

into  vogue  as  deities ;  the  worship  of  Siva  being  supposed  to  be 
the  more  ancient  in  date.  Siva  is  represented  in  various  ways. 
Sometimes  his  images  represent  liim  as  a  silver-colored  man  with 
five  faces,  in  each  face  thi'ee  eyes,  of  which  the  third  is  in  the 
forehead ;  he  is  seated  on  a  lotus,  and  clad  in  a  garment  of  tiger 
skin. 

In  other  images  he  is  represented  as  having  only  one  head,  but 
still  a  third  eye,  with  the  figure  of  a  half  moon  on  the  forehead, 
and  is  riding  upon  a  bull,  naked  and  covered  with  ashes,  his  eyes 
inflamed  with  intoxicating  drugs ;  in  one  of  his  hands  carrying  a 
horn,  in  the  other  a  drum. 

Vishnooism  may  l)e  considered  as  a  sort  of  i-e formed  Sivaism, 
more  refined  and  spiritual  than  that  of  the  destroying  and  renova- 
ting god ;  its  progress  has,  however,  been  slow,  and  its  popularity 
by  no  means  so  gi-eat  as  that  of  Sivaism.  Its  followers  are  divided 
into  several  sects,  each  of  which  is  distinguished  by  its  secrets, 
sacrifices,  and  particular  signs. 

To  Vishnoo  are  offered  no  bloody  sacrifices ;  fruits,  flowers, 
water,  clarified  butter,  sweetmeats,  cloths,  ornaments,  and  such 
like,  are  accounted  appropriato  gifts  to  a  god  who  is  the  "  preserver 
of  all  things.''  He  is  a  household  god.  Little  images  are  made 
for  sale,  and  worshipped  whenever  a  person  enters  into  a  new 
house,  or  to  procure  tlie  removal  of  family  misfortunes. 

The  heaven  of  Vishnoo  is  a  region  so  glorious,  that  the  vivid 
fiastern  imagination  revels  in  devising  terms  glowing  enough  in 
which  to  describe  it.  All  destruction  of  life  is  to  him  abhorrent. 
In  addition  to  the  Hindoo  Trinity  there  are  many  inferior  gods^ 
such  as  Kamadcva,  the  god  of  lives,  and  Krishna  K&madeva,  the 
son  of  Brahmd,  who  is  represented  as  a  beautiful  youth,  holding 
in  his  hand  a  bow  and  arrow  made  of  flowers.  His  constant  com- 
panions are  his  wife,  Rati,  the  goddess  of  pleasure,  the  cuckoo, 
the  humming  bird,  and  the  gentle  breezes. 

He  is  continually  wandering  through  the  "  three  worlds,"  con- 
versing with  his  mother  and  wife,  in  gardens  and  temples,  or 
riding  by  moonlight  on  a  parrot  or  lor}',  attended  by  nymphs  or 
dancing  girls,  the  foremost  of  whom  bears  his  standard  —  a  fish 
painted  on  a  red  ground. 

Animals  are  also  venerated  hv  the  Hindoos.     As  the  ancient 


THB  BULK  OP  CASTE.  281 

I  worshipped  Atiior,  the  Celestial  Yeiius,  under  the  fona 
of  a  cow,  BO  the  modem  Hindoos  pay  court  to  Bhavani  under  the 
repreaentation  of  the  same  animal.  The  religious  beliefs,  as  well 
as  the  superstitions  of  the  lower  classes,  vary  much  in  different 
locaiities,  and  have  often  little  in  common  with  the  Hindooism  of 
tlie  Brahmins. 

Brahminism  has  two  aspects,  separated  by  a  vast  chasm.  One 
is  philosophical,  the  other  popular ;  one  is  for  the  few,  the  other 
for  the  many.     In  its  original  or  highest  form  it  is  extremely 


simple,  being  a  kind  of  spiritual  pantheism,  in  wliich  nothing 
really  exists  except  Brnhmfi ;  in  other  words,  nothing  exists  but 
God,  and  everything  existing  is  God. 

But  between  this  faith  as  found  in  the  Ycdas  and  the  corrupt 
polyUieism  of  the  Puranas  there  is  an  immense  gulf,  which, 
however,  is  bridged  over  by  the  word  "emanation."  In  the 
philosophical  creed,  ever3rthing  is  identified  with  Brahmfi ;  in  the 
popular,  everything  emanates  from  Brahm&.  Stones,  plants,  ani- 
mals, men,  gods,  demons,  every  conceivable  object,  issue  from  this 


232  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

one  self-existent  nnivei-sal  soul,  as  drojKs  from  the  ocean,  sparks 
from  the  fire. 

Yet,  into  these  stones,  plants,  and  animals,  the  spirit  of  man 
may  pass,  or  they  nuiy  rise  to  1x5  gods,  and  the  personal  gods  are 
direct  emanations^  from  the  Supreme  Being.  Tliis  leads  to  tlio 
doctrine  of  inc«arnation. 

Vishnoo,  for  example,  as  preserver  and  pervader,  passes  into 
men  to  deliver  the  world  from  the  power  of  evil  demons,  while 
Kama  and  Krishna  are  among  the  more  popular  incarnations.  In 
other  words,  men,  animals,  plants,  stones,  piiss  through  innumer- 
able existences,  and  they  can  rise  to  be  gods.  But  gods,  men, 
animals,  plants,  and  every  conceivable  emanation  fi-om  the  supreme 
soul,  aim  at  and  must  end  in  ieal^oii)tion  into  their  source, 
Brahmd. 

Caste  is  everywhere  an  essential  part  of  religion.  Xo  longer,  as 
it  once  was,  a  bond  of  union  among  large  Ixxlies  of  men,  it  now 
splits  up  the  social  fabnc  into  numerous  communities,  and  thus 
prevents  all  natural  or  patriotic  combinations.  In  the  present 
day  the  family  iKmd  in  India  is  even  stronger  than  that  of  caste, 
and  as  both  are  connected  with  religion,  they  weld  those  con- 
cerned so  firmly  together  that  Hindoos,  as  a  rulo,  have  few  sym- 
pathies and  little  disposition  to  co-operate  with  othei"s,  beyond  the 
circle  of  their  own  families,  and  none  at  all  Ix^yond  the  limits  of 
their  own  immediate  castes. 

What,  then,  in  detail  is  this  caste,  which  compels  six  laborers 
camped  under  one  tree,  and  otherwise  undistinguished  from  each 
other  in  dress  or  peraon,  to  build  six  choolas  or  cooking  places. 


»  When  the  following  lines  from  "  I'ope'H  Ks»ay  on  Man  "  were  reitlted  to  a  Brahmin  priest, 
he  enthusiastically  exclaimed  that  the  poet  must  liaro  been  a  lirahmin  priest  in  one  of  his 
incarnations. 

"  All  are  but  parts  of  one  stui>endous  whole, 

Whose  body  Nature  is,  and  Ood  the  soul ; 

That,  clianp;ed  thnmgh  all,  and  yet  in  all  the  Mime, 

(treat  in  the  earth  as  in  the  ethereal  frame, 

Warms  in  the  sun,  refreshes  on  the  breeze, 

Glows  in  the  stars,  and  blossoms  on  the  trees ; 

Lives  through  all  life,  extends  through  all  extent, 

Spreads  undivided,  operates  unspent; 

Hreathes  in  our  soul,  informs  our  mortal  part, 

As  full,  as  i>erfert,  in  a  hair  as  heart; 

As  full,  as  perfect,  in  vile  man  who  mounis, 

As  the  rapt  seraph  who  adores  and  bums. 

To  Him  no  high,  no  low,  no  great,  no  small ; 

He  Alls,  He  lK)unds,  connects,  and  equals  all." 


TH£  BVLE  OF  CASTE.  288 

and  eat  as  jEat  apart  as  if  they  were  men  of  different  races,  liabits 
and  antipathies,  instead  of  being  near  neighbors,  perhaps  fellow- 
villagers,  speaking  the  same  tongue  and  worshipping  the  same 
gods? 

CiUfte  is  the  division  of  the  j>eople  into  certain  classes,  between 
wlioni  liard  mid  fast  lines  are  drawn,  and  who,  theoretically  at 
least,  follow  from  one  generation  to  another  the  same  pursuits, 
do  not  intennany  with  each  other,  and,  so  far  as  commingling 
Avith  each  other  is  concerned,  might  almost  be  said  to  be  distinct 
nices.  Though  much  has  been  written  on  the  subject  of  caste, 
great  misimderstanding  still  exists  regarding  its  nature. 

In  the  "Institutes  of  Menu,  '  a  work  which  lays  down  the 
earliest  ari-angements  of  Hindoo  society,  the  niles  of  caste  are  very 
distinctly  defined.  In  this  code  we  find  four  castes  defined  as 
composing  the  nation,  though  the  existence  of  mixed  castes  is  also 
mentioned.  These  four  main  divisioni  are:  1,  The  Brahmin,  or 
priest ;  2,  The  Kshatriya,  Cliuttree,  or  soldier ;  8,  The  Vaisya,  or 
husl)andman  ;  and  4,  The  Soodriv,  or  servant,  in  which  were  doubt- 
less comprised  most  of  the  (converted  aborigines. 

In  modern  times  tlu»  A'aisya  caste  has  disappeared,  the  Kshatriya 
mainly  subsists  among  the  warlike  Rajpoots  of  the  northwestern 
fi'onticr,  and  the  Soodm  chiefly,  if  not  entirely,  among  the  J&ts 
and  Mahnittius,  unless,  indeed,  we  take  the  hauglity  Bmhminical 
view  of  the  question,  and  include  fis  Soodras  all  who  are  not 
Bndimins.  Tlie  Bmhniiu  is  the  pinnacle  of  this  social  edifice,  and 
l)eneath  him  are  endless  castes,  vaiying  according  to  locality,  but 
seldom  less  than  seventy,  and  sometimes  reaching  as  high  as  170 
iu  number. 

For  three  thousand  yeais,  by  means  of  this  powerful  instrument 
<»f  caste,  the  Brdlnnins  liave  preserved  their  ascendency  over  their 
fellows  in  India,  and  it  must  be  acknowledged  that  tlie  men,  who 
could  so  long  hold  their  sway  over  turbulent  races,  speaking  many 
languages,  and  obeying  few  laws,  must  have  l)een  wise,  prudent, 
and  firm  in  their  iK)lie3'. 

The  world  can  show  no  other  example  of  such  a  lease  of  power. 
Had  the  Brahmin  attempted  to  mauitain  his  influence  by  mere 
bmte  force,  he  would  long  ago  liave  been  swept  from  the  earth. 
But  lie  rules  without  affecting  sovereignty;   he  enjoys  many  of 


234  THE   STORY   OF   GOVBBNMENT. 

the  prerogatives  of  priesthood  without  separating  himself  from 
human  society.  His  original  superiority  was  at  first  above  all 
moral  and  intellectual ;  his  privileges,  even  now  hemmed  round 
with  numberless  disadvantages,  were  originally  bound  up  with  the 
severest  austerities. 

The  life  of  a  Brahmin,  as  set  foilh  in  the  holy  books,  is  divided 
into  four  periods.  During  the  first,  he  must  perform  the  most 
menial  offices  for  a  superior,  to  whom  he  attaches  himself  as  a 
disciple.  During  the  second  only  lie  mixes  fully  in  social  life, 
maiTies  and  begets  children.  During  the  third,  he  devotes  him- 
self to  religious  pi-actices  and  acts  of  austerity.  The  fourth  is  a 
period  of  entire  self-abstraction,  till  he  leaves  the  body,  as  a  bird 
leaves  the  branch  of  a  tree. 

The  Bi-ahmin  owes  his  supremacy  mainly  to  the  fact  that  till 
recently  he  only  of  the  Indian  castes  was  acquainted  with  Sanscrit, 
in  which  language  are  stored  the  treasures  of  Hindoo  faith  and 
philosophy.  Every  trade,  every  art  in  India,  is  carried  on  by  rules 
laid  down  in  these  sacred  books,  the  meaning  of  which  is  unknown 
to  the  practitioners  thereof;  but  still  they  blindly  obey  them,  for 
the  Brahmins  have  so  ordered. 

Medical  secrets  are  hereditary  in  certain  Brahmin  families,  and 
to  them  the  sick  have  to  resort.  Music  will  bo  traditional  in  one 
family,  and  geometry  in  another ;  so  that  the  intellectual  qualities, 
to  which  of  all  others  the  hereditary  principle  is  so  unfavorable, 
are  influenced  by  caste. 

If  a  man  of  any  caste  becomes  defiled  so  that  he  is  no  longer 
capable  of  mingling  among  his  fellow-men,  he  cannot  go  to  those* 
of  his  own  class  for  purification,  but  must  apply  to  the  Brahmins; 
who  alone  possess  the  power  of  reinstating  him  in  society ;  though 
even  "  the  outcasts  "  have  their  own  priesthood,  composed  mainly 
of  devotees,  whom  a  long  life  of  holiness  and  meditation  upon 
the  Godhead  have  raised  to  such  a  rank  above  ordinary  mortals, 
that  they  seem  to  become  almost  capable  of  ridding  themselves  of 
"  the  dreary  progress  of  transmigration  from  shape  to  shape  during 
millions  of  years." 

Here  again  theory  does  not  always  agree  with  practice,  for  of 
late  yeare  the  grip  of  the  Brahmins  has  been  gradually  slacken- 
ing, and  their  character  for  piety  and  learning  deteriorating.     In 


THK   ItULK   OF   CASTE.  285 

earlier  days  the  Brahmin  was  treated  with  the  reverence  befitting 
his  reputed  descent;  he  \vas  regarded  as  a  divine  being  sprung 
from  the  mouth  of  Bralim&  the  Creator,  accoriling  to  the  Hindoo 
Triad.  But  biii  traditional  reputation  as  a  sage  and  saint,  his 
single-minded  devotion  to  his  religious  doties,  his  mental  abstrao 


lion,  the  purity  of  Km  iliiumter,  bis  babituilc  and  mude  of  living 
have  undergone  a  nidical  cliange. 

He  is  no  longer  an  ascetic,  dev'otctl  to  n;ligiou3  contempUtion. 
renouncing  all  the  pleasures  of  the  world,  living  to  a  patriarchal 
age  in  some  sequestered  retreat,  and  regiirdeil  by  prince  and  [jcasant 
as  the  embodiment  of  autboritj-,  alike  in  law  ami  religion. 


236  THK  stohy  of  government. 

On  the  contrarj',  the  majority  are  extremely  worldly,  and  not 
a  few  shockingly  immoral  individuals,  wlio  i)ractise  few  austerities, 
and  in  spite  of  their  notorious  poveily  engage  in  secular  occupa- 
tions for  the  purpose  of  gi-atifying  their  greed  of  gain.  Even 
their  old  monopoly  of  Sanscrit  learning  has  been  ruthlessly 
invaded  by  low  caste  men  and  Western  scholars,  man}'  of  whom 
are  infinitely  more  learned  than  the  majority  of  the  sacerdotal 
order. 

The  endless  r.imificationb  of  the  four  original  cJistes  deprived 
them  of  much  of  their  power,  and  the  consequence  is  that  to 
compensate  themselves  for  their  loss  from  this  source  they  have 
engaged  in  almost  evciy  calling,  and  their  cupidity  is  so  great  that 
every  principle  of  law  and  morality  is  shamefully  compromised  in 
their  dealings  with  mankind. 

Still,  until  ca:;te  vanishes,  perhaps  not  even  then,  the  "thrice 
born  "  and  his  poita^  or  sacred  cord,  Avill  be  an  object  of  awe  to 
millions  of  those  whom  the  ancient  law  of  India  has  oi-dained  to 
be  his  social  inferioi's.  This  fact  of  a  low  caste  entailing  a  social 
ban  is,  however,  tempting  many  parialis  to  become  Mohammedans, 
since  within  the  pule  of  Islam  all  men  are  equals. 

Below  the  Brahmin  there  are  many  castes,  no  caste  associating 
with  that  which  is  lower  than  it  in  the  social  scale.  So  strictly 
is  this  carried  out  that  in  cases  where  castes,  widely  distinct  from 
one  another,  live  in  the  same  district,  the  very  low  caste  people 
are  excluded  from  the  highways.  This  is  the  system ;  the  princi- 
ple is  something  different  altogether. 

It  is,  in  tli'j  eye  of  the  Hindoo,  a  God-appointed  system  of 
society  in  which  every  man  shall  have  his  settled  place,  with 
which  he  must  rest  and  be  content,  no  matter  what  may  \ye  his 
discomfort  therein ;  and  it  cannot  be  denied  tliat  thouorh  the 
practice  is  productive  of  much  evil,  yet  at  tlie  same  time  it  has 
kept  a  people,  wlio  liave  no  higher  controlling  principle,  from 
sinking  into  a  materialism  so  gro.^s  tliat  the  morals  and  the  whole 
fabric  of  their  national  and  social  life  would  have  been  shaken 
thereby. 

Pi»rhaps  it  is  better  that  the  Hindoo  should  look  upon  the 
Brainniu  as  his  head,  than  that  lie  should  have  no  one  whom  he 
can  legard  as  the  supreme  director  of  his  faith. 


THB  BULB  OF  CASTK. 


287 


The  high  caste  man  is  deSled  hy  the  low  caste  man,  hat  the  Iot 
caste  man  is  not  defiled  by  contact  with  anyone  beneath  him. 
Thus,  the  higher  you  ascend  in  the  scale  of  caste,  the  more  di£G- 
cult  does  it  become  to  keep  from  pollution. 

Hence,  the  Brahmin,  who  is  the  highest  of  all,  most  cook  his 
own  food,  draw  bis  own  water,  and,  like  every  high  caste  man, 
perform  for  himself  every  duty  by  the  performance  of  which  it 
is  possible   for  him   to  be    pol- 
luted.    Theoretically,  at   least, 
the  Brahmin  is  i)oIluted  if  the 
shadow  of  a  low  caste  man  fulls 
upon  him,  or  if  he  glances  into 
the   high   caste   man's  pot,  let 
alone  his  being  touched  by  such 
an  unholy  being. 

A  Brahmin  will  even  turn 
aside  and  sjiit  if  a  low  caste 
man  should  pass  him  in  the  pub- 
lic street  or  highway,  liow 
caste  is  not  therefore,  without 
its  comi)ensating  ad  vantage. 


The    low   caste 


may   go 


about  careless  as  to  who  touches 
him,  or  whose  shadow  falls  on  "^ 
his  vile  person ;  lie  cannot  be 
defiled.  He  can,  if  wealth v 
enough,  hire  a  liigh  caste  man 
—  for  high  caste  by  no  means 
implies  wealth-^to  do  any 
oiDce  for  him,  and  enjoy  the 
fruits  of  the  work  of  liis  sujw- 
rior  in  the  Hindoo  social  scale,  wliile  those  above  him  are  practi- 
cally debarred  fmm  sharing  in  hi.s  labors. 

Hence,  the  high  caste  man  finds  it  proiitAble  to  become  the 
servant  of  the  low  caste  man  wlio  may  be  able  to  i>ay  for  his 
menial  offices.  Brahmins  are,  therefore,  gi-catly  run  after  as 
cooks,  food  being  the  medium  through  which  pollution  can  be 
most  easily  imiarted.     A   Brahmin  cook  is  greatly   in  demand 


288  THE  STouy  of  goveunmknt. 

in  native  Indian  regiments,  some  of  the  men  of  which  are  often 
of  high  castes. 

In  a  word,  the  Brahmin  "  can  cook  for  every  man,  whilst  no 
one  can  cook  for  him";  and  the  food  proceeding  from  his  hands 
is  always  pure.  The  caste  system  is  not,  tlierefore,  an  unmitigated 
evil.  To  use  the  words  of  a  thoughtful  student  of  India,  there 
is  nothing  in  it  so  very  oppressive,  inhuman,  and  monstrous,  and 
on  the  bulk  of  the  Hindoo  people  it  weighs  but  slightly. 

India  is  emphatically  the  land  of  human  horrors,  where  freaks 
of  superstitious  fantasy  encounter  the  traveller  in  nearly  every 
village.  Preeminent  among  cranks  of  all  nations  is  the  Hindoo 
Fakir,  and  the  amount  of  self-torture  which  these  fanatics  will 
embrace  and  yet  live,  is  almost  incredible. 

Having  the  tongue  bored  with  a  red-hot  iron  was  at  one  time 
a  self-torture  so  popular,  that  under  a  clump  of  banyan  trees,  near 
the  temple  of  the  bull  god  at  Chinsurah,  the  devotees  used  to 
range  themselves  in  a  long  line,  in  order  to  get  the  operation 
performed  by  a  blacksmith,  who  bore  the  reputation  of  not  only 
doing  it  effectually,  which  was  well,  but  also  —  what  was  equally 
important  among  the  poverty-stricken  Fakirs  —  cheaply. 

To  walk  with  parched  peas  in  your  shoes  was,  in  the  days  of 
severe  penance  in  Europe,  held  to  be  a  most  reputable  punishment 
for  sins  divers  and  many.  But  the  Hindoo  Fakir  quite  outstrips 
the  European  one.  A  case  is  on  record,  doubtless  only  a  specimen 
of  many,  of  a  Fakir  who  walked  up  and  down  in  front  of  a  mosque 
gaily  chanting  a  hymn,  with  his  sandals  nailed  to  his  feet  by  iron 
spikes,  which  projected  above  the  instep. 

Others  will  make  the  pilgrimage  to  a  shrine,  not  on  foot,  but 
by  rolling  their  bodies  along  the  ground  the  whole  waj-,  by  ad- 
vancing on  their  backs,  pushing  themselves  along  by  their  heels, 
on  their  hands  and  feet,  and  by  various  other  equally  inconve- 
nient methods  of  progression. 

Others  will  sit  motionless  in  one  place  until  the  joints  of  their 
limbs  get  so  stiff  that  they  cannot  bend  them,  or  with  hands 
clenched  until  the  nails  grow  through  the  flesh,  or  by  holding  the 
arm,  by  means  of  support,  in  such  a  position  that  in  time  it 
withei-s.  There  is  really  no  end  to  the  ingenuity  of  these  devotees 
in  inflicting  long  and  lasting  tortures  on  themselves  without  pre- 


ran   ItULE   OF   CASTE.  2S9 

vipitating  deatli,  wIucIl  would  be  a  pleasure  in  coni|iftrison,  and 
hence  not  bo  meritorious  in  the  eyes  of  the  goda. 

Anothei-  method  of  torture,  which  must  be  well  known  to  most 
readers  by  means  of  the  illustmtions  of  it,  Ls  that  in  wliich  hooks 
are  inserted  in  the    muscles  of  the  devotees'  backs,  and  then  a 


number  of  them  are  swung  in  an  appiiratus  not  unlike  the 
"merry-go-round"  seen  at  fairs,  only  in  this  case  the  solo  sup- 
port by  which  the  victim  iu  suspended  in  mid-air  is  the  hook  and 
cord  inserted  in  his  living  flesh. 

One  of  the  most  curious  parts  of  this  business  is  that,  if  a  per- 


240  THE   STORY  OF   GOVERNME^*T. 

son  wishes  to  reap  the  benefits  that  the  gods  are  supposed  to 
shower  on  the  meritorious  people  who  practise  this  species  of 
torture,  he  has  no  difficulty  in  procuring  a  substitute  who  will 
submit  to  it  for  a  small  sum,  though  self-torture  is  now  pro- 
hibited by  the  British  authorities. 

As  remarkable  as  the  Fakirs,  though  in  a  far  better  way,  are  the 
municipal  institutions  of  Hindostan,  which  date  from  a  period  long 
before  the  dawn  of  history.  Their  principle  is  the  famous  "  village 
system,"  the  leading  idea  in  which  is,  that  the  people  of  a  partic- 
ular community  do  not  consist  of  individual  units,  but  are  a  body 
corporate,  for  the  regulation  of  whose  affairs  certain  functionaries 
are  required,  and  which,  as  a  body,  enjojrs  certain  rights  over  the 
soil.  These  rights,  and  the  method  of  administering  them,  vary 
infinitely,  but,  nevertheless,  over  all  Hindoo  India  the  village  sys- 
tem in  a  more  or  less  defined  fonn  exists. 

The  land  is  not  the  land  of  any  individual ;  it  belongs  in  common 
to  the  village,  and  each  is  only  entitled  to  his  share  of  the  produce 
—  in  kind  or  in  money  —  of  the  soil,  as  a  component  member  of 
the  body  corporate  which  holds  the  land  in  common.  These  lands 
are  sometimes  worked  by  the  villagers,  at  other  times  by  hired 
lalxDrei-s,  or  are  let  out  to  temporary  tenants. 

In  most  cases  the  former  rule  —  which  seems  to  liave  been  tlie 
general  one  in  early  times  in  India  —  prevails.  The  office-bearei-s 
of  the  village,  including  all  the  artificei's,  form  an  institution  which 
has  undergone  no  alteration  from  time  immemorial,  and  they  also 
enter  into  calculations  connected  with  the  stiitistics  of  an  agricul- 
tural village. 

The  patel^  or  head  of  the  village,  has  freehold  land,  or  special 
rights ;  and  the  kulkarni^  or  accountant,  Jilso  receives  remuneration 
in  various  ways.  These  two  officers  supply  the  machinery  in  ever}- 
village  for  collecting  statistical  details.  The  Barra  Balloota  von- 
sists  of  twelve  hereditiiry  office-bearei-s,  including  the  patel  and 
kulkarni^  who  receive  certain  fees  or  renmneration  from  the  village 
in  exchange  for  professional  services. 

Thus  the  sutar^  or  carj^enter,  the  lohar^  or  smith,  the  chamhar^ 
or  shoemaker,  are  paid  by  each  villager,  and  they  mend  all  imple- 
ments for  agricultural  purposes,  the  owners  finding  the  materials. 
Some  of  the   office-bearers  have  a   right  to  a  certain  number  of 


THE  BULB  OF   CASTE. 


241 


rows  in  the  crops,  and  all  the  fees  form  items  in  the  calculations. 
It  is  a  system  so  admirable  that  one  can  scarcely  conceive  any- 
thing more  suited  to  the  peculiar  conditions  of  Hindoo  life  and 
character.  By  means  of  it,  India  is  a  collection  of  little,  indepen- 
dent, self-governing  states,  each  under  its  potail,  or  head-man, 
which  can  survive,  and  have  survived  revolutions  out  of  number, 
to  which  they  are  all-impassive ;  thus  the  people,  though  slaves  so 
far  as  political  freedom  is  concerned,  are  yet  municipally  in  poi^ 


session  ot   the  most  jierfect   independence.     Tliey  want  nothing 
from  any  higher  state,  so  long  as  it  wants  nothing  from  them. 

This  village  system  must  have  been  devised  by  men  of  long  heads 
and  great,  honest  hearts,  since,  after  the  trial  of  every  conceivable 
system  of  administration  —  for  which  experiments  there  were  no 
earthly  reasons  except  vanity  and  that  i^culiar  Anglo-Saxon  con- 
tempt for  everything  not  emanating  from  British  brains  —  they  are 
returning  to  the  system  devised  so  many  thousand  years  ago  by 
the  village  wortiiies  of  Ilindostan. 


242  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Lord  Metcalf  says  that  if  a  district  remains  for  a  series  of  yeai-s 
the  scene  of  continued  pillage  and  massacre,  so  that  the  village 
cannot  be  inhabited,  the  scattered  villagers,  nevertheless,  return 
whenever  the  power  of  peaceful  possession  revives.  A  generation 
may  pass  away,  but  the  succeeding  generation  will  return ;  the 
sons  will  take  the  place  of  their  fathers,  the  same  site  for  the 
village,  the  same  position  for  the  liouses,  the  same  lands  will 
be  occupied  by  the^  descendants  of  those  who  were  driven  out 
when  the  village  was  depopulated. 

The  quarrels  arising  out  of  the  village  system  are  settled  by 
a  Punchaijct^  or  jury  of  five  or  more,  who  decide  both  tlie  fact 
and  the  law ;  and  though  the  Hindoo,  when  before  an  English 
tribunal,  is  often  too  apt  an  example  of  the  duplicity  and  fraud 
which  alloy  the  characteristics  of  the  race,  yet  he  has  little  chance, 
if  bound  by  oaths  which  he  respects,  or  which  custom  has  led  him 
to  believe  sacred,  of  escaping  from  the  meshes  of  the  legJil  net 
with  which  the  Punchayet  surrounds  all  those  who  come  before  it. 

While  considering  the  matter  of  native  administration  of  jus- 
tice, the  subject  of  Hindoo  thieves  is  apt  to  obtrude  itself.  In 
very  old  civilizations,  and  in  overcrowded  communities,  the  trade 
of  stealing  advances  with  the  other  arts  and  sciences,  until,  as  in 
India  and  China,  thieving  and  burglary  have  grown  to  be,  not  the 
vulgar,  clumsy  handicrafts  they  are  in  America,  or  Europe,  but 
really  capable  of  being  ranked  among  the  fine  arts. 

The  Hindoo  thief  is  an  expert.  For  example,  a  burglar  will 
bore  a  hole  through  the  wall,  and  as  Indian  village  huts  are  often 
built  of  mud  his  labors  are  greatly  lightened.  Tlie  hole  being 
big  enough  to  allow  of  his  body  entering,  he  does  not  immediately 
take  this  step,  having  learnt  by  long  experience  that,  no  matter 
how  cautious  he  may  be,  the  quick-eared  owner  may  have  heard 
his  movements,  and  be  ready  the  moment  his  head  protrudes 
through  the  hole  his  hands  and  crowbar  have  made,  to  descend 
upon  it  with  a  pickaxe  or  a  drawn  sword. 

The  burglar,  therefore,  adopts  the  precaution  of  inserting  a 
stick  with  a  bunch  of  grass  the  shape  and  size  of  a  human  head. 
If  a  blow  descend  on  the  feeler^  the  burglar  instantly  decamps, 
knowing  that  the  house  is  on  the  watch  and  alarmed.  If  no  such 
i*esult  follows,  he  enters  himself,  picks  up  all  he  can,  and  hands 


THE    r.lILB    OF    CASTK. 


243 


the  plunder  through  the  hole  to  his  partner  outside,  wlio  preimres 

it  for  being  carried  f>IT.  mid  gives  the  alarm  shoiihl  tlic  least  sign 

of  danger  appear. 

Then  there  is  tlie  thie£  wlio  inuies  under  a  house  until  he  comes 

to    the    women's   apartment,    knowing   that   so   sei'urely    is   thia 

guarded  by  the  rooms  on  either  side  that  little  care  is  exerted  to 

protect  the  inmates'  abundant  jewelry  scattered  round.     Having 

arrived  at  the  scene  of  his  depredations  lie  gently  raises  the  floor 

and    admits    himself 

noiselessh  '"tn  this  d<i 

mestic    holj    of    holies 

Silently    he    absorlw 

about    his    person     the 

metallic  treiisures  of  the 

Zenana,  and  will   even 

abstract  the  bantjles  ind 

bracelets  from  the  limbs 

and  the  iings  from  tht 

noses  and    eirs   of   the 

sleeping  beiuties    with- 
out awaking  them 

There  >re  thieves  not 
less  courageous,  who 
will  entei  i  cnmp  vt 
night,  jKiss  the  sentnes 
and  even  step  o  ^  i  r 
sleeping  dogs,  until  the\ 
reach  the  officei-s'  teiit-s, 

these  gentlemen  Ijeing  quiti;  unaware  of  the  presence  of  midnight 
visitors  until  in  the  morning  they  timl  themselves  clothed  witli 
nothingness.  A  superior  hand  will  even  tiike  the  blanket  from 
around  a  sleeper  without  rousing  liini. 

Then  there  are  the  many  different  kinds  of  [.ickpocketa  and 
"cut-purses,"  who  will  enter  the  crowded  hizaar  aimed  with  a 
sharp  little  knife,  with  which  they  relieve  the  girdles  of  the  buyers 
and  sellers  of  the  purses  concealed  in  the  folds  of  that  universal 
Oriental  article  of  dress ;  or  the  more  dangerous  thief,  wlio  will 
gain  access  to  a  house  in  the  dark,  liis  naked  body  well  oiled. 


244  THE   STORY  OF   OOVEBNMEKT. 

If  seized,  his  supple  body  slips  through  the  victim's  hands,  or  if 
he  is  likely  to  be  caught,  the  sharp  knife  which  hangs  by  a  string 
around  the  thicFs  neck  inflicts  an  ugly  wound  on  the  wrists  or 
other  portions  of  the  person  of  the  captor. 

The  riches  of  India  have  for  ages  been  proverbial.  "  The 
wealth  of  Omus  or  of  Ind,"  has  been  a  magnet  to  many  an  advent- 
urer, from  Turkish  Sultans  to  English  lords,  like  Clive,  and  the 
quantity  of  their  spoils  has  been  almost  incalculable. 

When  Mahmoud  of  Ghazni  plimdered  Muttra,  the  fabled  birth- 
place of  Krishna,  he  obtained,  during  an  orgy  of  rapine  and  mass- 
acre lasting  twenty  days,  an  incredible  amount,  the  gift  of 
millions  of  devotees. 

Among  the  loot  which  he  bore  to  his  Alpine  home  were 
huge  idols  of  pure  gold,  with  eyes  of  rubies  and  decorations  of 
sapphires  and  diamonds,  the  spoil  taking  850  elephants  to  trans- 
port it. 

At  a  later  date,  when  he  sacked  Somnauth,  where  for  forty 
centuries  had  stood  the  Temple  of  Soma,  "  lord  of  the  moon," 
piles  of  diamonds  and  sapphires,  rubies  and  gold,  streamed 
from  the  hollow  interior  of  the  idol,  which  the  Brahmins  had 
earnestly  endeavored  to  ransom.  The  Mohammedans  entertain  a 
strong  repugnance  to  image-worship,  and  Mahmoud  had  been 
famous  for  destroying  such  stumbling-blocks  of  offence  to  Moliam- 
medan  eyes. 

The  ransom  of  their  chief  idol  offered  by  the  priests  was  a  tre- 
mendous temptation,  but  principle  prevailed,  and  the  religious 
warrior  with  one  blow  from  his  mighty  battle-axe  sent  the  idol 
reeling  to  the  ground  among  the  groaning  priests.  His  piety  was 
well  rewarded.  In  a  few  hours  the  accumulations  of  ages  changed 
hands.  James  Russell  Lowell,  one  of  our  most  American  of  poets, 
has  put  this  striking  stoiy  into  vivid  verse. 

THE  SULTAX  MAHMOUD. 

Mahmoud  once,  the  idol-breaker,  spreader  of  the  faith, 
"Was  at  Somnauth  sorely  tempted,  so  the  legend  saith. 
In  the  great  pagoda's  centre,  monstrous  and  abhorred, 
Granite  on  a  throne  of  granite,  sat  the  temple's  Lord. 
Mahmoud  paused  a  moment,  silenced  by  that  silent  face, 
Wliich,  with  eyes  of  stone  unwavering,  awed  the  ancient  place. 


THE  BULE   OF  CASTE.  246 

Then  the  Bnihmiiis  knelt  before  him,  by  hig  doubt  made  bold, 

Offering  for  their  idol* a  ransom  countless  gems  and  gold. 

Oold  was  yellow  dirt  to  Mahmoud,  but  of  precious  use, 

Since  from  gold  the  roots  of  power  suck  a  magic  juice. 

*'  Were  yon  stone  alone  in  question,  this  would  please  me  well,  ** 

Mahmoud  said,  **  but,  with  that  block  there,  I  my  truth  must  sell. 

Wealth  and  rule  slip  down  with  Fortune,  as  her  wheel  turns  round; 

Ho  who  keeps  his  faith,  he  only,  cannot  be  discrowned. 

Little  were  a  change  of  station,  loss  of  life  or  crown; 

But  tlie  wreck  wore  past  retrieving,  if  the  man  fell  down.** 

Saying  this,  his  mace  ho  lifted,  smote  with  might  and  main, 

And  the  idol,  on  the  pavement  tumbling,  burst  in  twain. 

Luck  obeys  the  downrijlit  striker.    From  the  hollow  core 

Fifty  times  the  Brahmins*  offer  flooded  all  the  floor. 

In  addition  to  such  temples  reared  for  the  worship  of  tlie  gods, 
there  are  in  India  many  holy  places,  in  some  of  which  shrines  are 
erected  and  in  others  not.  To  these  places  great  numbers  of  pil- 
grims throng,  and  reside  for  a  time,  in  the  hope  of  imbibing  from 
the  surroundings  something  of  the  sanctity  which  is  connected 
with  them. 

Others,  whose  lives  have  been  spent  in  the  pursuit  of  gain 
or  in  the  neglect  of  religion,  resoit  liere  towards  the  evening 
of  their  days,  so  as  to  die  in  a  sacred  locality.  They  even  erect 
temples  and  tanks  for  water  at  these  places,  so  that  by  such  meri- 
torious deeds  they  may  secure  repose  for  their  souls.  It  is,  how- 
ever, to  the  Ganges,  the  Jumna,  the  Indus,  the  Cavery,  the  Krishna, 
and  otlier  more  or  less  sacred  rivers,  that  the  Hindoo  chiefly  makes 
his  pilgrimages. 

Water  is,  according  to  liis  belief,  the  best  means  of  moral 
as  well  as  physical  purification  —  a  belief  which  according  to 
Homer  was  held  by  the  ancient  Greeks.  Of  these  holy  Hindoo 
places,  the  city  of  Benares  is  the  holiest.  What  Jerusalem  was 
to  the  Crusader,  and  Mecca  to  the  Mahometan.  Benares  is  to 
the  Hindoo. 

According  to  Brahminic  pliilosophy,  Benares  is  too  holy  to 
be  a  part  of  this  world,  and  instccad  is  situated  on  the  point 
of  Siva's  trident.  Hence,  no  earthquakes  are  ever  exi^erienced 
there.  From  this  city  there  is  a  way  direct  to  heaven — a 
royal  road  to  salvation.  A  very  short  breathing  of  its  holy  air  is 
sufficient  to  secure  this,  provided  the  pilgrim  visit  the  shrines  and 
pay  for  the  privilege  of  so  doing. 


246  THE  ST»>Rr  •►r  ootebsuest. 

All  things  ar»f  ^x:«k(ible  t« j  in«r  ;?J*i> ;  Jind  it  even  lies  within  the 
pOB?<*ib£litIe^  that  the  -  l-ee wacin:?  **  Englishman  who  resorts 
thither  to  Lre^ithe  hL*  Ll^^r  mnj  occiZn  ** afa^rption  into  Brahmi." 
And  it  niivr  be  mention*^ L  a*  *:cjc  of  the  curiosities  of  religious 
fanaticLsm,  tliat  the  H:::«I»>?s  aiErm  that  one  Englishman  actually 
avuileil  hiaaself  of  this  j»rivil«e<^- 

Extni«>rdLnarr  thoimrh  this  statement  mav  seem,  it  is  believed 
that  Job  Chamock,  who  in  loV^>  Liid  the  foundation  of  the  East 
India  C«>uijKiny*s  power  ia  Bengal,  absolutely  became  a  Hindoo, 
and  yearly  sacrificed  a  cock  oa  his  natire  wife's  tomb,  and  that 
General  Ste\»"art  also  et^raged  a  Brahmin  to  perform  daily  wor- 
ship among  the  c^^llection  of  iilols  which  he  had  arranged  on  the 
portico  of  his  house.  Night  and  d:iy.  at  all  seasons  of  the  year, 
everj'  dusty  nxul  leading  to  Benar&i  is  thronged  with  pilgrims 
wendiu*::  their  wav  t«»  this  centre  of  Hindoo  devotion. 

But  the  Hindoo  shrine  which  is  most  known  in  Europe  is  that  of 
Juggernaut,  Juggernauth.  or  Jagannat*h.  Wlien  we  speak  of  a 
person  crushing  himself  untler  the  Juggernaut  wheels  of  custom, 
we  mean  to  express  that  the  indi^-iduaFs  fear  of  the  opinion 
of  otliers  is  irreater  than  the  strenirth  of  his  own  vrilh  and  we  but 
borrow  a  simile  from  one  of  the  mivst  famous  of  Indian  supersti- 
tions or  relicrious  rites. 

The  temple  is  situattnl  in  Pooive.  or  Juggernaut,  in  the  province 
of  Orissa,  about  two  lunuln.Hl  and  lifty  miles  southwest  of  Calcutta, 
and  is  cliieflv  remarkable  for  the  idol  containe<l  in  it,  which  is 
annually  dragged  in  its  car  in  procession. 

Indeed,  were  it  not  for  this  annual  procession,  and  tlie  crowds 
wliich  come  t^)  witness  or  tiike  pLxrt  in  it,  the  whole  affair  would 
>>e  of  little  imi>ortance,  and  command  no  attention  from  anyone 
not  immediatelv  interested.  The  town  in  which  this  celebrated 
prfKjession  is  held  is  mean,  dirty  and  badly  built.  The  streets 
are  fTowded  with  sacred  oxen,  who  ai*e  trained  to  attack  with 
their  Ju^niH  any  intrudei-s  on  the  Siicredness  of  the  route. 
VnrumH  kinrls  of  monkeys  may  l)e  seen  perched  on  the  houses, 
wallH,  and  treses  ;  and  in  the  water-tanks  are  tame  crocodiles,  which 
are  objer^t^  of  woi'ship. 

The   Pagoda  of    Juggernaut   is    at   the    end   of   the    principal 
ittreet,  whidh  is  \i:ry  wide  and  composed  almost  entirely  of  reli- 


248  THE    STORY   OF   GOVKKXMENT. 

gious  establishments  with  low-piUared  verandas  in  front,  and  plan- 
tations of  trees  interposed.  The  temple  stands  \vithin  a  square 
space  inclosed  by  a  lofty  stone  wall,  and  measuring  650  feet  on  a 
side. 

The  principal  entrance  is  crowded  with  the  baskets  and 
umbrellas  of  the  natives,  and  the  hute  of  dried  leaves  and 
branches  which  serve  as  a  shelter  for  a  number  of  Fakirs,  and  it 
opens  on  a  vestibule  witli  a  pyramidal  roof.  On  eacli  side  is  a 
monstrous  figure,  representing  a  kind  of  crowned  lion. 

In  front  is  a  column  of  dark-colored  basalt,  of  very  light  and 
elegant  proportions,  surmounted  by  the  figure  of  the  monkey-god 
Hanuman,  the  Indian  Mercury.  The  great  pagoda  rises  from 
twenty  feet  high  within  the  outer  inclosure ;  from  a  base  thirty 
feet  square  it  rises  180  feet,  tapering  slightly  from  bottom  to  top, 
and  rounded  off  on  the  upper  part,  being  crowned  with  a  kind  of 
dome.  The  temple  is  dedicated  to  Krishna,  who  is  the  principal 
object  of  worsliip  in  the  character  Juggernaut,  and  as  an  incarna- 
tion of  Vishnoo,  but  is  held  in  joint  tenancy  with  Siva  and  with 
Sabhadra,  the  supposed  sister  and  wife  of  Siva.  There  are  idols  of 
each,  consisting  of  rudely  sculptured  blocks  of  wood  about  six  feet 
in  height. 

Krishna  is  dark  blue,  Siva  wliite,  and  Sabhadni  of  a  yellowish 
hue.  In  front  of  the  altar  on  which  these  idols  are  placed  is  a  figure 
of  the  hawk-god,  Garounda.  A  repast  is  daily  served  to  these  idols ; 
it  consists  of  410  lb.  rice,  225  lb.  flour,  350  lb.  clarified  butter, 
(ghee),  167  lb.  treacle,  65  lb.  vegetables,  186  lb.  milk,  24  lb.  spices, 
84  lb.  salt,  and  41  lb.  oil.  During  the  meal  the  doors  are  closed 
against  all  but  a  few  favored  individuals  sanctified  by  long  fasts 
and  a  habit  of  asceticism  and  penitence.  Loud  strains  of  peculiar 
music  drown  all  other  sounds  while  the  gods  are  consuming  their 
daily  rations. 

About  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  temple  is  a  tank,  to  which  the 
gods  are  brought  by  their  attendants  to  pass  a  few  days  annually, 
devoted  to  bathing  in  the  cool  watei^s  of  the  sacred  pool.  Each 
idol  has  its  own  car,  but  that  of  Juggernaut  is  the  i)rincipal  one. 

It  is  al)Out  thirty  feet  square,  mounted  on  sixteen  wheels,  each 
more  than  six  feet  in  diameter,  and  the  whole  construction  is 
upwards  of  forty  feet  high.     It  is  i)lentifully  adorned  externally 


THE  RULE   OF   CASTE. 


'with  sculptniea  ot  the  usual  Indian  tvpe,  and  is  conTentionally  sup- 
posed to  he  drawn  hy  two  wooden  horses,  which  are  only  attached 


to  it  on  the  day  of  procession  when  two  stout  cables  itre  attaclied 
to  the  car.  These  are  seized  hy  thousands,  or  hy  as  many  as  can 
obtain  a  place  to  hold  Ity,  and  formerly  when  it  went  along  the  city. 


260  THK   STORY   OF   GOVEUNMENT. 

there  were  many  that  offered  themselves  as  a  sacrifice  to  the 
idol,  and  despei-ately  lay  down  on  the  ground  that  the  chariot- 
wheels  might  crush  them. 

But  as  the  British  Government  no  longer  makes  profit  out  of  the 
pilgrims  by  the  tax  put  upon  them,  it  is  doing  all  it  can  to  dis- 
courage the  annual  religious  pandemonium.  Instead  of  hundreds 
immolating  themselves  before  the  idol's  car,  only  occasionally  now, 
and  even  these  are  rare  occasions,  a  poor  decrepit  wretch,  weary 
of  life,  or  drugged  by  the  priests  with  Indian  hemp  or  opium, 
will  madly  throw  himself  before  the  wheels  in  spite  of  the  efforts 
of  the  police,  who  have  orders  to  prevent  such  suicide. 

The  Hindoo  is  beginning  to  be  wonderfully  cautious  of  that 
swarthy  skin  of  his,  even  in  the  service  of  the  gods,  and  with 
a  view  to  his  salvation.  On  a  late  occasion,  indeed,  instead  of 
thousands  of  devotees  struggling  to  get  at  the  ropes,  not  a  single 
hand  assisted  to  drag  the  car  along ;  and  to  the  hoiTor  and  chagrin 
of  the  Brahmins,  for  the  fii*st  time  in  history,  the  idols  of  Jugger- 
naut came  to  a  standstill  in  the  streets  of  Pooree.  But  yet  in 
civilized  America  we  are  di-agging  along  many  a  crushing  Jugger- 
naut in  the  shape  of  colossal  corporations  which  plunder  the 
people  and  debauch  the  politicians.  Let  us  hope,  however,  not  for 
long. 

Speaking  of  the  Juggernaut  car  of  custom  or  of  conventionality 
which  crushes  the  individuality  of  so  many  recalls  another  meta- 
phor borrowed  from  India.  Most  readei-s  know  of  the  Pinkerton 
men  who  can  be  hired  in  some  states  by  any  rich  man  or  corpora- 
tion to  fire  on  striking  employees.  During  the  last  strike  on  the 
New  York  Central  the  indignation  of  the  public  was  aroused  by  the 
murderousness  of  one  of  these  gangs,  and  many  newspapers 
referred  to  them  as  Pinkerton  thugs. 

This  word  and  comparison  come  from  India,  where  murder  used 
to  be  not  merely  a  fine  art,  but  an  article  of  faith  among  some 
fanatics,  the  surest  way  not  merely  of  sending  but  of  going  to 
heaven.  "  Thuggee,"  as  this  religious  crime  is  called,  originated 
in  this  manner:  The  goddess  Kali,  as  well  as  those  of  Devee, 
Doorga,  or  Bhavani,  by  all  of  which  she  is  known,  is  looked  upon 
as  Siva's  wife. 

She  is  represented  in  her  statues  as  many-handed,  her  hands  full 


THE   Biri.B  OP   CASTE. 


251 


of  varioos  kinds  of  wenpons,  and  arouud  her  neck  a  stiing  of 
human  skolls ;  and  in  old  times,  according  to  Hindoo  mythology 
she  made  war  upon  a  race  of  giants,  from  every  drop  of  whose 
blood  sprang  a  demon, 
which  blood  again  had 
the  power  of  propagat- 
ing other  demons, 
until  the  land  wa» 
overrun  with  diablerie- 

At  Lost  tlie  goddess 
created  two  men  to 
whom  she  gave  hand- 
kerchiefs to  destroy 
the  demons.  When 
they  had  [(crfoi-med 
this  tiisk,  slie  presented 
them  with  the  hand- 
kerchiefs, iiml,  hi  ad- 
dition, the  ]>nvilege  of 
using  tlitMn  against 
human  beings  for  their 
livelihood  Hence 
arose  the  caste  of 
Thug^ 

The  J  aie  known  to 
hive  existed  during 
the  seventeenth  ceii 
tui),  T\hen  they  used 
female  decoys  for  tht 
uiiwirj  tnvcUer,  as 
thtj  did  ^Mtlun  the 
pi  esent  ct  ntUM 
though  these  decoys 
are  of  a  much  older 
use  than  that  j^eriod.  The  fmteriiity  is  not  emiipoNed  of  men 
of  one  caste,  but  of  people  of  different  castes  and  religions,  and 
living  in  different  districts ;  liaving  secret  signs  and  a  peculiar 
dialect  known  to  all  those  who  are  initiated  into  the  fraternity. 


252  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Strange  to  say,  however,  the  majority  of  them  are  nominally  not 
Hindoos,  but  Mohammedans,  and  their  tradition  is  that  they  origi- 
nally  sprang  from  seven  tribes,  all  of  that  religion,  living  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Delhi,  from  which  they  were  dislodged  in  the 
seventeenth  century. 

The  Hindoos,  however,  say  that  the  caste  was  in  existence  long 
before  Mohammed's  time ;  but  as  they  all  agree  in  worshipping 
the  Hindoo  god  Kali,  observe  the  Hindoo  fe?.sts  in  her  honor, 
make  offerings  at  her  temples,  and,  especially  after  any  murder, 
present  to  her  a  piece  of  silver  and  some  sugar,  they  may  be  said 
to  be  a  Hindoo  sect. 

Those  who  are  initiated  into  the  body  are  taught  the  secret 
signs,  but  only  those  who  apply  the  noose  receive  the  sacred 
wafer  of  Thuggee,  which  is  believed  to  change  a  man's  whole 
nature.  From  boyhood  to  mjinhood  they  are  taught  to  look  upon 
the  strangulation  of  uiwffending  victims  as  their  calling  in  life,  into 
which  they  are  gradually  initiated. 

First,  the  neophyte  is  employed  as  a  scout,  or  sotha^  only^ 
his  duty  Ijcing  to  give  warning  of  the  approach  of  a  traveller. 
Sometimes  the  women  and  children,  jis  less  ai)t  to  be  suspected, 
are  employed  in  this  work ;  then  lie  is  allowed  to  see  the  corpse 
after  it  has  been  strangled,  and  to  assist  at  the  interment ;  lasth% 
after  a  solemn  initiation  bv  means  of  the  sacred  sujrar,  he  is 
elevated  to  the  rank  of  a  hhuttote^  or  st rangier,  and  allowed  to  use 
the  noose,  or  roomal^  by  which  the  victims  are  dispatched. 

The  whole  gang  is  governed  by  a  jamadar^  sirdar ,  or  chief,  and 
has  attached  to  it  a  ffitru^  or  teacher.  Nothing  about  their  unholy 
calling  is  in  the  Thug's  eyes  unholy ;  on  the  contrary,  everything 
is  sacred.  The  liufhaees^  or  gravediggers,  constitute  one  of  the 
highest  grades  in  the  order.  The  pickaxe  with  which  tlie  gravt* 
is  dug  is  solemnly  forged  and  consecrated.  It  is  considered  as  a 
gift  from  Kali,  and  looked  upon  accordingly  with  great  veneration. 

Every  seventh  day  this  pickaxe  is  brought  out  and  worshipped^ 
and,  no  matter  how  pressing  the  necessity,  the  grave  for  the  victim 
can  be  dug  by  no  other  instalment.  All  the  Thugs  follow  some 
ostensible  trade,  but  travel  about  from  place  to  place,  under 
various  disguises,  straggling  into  villages  in  twos  and  threes,  and 
meeting  as  strangers.     Secrecy  is  one  of  the  essentials  of  their 


I'HB   ItlTLK   OF   CASTE. 


work ;  never  Mill  tliey  knowingly  Htraiigle  a,  victim  in  the  presence 
of  anyone  not  belonging  to  tlieir  order. 

One  of  them  sometimes  passes  as  a  man  of  rank,  with  numerous 
attendants,  and  liis  women  in  palanquins,  which  in  realit>  contaut 


generally  the  implements  of  their  calling.  Tliey  fall  in  with 
other  travellers  as  it  liy  accident,  or  for  mutvial  iimtection.  Suil- 
dunly,  at  the  favoi-able  spot,  one  throw-s  the  waisthaiid  or  tinlKiii 
round  the  victim's  ncok.  another  draws  it  tight,  both  pnsliing  Iiini 
forward  witli  their  other  hiinds,  a  third  aeizL-H  hiiii  hy  tlie  legs 
and  throws  him  on  the  ground. 


254  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERN^IENT. 

To  strangle  a  man  single-handed  is  accounted  a  rare  feat,  and 
one  so  transcendent  that  it  will  ennoble  the  strangler's  descen- 
dants for  generations  to  come.  If  the  locality  is  dangerous, 
a  canvas  screen  is  thrown  up  as  if  to  conceal  women,  and  the  body 
buried  behind  it ;  or  one  of  them  will  distract  the  attention  of 
travellers  by  pretending  to  be  in  a  fit.  If  a  stranger  approaches, 
nevertheless,  they  weep  over  the  body  as  over  a  dear  comrade. 
The  traces  of  the  murder  are  quickly  obliterated. 

Such  is  their  expertness  that  one  hundred  Thugs  have  been 
known  to  slaughter  on  an  average  eight  hundred  persons  in  a 
month,  and  keep  up  this  record  for  several  years.  They  always 
go  forward,  never  passing  through  towns  or  villages  through 
which  their  victims  have  passed.  If  they  kill  a  man  of  note,  they 
take  care  to  dispose  of  all  his  attendants.  They  have  implicit 
faith  in  omens ;  but  when  the  omens  are  once  favorable,  they  look 
upon  the  victim  as  an  appointed  sacrifice  to  the  deity,  so  that  if 
he  is  not  slain,  Devee  would  be  wroth  with  them.  So  they  eat, 
drink,  and  sleep  without  remorse  upon  new-filled  graves. 

Before  the  body  is  buried,  it  is  pierced  with  holes  to  prevent  it 
swelling,  and  the  grave  is  so  neatly  smoothed  over  that  it  is  next 
to  impossible  for  any  one  of  the  uninitiated  to  point  out  where 
one  exists,  even  though  newly  made.  This  last  rite  over,  the 
Thugs  seat  themselves  round  a  white  cloth,  on  which  are  laid  the 
sacred  pickaxe,  fresh  from  digging  the  grave,  a  salver  of  silver, 
and  some  coarse  sugar.  The  sugar  is  distributed  to  all  present, 
and  eaten  in  silence.  The  silver  is  supposed  to  be  dedicated  to 
Kali,  as  is  also  the  sugar. 

This  done,  the  cloth  is  folded  up,  the  plunder  divided,  after 
shares  have  been  set  aside  for  religious  and  charitable  purposes,  in 
accordance  Avith  the  ranks  of  the  members  of  the  gang,  and  the 
Thugs  go  on  their  way  again  in  the  guise  of  simple  traders, 
artisans,  or  travellers.  The  victims  they  do  not  consider  killed 
by  them.  It  was  God  who  allowed  them  to  be  killed,  and  con- 
science never  seems  to  trouble  them. 

Remorseless  murderers,  their  hands  steeped  in  human  blood, 
they  might,  in  their  own  villages,  be  good  fathers,  faithful  friends, 
and  be  respected  in  their  community  as  skilful  artisans,  agricul- 
turalists, or  traders,  whose  real  calling  was  never  suspected,  though 


THE  HTTLE  OP   CASTU. 


sse 


the  eommiinity,  of  ooune,  profit  I^  their  wealth.  Generally,  how- 
BTer,  thej  take  the  precantlon  of  paying  tribute  to  the  Zemindar, 
or  to  the  police  officials,  whose  very  near  relatives  were  often 
members  of  the  infamous  gang. 

Some  Thugs,  it  is  said,  were  even  in  the  employ  of  the  govern- 
ment itself.     Even  when  discovered,  superstition  often  protected 


them,  for  there  was  a  title  that  such  and  t,  1  a  njal  v  is  struck 
with  leprosy  for  having  had  two  Th  iga  tnmpled  to  death  hy  ele 
phants.  Indeed,  so  openly  even  long  after  tl  e  Bnt  sh  rule  was 
established  in  India,  was  Thuggee  practised,  that  meichants  came 
from  a  distance  to  purchase  the  plunder  of  ivhicli  the  murderers 
had  robbed  their  victims. 

Though  the  murders  are  uondncted  ^vith  Meci-ecy,  yet  it  ought 


256  THE   8TOBV   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

to  be  mentioned  that  this  is  only  part  of  the  system,  and  not  really 
from  any  fear  of  the  consequences,  for  the  Thug  exults  in  his 
crime,  and  if  caught  never  attempts  to  defend  himself,  but  boasts, 
as  he  is  being  led  to  the  scaffold,  of  the  number  and  quality  of  the 
victims  whom  he  has  jissisted  in  sacrificing  to  the  goddess  of 
destruction. 

The  Thugs  believe  that  at  one  time  Kali  assisted  them  in 
their  work  by  devouring  the  bodies  of  the  victims,  but  that  one 
of  the  fraternity  having  indiscreetly  pried  into  her  proceedings, 
she  took  offence,  and  left  them  in  future  to  bury  their  victims. 
She,  however,  so  far  assisted  them  that  she  presented  one  of  her 
teeth  for  a  pickaxe,  a  rib  for  a  knife,  and  the  hem  of  her  lower 
garment  for  a  noose.    Hence  the  sacredness  of  all  these  implements. 

Though  the  existence  of  this  horrible  caste  was  well  known  to 
the  natives,  and  even  to  the  native  officials,  with  such  secrecy  was 
their  business  conducted  that  the  working  of  the  system  has  only 
been  thoroughly  understood  of  late.  Such  were  the  pleasant  possi- 
bilities of  travelling  in  India,  in  addition  to  such  iis  are  shown  in 
the  suggestive  picture  of  a  siesta  in  the  jungle,  where  an  American 
explorer  is  vividly  depicted  saving  the  life  of  his  servant  by  the 
dexterous  use  of  a  bit  of  cord.  Between  snakes,  tigers,  and 
TImgs,  the  secret  places  of  India  are  very  alluring  to  the  adventur- 
ers but  not  nice  winter  resorts  for  quiet  citizens. 

Yet  though  India  is  the  home  of  many  a  dark  and  horrible  su- 
pei-stition,  it  is  also  the  lionie  of  a  religion  gentle  and  beautiful, 
which  of  late  years  has  l)een  spreading  in  European  countries,  and 
has  even  quite  a  strong  following  in  the  United  States.  Tliis  re- 
ligion is  Buddhism,  and  a  brief  account  of  the  founder  of  this  in- 
teresting faith  may  be  of  value. 

Buddha  was  a  rajah's  son,  heir  to  a  throne,  but  in  the  midst 
of  the  pleasures  of  the  sensual  court  of  Kapilavastu,  the  young 
[)rince  Siddhartha  (his  original  name)  found  that  there  was  no 
happiness,  and  that  outside  his  palace  gates  there  were  misery 
and  crime,  and  suffering  and  death,  such  as  in  the  days  of  his 
frivolous  life  he  had  never  dreamt  of.  Life  inanimate  alone  pre- 
sented to  him  pictures  which  were  not  those  of  desolation.  The 
Brahmins  afforded  him  no  consolation  ;  their  creed  gave  the  young 
prince  no  comfort,  nor  did  it  conform  to  what  he  believed  were 


'  THE  BULB  OF  CASTS.  257' 

the  designs  of  the  beneficent  Creator  of  the  uitiverHe.  Mi»  resolve 
vma  made. 

"I  am  determined,"  he  said,  "that  in  disftppearing  from  here 
below  I  will  not  be  any  more  sabjeot  to  the  vicissitudes  of  traii»- 
migration.  I  will  find  the  way  to  put  an  end  to  birtli  and  death, 
and  when  I  have  discovered  it  1  will  impart  it  to  the  world.  I 
will  teach  the  law  of  grace  to  everyone." 

He  was  then  twenty>nine  years  of  age ;  but  he  separated  from 
father  and  motlier,  wife  and  children,  and  set  out  to  visit  the 
schools  of  the  masters  of  the  laws  at  Manoii.  and  gave  up  six 


years  to  the  study  of  the  religious  system,  as  well  an  tu  tlie  ascetic 
exercises  enjoined  on  the  Brahmins.  He  was  not  long  in  artiving 
at  the  conclusion  that  this  road  was  not  the  one  calculated  ti)  load 
to  the  goal  he  had  in  view. 

Breaking  loose  from  all  the  old  faiths,  he  fimnded  ii  new  one, 
sod  believed  tumself  to  be  imbued  with  tlie  (qualities  of  Buddha. 
and  in  the  possession  of  ]>erfect  wisdom.  Commencing  his  preach- 
ing at  Benares,  in  the  thirty<8ixth  year  of  liis  age,  he  i-eturned  to 
Kapilavastn,  and  converted  to  the  new  faith  his  father.  Win  wife, 
and  family.     His  name  was  soon  known  all  over  Central  India. 

Nov  commenced  his  contests  with  the  Iti-alimins,  which  several 


268  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

times  imperilled  his  life.  But  for  more  than  forty  years  he  con- 
tinued his  bloodless  crusade  without  other  protection  than  what 
was  afforded  him  by  the  love  of  his  followers,  the  austerity  of  his 
morals,  and  the  perfection  of  his  wisdom.  Feeling  his  end  approach- 
ing, this  great  and  good  man  took  a  tender  leave  of  his  companions 
in  labor,  and  seating  himself  under  a  tree  expired.  In  the  year 
543  B.  c.  his  followers  met  and  settled  the  dogmas  of  their  master, 
for  he,  like  the  sweet-souled  Son  of  the  Cai-penter,  liad  himself  com- 
mitted nothing  to  writing.^ 

The  religion  of  Buddha,  or  Fo,  as  it  is  sometimes  called  in  China, 
may  well  be  styled  one  of  the  best  forms  of  religion  ever  invented 
by  man.  It  inculcates  benevolence,  humility,  piety,  and  in  all 
things  moderation.  It  has  no  sacrifices,  and  none  of  its  rites  are 
secret  or  cruel.  Its  sacred  books  are  open  to  the  perusal  and  study 
of  everyone,  and  this  fact  alone  is  one  of  the  guarantees  of  the 
good  faith  of  its  originator. 

But  in  the  more  corrupt  state  into  which  it  fell  after  the  death 
of  its  founder,  it  had  images  of  all  kinds  in  tlie  temples.  There 
are  images  representing  gods  of  the  hills,  woods,  valleys,  etc.,  as 
well  as  household  deities,  to  whom  offerings,  but  not  sacrificas, 
are  made.  Li  the  temples,  which  are  very  numerous,  there  are 
altars,  bells,  and  beads,  jewels  and  exquisite  gem-work.  In  the 
shadow  of  the  temple  walls  the  native  goldsmiths  and  jewellers  ply 
their  craft,  making  relics  to  sell  to  the  pious.  Incense  and  tapers 
burn  day  and  night  in  these  buildings,  around  the  images,  some  of 
which  are  of  colossal  size ;  and  the  utes  of  the  religion  are  celebra- 
ted by  singing,  processions  of  priests,  and  such-like  ceremonials. 

The  trausmignition  of  souls  is,  now  at  least,  a  leading  doctrine 
among  the  Buddhists,  and  accordingly  it  follows,  from  their  hold- 
ing tliis  belief,  that  they  avoid  animal  food  and  the  act  of  sacrifice, 
either  of  which  might  involve  the  killing  of  some  human  being 
who  was  performing  one  of  the  states  of  transmigration.     In  Tibet 

>  '•  His  doctrine,"  writes  M.  Aim<^  Hambert,  •'  which  he  never  intended  to  have  any  other 
end  tlian  that  of  working  a  moral  reform  in  the  Brahmin  worship,  and  substituting  a  reign  of 
duty  for  that  of  the  gods,  and  the  practice  of  good  for  that  of  vain  ceremonies,  became  in 
its  turn  a  dogmatic  system,  accompanied  by  a  superstitious  and  idolatrous  worship.  Buddhism 
is  now  the  principal  religion  in  the  Island  of  Ceylon,  the  Burman  Empire,  the  Kingdoms  of 
Siam  and  Annara,  Tonquin,  Til)et,  Tartar>',  Mongolia,  China,  and  Japan.  It  reignod  for  some 
time  in  the  whole  of  India,  Java,  and  other  islands,  and  still  exists  in  Cashmere  and  Nepaul, 
the  number  of  its  adherents  exceeding  four  hundred  millions  of  souls,  an  amount  which  no 
other  religion  on  the  globe  has  attained. 


THE  BDIjE  of  CjLSIE. 


269 


they  hava  monastflries,  containing  numerous  monlu,  who  pass  their 
tune  in  religious  exerciaes  and  study. 

The  head  of  tlie  faith  is  the  Dala'i  Larna,  or  Grand  Lama, 
vho  resides  at  Lhasa,  which  is  accordingly  the  capital  of  the 
northern  Buddhist  world.  This  person^e  has  di%-ine  honora  paid 
to  him,  and  is  also  the  nominal  sovereign  of  the  country,  though 
the  real  governing  power  is  vested  in  the  Chinese  governor  and 
a  Tibetan  minister.     Lamaism,  or  the  "  Great  Vehicle,"  is,  bow- 


ever,  so  amplified  a  form  of  the  fiuth  of  Gautama  as  to  be  really 
a  new  religion,  or  sect. 

Buddhism  is  now  closely  studied  by  European  scholars.  The 
Brahmins  called  the  Buddhist»  Sangataa,  or  atheists.  This  can 
only  be  in  ita  very  corrupt  state,  for  eucli  a  doctrine  could  surely 
never  maintain  its  hold  upon  one  third  of  the  human  race,  com- 
priang  nationalities  so  varied  as  the  keen-trading  Chinese,  the 
energetic  Tibetans,  tlie  gentle,  dispassionate  Hindoos,  and  the  war- 
li^,  intelligent  Burmese  and  Siamese. 

It  was  a  protest  against  idolatry  and  Brahminism  by  a  man 
irilo  was  not  a  Brahmin  but  a  rajah's  son.     It  abolished  caste, 


260  THE   STOEY   OF   GOVERNlklENT. 

and  hence,  independently  of  other  reasons,  tlie  violent  opposition 
it  meets  with  from  the  Brahmins.  It  is  really  somewhat  difficult 
to  understand  its  actual  doctrines ;  but  whatever  they  are.  Buddh- 
ism has  been  a  power  in  the  world,  and  it  would  be  a  nish 
assertion  to  make  that  it  has  not  been  on  tlie  whole  for  good. 
In  India,  thougli  not  properly  the  national  religion  —  Bmliminism 
being  so  —  it  probably,  in  the  number  of  its  followers,  at  one  time 
far  outstripped  those  holding  tlic  indigenous  faith  of  the  country. 

The  marriage  customs  of  a  nation  like  the  Hindoo,  or  indeed 
any  of  the  older  nationalities,  arc  so  much  a  part  of  their  govern- 
mental status  that  a  full  description  of  them  cannot  rightly  l>e 
considered  out  of  place,  and  will  doubtless  l>e  intensely  interesting 
to  all  whose  thoughts  ever  turn  to  the  important  subject  of  mar- 
riage, which  ought  to  be  the  abiding  rock  —  the  firm  foundation  of 
human  society. 

In  the  "  Institutes  of  Menu  "  the  most  clatomte  directions  ai-e 
laid  down  in  regard  to  the  choice  of  a  Bmhmin's  wife,  and  to  the 
ceremonies  that  must  be  undergone  by  a  Brahmin's  son  before 
wedlock.  He  must  sit,  for  instance,  on  a  stately  bed,  decked  with 
a  garland  of  flowers.  His  father  then  presents  him  with  a  copy 
of  the  Vedas,  and  a  cow,  the  symbol  of  Venus.  The  father  next 
reads  the  youtli  a  grave  lecture  on  his  coming  duties,  and  how 
he  ought  to  select  a  wife. 

The  qualifications  for  a  Brahmin's  bride  are  many  and  strict,  if 
the  code  of  the  great  Hindoo  legislator  is  followed.  Not  only  is 
a  girl  with  red  hair  —  a  rare  case  among  the  Hindoos  —  to  be 
avoided,  but  care  must  also  be  taken  to  shun  one  with  little  hair 
or  with  too  much.  The  bride  elect  must  not  Ix)  immoderately 
talkative,  nor  must  she  have  inflamed  eyes. 

The  young  Brahmin  must  avoid  one  "  with  the  name  of  a  con- 
stellation, of  a  tree,  or  of  a  river,  of  a  barbarous  nation,  or  of  a 
mountain,  of  a  winged  creature,  a  snake,  or  of  a  slave,  or  one  with 
any  name  raising  an  image  of  terror.  Let  him  choose  for  a  wife 
a  girl  whose  form  has  no  defect ;  who  has  an  agreeable  name ; 
who  walks  gracefully,  like  a  young  elephant  (strange  comparison  I)  ; 
whose  teeth  are  small,  whose  hair  is  modemte  in  quantity,  and 
whose  body  has  an  exquisite  softness." 

The  siege  of  the  girl's  parents  is  not  decided  upon  until  a  fortu- 


THE   RTTLE  OF   CASTE.  281 

nate  da^  has  boen  ftzed.  The  father  of  the  young  man  then  takes 
a  number  of  small  presents,  and  proceeds  to  the  house  of  tlie 
bride-elect,  but  will  immediately  tarn  back  if  any  animal  of  evil 
omen,  such  as  a  fox,  a  cat,  or  a  serpent  should  cross  his  path. 
But  even  if  all  go  well  with  the  ambassador  at  the  house  of  tlie  lady 
whom  he  hopes  to  make  his  daughter-in-law,  the  fatlier  of  the  girl 
does  not  give  his  consent  until  he  hears  the  chirp  of  one  of  the 
small  lizards  that  creep  aboutold  walls.  When  this  favorable  omen 
occurs  the  bride's  father  &&• 
sents,  and  the  marriage  day  is 
fixed. 

The  four  summer  months 
usually  chosen  are  the  most 
Incky  in  the  whole  calendar; 
and,  probably  on  account  of 
the  field-labors  being  suspended 
during  that  i)eriod,  because  of 
the  great  heat,  some  leisure  is 
aftortled  for  tlie  performance  , 
of  the  ceremony.  During  the 
night  preceding  the  nuptial 
flay,  the  houses  of  bride  and 
bridegroom  resound  witli 
music,  and  buniing  Inm[»  are 
placed  at  the  door  l»y  women 
who  utter  wishes  for  their  wel- 
fare. Balls  of  rice  are  made 
hj'  the  women,  who  towards 
the  close  of  the  night  eat  rice 
with  the  bride  and  bridegi-oom. 

Next   raoniing  tlie   wimien  '""^  hatek  <; 

again  assemble,  and  men  v-raaking  recommences.  With  buniing 
lamps  in  their  lirt:ids,  ii  "  ^es-sel  uf  pure  water,  balls  of  rico-flour, 
and  a  quantity  of  l»etel,  tliey  i>i-oceed  to  visit  the  neighboring 
families,  and  present  tlieni  with  the  plant."  On  their  return  liome 
the  marriage  rites  ai-e  continued. 

After  placing^the  future  husband  and  wife  upon  a  framework, 
or  wicket  of  bamboo,  and  thrice  waving  around  their  feet  a  wisp  of 


262  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

lighted  straw,  the  women  taking  a  ball  of  thread,  and  encompass- 
ing the  bamboo  fi-amework  four  times,  bind  the  betrothed  pair 
together,  fastening  one  end  of  the  thread  on  the  right  arm  of  the 
youth,  and  the  left  arm  of  the  maiden,  with  a  few  blades  of  durva- 
grass. 

The  bodies  of  the  bride  and  bridegroom  are  next  anointed  with 
fragrant  unguents.  When  these  ceremonies  are  completed,  little 
offerings,  intended  to  secure  the  happiness  of  the  betrothed,  are 
made  at  the  houses  of  both  parents  to  the  manes  or  spirits  of  their 
deceased  ancestors.  Presents  of  betel,  fruit,  and  sweetmeats  are 
then  exchanged  between  the  bride  and  bridegroom;  and  in  the 
course  of  the  afternoon  their  heads  are  shaved. 

Immediately  after  the  performance  of  this  part  of  the  ceremony, 
a  large  stone  is  placed  in  the  midst  of  a  small  aitificial  pond  of 
water,  surrounded  by  trees,  in  which  are  suspended  lamps  with 
wicks,  made  of  the  fruit  of  the  thorn-apple.  Upon  this  stone  the 
bridegroom  stands,  and  the  women,  with  the  burning  lamps,  rice- 
Imlls,  etc.,  in  their  hands,  approach  him  in  single  file,  and  success- 
ively touch  his  forehead  with  the  various  objects  which  they  bear. 
The  bride,  bridegroom  and  all  the  principal  personages  concerned 
fast  until  the  whole  ceremony  of  the  nuptials  is  completed. 

Rich  people,  and  even  those  who  cannot  afford  such  display, 
often  spend  large  sums  on  their  weddings,  and  conduct  the  cere- 
monies with  the  pomp,  splendor,  and  lavishness  so  dear  to  the 
Oriental,  and  sometimes  to  the  Occidental,  heart.  At  night,  the 
bridegroom,  superbly  dressed,  glittering  with  gold  and  silver  orna- 
ments, and  with  a  crown  on  his  head,  is  carried  in  a  golden  palan- 
quin to  the  bride's  dwelling. 

Before  him  n^ove  a  long  procession  of  servants  bearing  silver 
staves,  and  open  carriages  containing  singers  and  dancing-girls, 
some  of  whom,  later  on,  perform  the  celebrated  egg-dance.  All 
along  the  line  of  march  attendants,  carrying  lighted  flambeaux,  dis- 
charge fireworks  as  they  advance ;  and  scattered  amongst  them 
are  musicians  who  play  on  various  instruments.  It  is  not  a  little 
significant  that,  since  the  English  conquest  of  India,  these  musi- 
cians arc  frequently  Europeans,  and  European  guns  are  also  fired, 
every  now  and  then,  as  accompaniments  to  this  marching  — 
sometimes  martial  — musics. 


THE  BULB  OF  CASTE.  268 

OccaaionaUy  these  midnight  marriage  processiona,  when  passing 
through  the  vilhige,  are  playfully  attacked  by  the  boys  and  young 
people.  But  these  encounters,  commenced  in  sport,  not  unfre- 
quently  end  in  dread  earnest  mth  the  loss  of  many  lives. 

The  ceremonies  which  follow  when  the  bridegroom  has  reached 
the  bride's  house  —  sucli  as  h  is  being  undressed  by  the  bride's  father 
a:td  clothed  in  new  garments,  such  as  standing  on  a  stool  beneath 
which  a  cow's  head  and  other  sacred  things  have  been  buried,  such 
as  covering  the  bride  with  old  gaiments  and  carrying  her  seven 
times  round  her  future  lord,  then  letting  them  gaze  on  each  other. 


"is4*!ii>' 


f  soiiTiiEiiy  ixiiiA. 


and  approacli  and  sit  down  together,  take  up  so  much  time  that 
once  in  one's  life  would  seem  a  festive  sufficiency  on  this  question 
of  marriage  d  la  Hindoo.  But  we  must  remember  that  time  has 
little  meaning  or  value  to  an  Eastom  mind  whose  constant  concept 
is  eternity,  and  a  stretch  of  eei-emony  that  would  be  tremendously 
tedious  to  us  is  to  them  but  a  soft  and  agreeable  recreation. 

The  father-in-law  next  presents  the  bridegroom  with  fourteen 
blades  of  the  fragrant  kusa  grass,  pours  water  into  the  palm  of  his 
right  hand,  and  reads  a  mantra,  or  incantation,  over  it.  Water  is 
then  spilt  upon  the  ground,  and  the  officiating  Brahmin,  having 


264  THE   STOliY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

directed  the  youth  to  dip  his  fingers  into  a  vessel  of  water, 
approaches  with  tlie  girl,  and  placing  her  hand  upon  that  of  her 
husband,  binds  them  together  with  a  garland  of  flowers. 

When  the  bride  has  been  formally  given  and  received,  the  garland 
of  flowers  is  removed,  while  the  father  of  the  bride  repeats  tlie 
Gdyairi^  or  lioliest  vei'se  of  the  Vedas.  A  kind  of  curtain  is  then 
drawn  over  the  heads  of  the  married  pair,  who  once  more  regard 
each  other,  after  which  they  are  directed  to  bow  to  the  priest  and  to 
the  company,  and  to  invoke  the  blessings  of  the  gods  and  Brahmins. 

During  these  ceremonies,  portions  of  the  Misra  —  work  on  the 
various  onlers  of  the  Hindoos  —  are  reheai'sed  by  the  Ghatakas, 
and  the  foreheads  of  the  guests  are  marked  with  sandal-wood 
powder.  The  bride  and  bridegroom  are  finally  fastened  together 
by  their  garments  in  token  of  union,  and  led  back  into  the  midst 
of  the  family. 

Celibacy  is  accounted  a  disgrace  both  to  men  and  women.  If 
a  man  loses  his  wife  he  immediately  looks  out  for  a  second,  but  if 
she  also  dies  he  has  difficulty  in  getting  a  third,  owing  to  the  be- 
lief that  some  bane  is  upon  him.  To  avoid  this  supposed  cui-se, 
he  betrotlis  himself  to  a  tree^  on  which  the  threatened  evil  falls. 
Fifty  is  the  age  wliich  the  sacred  books  fix  as  the  period  beyond 
which  a  man  should  not  marry,  but  the  Brahmins  disregard  this 
injunction. 

Though  Indian  women  are  not  treated  with  the  same  courtesy 
and  consideration  as  they  are  in  Western  society,  and  are  in  many 
respects  even  degraded,  yet  it  is  erroneous  to  suppose  that  they 
are  mere  slaves,  or  are  sunk  as  low  as  thev  are  in  Mohammedan 
harems. 

Still  a  Hindoo  woman  is  not  considered  the  equal  of  a  man. 
She  is  looked  upon  with  small  consideration,  and  is  supposed  to 
be  incapable  of  acquiring  that  degree  of  mentality  which  would 
allow  of  her  ascension  in  the  social  scale.  If  a  man  does  anything 
reprehensible,  it  is  usually  said  that  he  has  acted  in  the  spirit  of 
a  woman,  and  she,  on  the  other  hand,  as  the  excuse  for  any  fault 
she  has  committed,  lays  all  the  blame  on  the  natural  inferiority  of 
her  sex. 

The  Ahh6  Dubois,  a  well-known  and  much  esteemed  writer 
on    the    Hindoos,  considers    that    from   some   strange   perversity 


THB  BOLE.  OF  CASTE.  265 

of  taste,  or  from  tlie  effect  of  custom,  the  Hindoo  women  have 
absolutely  imbibed  a  taste  for  ill-treatment  "  They  would,"  he 
assumes,  "despise  tlieir  husbnnds  if  they  treated  them  with  famil- 
iarity.     I  have 


t  wife  in  a 
rage  with  her 
li  us  band  for 
talking  with  her 
in  an  easy  strain. 
'His  behavior 
covera  me  with 
shame,'  quoth 
she,  *  and  I  dare 
no  longer  show 
my  face,  Sutli 
conduct  among 
OB  was  nevci- 
seen  till  n  o  w , 
Is  he  become 
a  Paranguaif 
(Frank),  and 
does  he  sui>- 
pose  me  to  lie  a 
woman  of  that 
caste?' '" 

Yet,  if  tht-y 
are  despiseil  in 
private,  they  are 
treated  with  the 

highest     respect  iuk  Kn(i-nAN<Fii  at  a  m ajumm^k  i  i:i.KiiiiArlox. 

in  public. 

Among  the  ryott,  or  peasants,  thaw  is  wo  sepiiration  of  the 
women.  Both  sexes  sit  at  night  round  the  lamp,  engaged  in 
cheerful  conversation,  weaving,  spinning,  cocking,  or  jilaying  a 
kind  of  game  of  dominoes. 

Among  the  martial  tribes  of  India,  sucli  as  the  Iiaji>oots,  the 
opinion  of  the  women  is  taken  in  all  affairs  of  moment ;  and  before 
■n-ar  is  decided  upon,  the  chief  and  his  wife  first  agitate  the  sub- 


266  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

ject  in  private,  after  which  it  is  confided  to  the  tribal  council 
which,  in  turn,  petitions  the  ruling  princes  in  regard  to  the  decision 
at  which  they  have  arrived. 

The  wife  is  also  the  guardian  of  the  heir  to  the  chieftainslii[> 
during  his  minority.  Among  them  the  women  arc  everywhere 
treated  with  great  delicacy,  i-espect,  and  even  affection.  Among 
these  people  —  the  Rajpoots  —  Colonel  Tod  describes  a  curious 
festival,  wliich  is  known  as  the  "  Festival  of  the  Bracelet." 

The  Festival  of  the  Bracelet  is  in  spring,  and  whatever  its  ori- 
gin, it  is  one  of  the  few  occasions  where  an  intercourse  of  gallan- 
try of  the  most  delicate  nature  is  established  between  the  fair  sex 
and  the  cavaliei-s  of  Rajast'hin.  Though  the  bracelet  may  be  sent 
by  maidens,  it  is  only  on  occasions  of  urgent  necessity  or  danger. 

The  Rajpoot  dame  bestows  with  the  rakhi  (bracelet)  the  title 
of  adopted  brother ;  and  while  its  acceptance  secures  to  her  all  the 
protection  of  a  cavalier  servante^  scandal  itself  never  suggests  any 
other  tie.  He  may  hazard  his  life  in  her  cause,  and  yet  never 
receive  a  smile  in  reward,  for  he  cannot  even  see  the  fair  objec^t 
who,  as  brother  of  her  adoption,  has  constituted  him  her  defender. 

But  there  is  a  charm  in  the  mystery  of  such  a  connection  nevcM* 
endangered  by  close  observation ;  and  the  loyal  to  the  fair  may 
well  attach  a  value  to  the  public  recognition  of  being  the  rakhi- 
bund  bhdcy  the  '  l^mcelet-bound  brother,'  of  a  princess. 

The  intrinsic  value  of  such  a  pledge  is  never  looked  to,  nor  is 
it  requisite  it  should  be  costly,  though  it  varies  with  the  means  and 
rank  of  the  donor,  and  may  be  of  floss-silk  and  spangles,  or  gold 
chains  and  gems.  Tlie  acceptance  of  the  pledge  and  its  return  is 
by  the  katcJdl^  or  corset,  of  simple  silk  or  satin,  or  gold  brocade 
and  pearls.  In  shape  or  application  there  is  something  similar  in 
Europe ;  and,  for  defending  the  most  delicate  part  of  the  struc- 
ture of  the  fair,  it  is  peculiarly  appropriate  as  an  emblem  of  de- 
votion. 

A  whole  j)rovince  has  often  accompanied  the  katchli ;  and  the 
monarch  of  India  was  so  pleased  with  this  courteous  delicacy  in 
the  customs  of  Rajiist'han,  on  receiving  tlie  bmceletof  the  Princess 
Kurnavati,  which  invested  him  with  the  title  of  brother,  and  uncle 
and  protector  to  her  infant,  Oody  Sing,  that  he  pledged  himself  to 
her  service,  '  even  if  the  demand  were  tlie  Castle  of  Rent'uml)or.' 


THE  BTTLB   OF  CASTE. 


26T 


Hnmaiooo  proved  himself  a  true  knight,  mid  even  abandoned  his 
conquests  in  Bengal  when  called  on  to  redeem  his  pledge,  and 
succour  Cheetore  and  the  widows  and  minor  sons  of  Sanga  Raria. 

Certainly  the  women  of  Northern  India  are  not  slaves,  nor  in  a 
menial  position  in  the  households  of  their  huslands.  They  have 
ever  been  treated  with  resi^ct  and  even  devotion,  and,  like  women 
in  the  Western  World,  Iiave  been  the  inspiring  causes  of  nohle 
deeds  on  the  part  of  their  admirers  and  pi-otectors.  To  win  their 
unseen  smiles  the  Hindoo 
warrior  toils  and  bleeds ; 
for  tliere  is  no  recess  of 
the  harem  into  which  the 
renown  of  a  manly  char- 
acter and  gallant  actions 
will  not  i>eiictrate. 

The  hards,  who  re- 
semble the  troubadours 
of  the  Middle  Ages,  and 
the  minstrels  of  ancient 
Greece,  are  everywhere 
admitted,  to  the  palace  as 
well  as  to  the  cott^e;  I 
and  the  youth  of  their 
country  decorated  in  their 
glowing  songs  with  all 
the  ornaments  of  poetrj-, 
are    presented    to    the 

ardent  imaginations  of  the  fair  in  a  light  highly  calculated  to  in- 
spire admiration  and  love. 

In  general,  the  women  of  India  enjoy  complete  liberty ;  only 
the  women  of  the  higher  classes,  or  those  in  pjirts  of  the  country 
where  Mohammedanism  prevails,  are  at  all  secluded.  Among  the 
lower  class,  indeed,  they  have  to  assist  in  domestic  affairs,  in  busi- 
ness, and  in  the  labors  nf  agriculture. 

But  the  most  extraordinary  custom  is  that  which  prevails  in 
some  parts  of  India  —  Mysore,  for  example.  If  a  woman  of  any  of 
the  four  pure  castes  tii-e  of  her  husband,  or,  being  a  widow,  is 
wearied  of  a  life  of  celibacy,  and  goes  to  the  temples  and  eats  some 


268  THE   STORV   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

of  the  rice  offered  up  to  the  idol,  she  is,  if  of  Brahmin  caste,  offered 
the  option  of  either  living  in  the  temple  or  out  of  it. 

If  she  chooses  the  former  she  receives  a  daily  allowance  of  food, 
and  a  piece  of  cloth  annually.  She  must  in  return  sweep  the 
temple,  fan  the  idol  with  a  yak's  tail,  and  perform  the  duties  of 
a  wife  to  the  attendant  Bnxhmins.  The  male  children  of  these 
women  are  termed  moylar^  hut  are  fond  of  wearing  the  Brtihmin- 
ical  thread . 

The  daughtei's  are  usually  hrought  u[)  to  live  like  their  mothers, 
and  the  remainder  given  in  marriage  to  the  moylars  —  who  are 
either  employed  in  menial  offices  about  the  temple,  or  engage  in 
agriculture  or  otlier  occupations.  These  temple-women  are  not 
looked  upon  as  following  a  disgraceful  life,  but  are,  on  the  con- 
trar>',  treated  with  profound  resi)ect  by  the  visitors  to  the  shrines. 

The  women  of  this  chai-acter  were  formerly  the  only  educated 
females  in  India,  and  it  is  remarkable  that  while  a  woman  bom 
into  this  disreimtable  ti-ade,  or  adopted  in  a  family  of  tliis  kind,  is 
not  Ivvild  to  pursue  a  shameless  vocation,  other  women  who  have 
fallcMi  from  \irtue  are  esteemed  to  have  discrraced  themselves  and 
their  families. 

A  Hindoo  woman's  time  does  not  hang  heavily  on  her  hands. 
If  belonging  to  an  industrious  family,  she  rises  early  in  the  morn- 
ing, lights  her  lamp,  and  s[)ius  some  cotton  for  the  clothing  of  her 
faniilv  ;  she  next  feeds  and  attends  to  the  children.  This  done, 
she  s[)rinkles  and  purifies  the  floor.  Next  she  sweeps  the  house 
and  the  yard.  She  now  breakfasts,  cleins  the  bmss  and  the  stone 
vessels  with  straw,  ashes,  and  water.  Her  next  duty  is  to  cleanse, 
bruise,  and  boil  rice.  About  ten  or  eleven  o'clock  she  tiikes 
a  towel,  and  accompanies  the  women,  her  neighl)oi's,  to  the  tank, 
or  river,  to  bathe. 

The  last  incident  in  the  life  of  the  Hindoo  woman  is  the  famous, 
or  infamous,  but  now  almost  abandoned,  Suttee,  When  a  Hindoo 
dies  he  is  burned  on  a  funeral  pile,  composed  of  faggots  of  wood 
drenched  with  inllaminable  substances,  and  so  built  as  to  allow 
a  free  drau'Wit  of  air  to  plav  from  beneath. 

His  ashes  are  then  thrown  into  the  Ganges,  or,  if  the  place  of 
cremation  is  at  a  disUmee  from  the  sacred  river,  into  a  liver  which 
is  S2i])posed  to  be  the  Ganges.     For  instance,  when  a  young  Indian 


THB  KTJLE  OF  GABTK.  269 

prince  died  some  yeara  ago  at  Florence,  hia  body  was,  by  permission 
of  tiie  autboritiea,  burned  on  the  banks  of  the  Amo. 

If  the  deceased  is  of  Brahminio  rank,  or  a  man  of  wealth,  the 
cremation  takes  place  with  gi-eat  and  costly  pomp ;  but  if  poor, 
and  moreover  of  low  caste,  his  wretched  corpse  is  disposed  of  as 
soon  OS  possible.  The  burning  of  the  corpse  is  a  widely  spread 
custom,  and  one  which,  in  the  interest  of  public  liealth,  is  highly 
to  be  commended  in  tropical  countries. 

But,  for  the  chief  wife  of  the  deceased  to  voluntarily  become  a 


"Suttee  "  is  something  revolting.  Yet,  formerly,  until  auppi-essed 
by  the  British  Government,  nothing  was  more  common.  The  wife 
mounted  the  funeral  pile  and  laid  herself  down  by  her  dead  hus- 
band. The  faggots  were  lighted,  and  in  a  few  minutes  the  smote 
rolled  in  volumes  around  the  dead  and  the  living. 

If  through  pain  the  living  victim  attempted  to  escape,  she  was 
secured  by  bamboo  rods  laid  across  her  body,  and  held  at  either 
side.  Generally  her  sufferings  were  short,  tlie  smoke  choking  her 
before  the  fire  seized  upon  her  flesh.  But  sometimes  they  were 
unneoesBarily  prolonged  by  the  faulty  construction  of   the  pile; 


270  THE   STOKY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

and  cases  have  even  been  known  in  which  the  poor  creature  has 
attempted,  and  even  made  good,  her  escape  from  the  torments  to 
which,  unaware  of  her  own  powers  of  endurance,  she  had  volun- 
tarily submitted. 

In  most  cases,  however,  the  stupefied  body  soon  consumed,  and 
mingled  its  ashes  with  those  of  the  form  beside  it.  Sometimes, 
no  doubt,  the  "  Suttee  "  was  stupefied  with  drugs,  such  as  opium, 
before  ascending  the  pile,  though  this  has  been  denied,  on  the 
gi'ound  that  as  the  woman  has  to  undergo  certain  forms  and  repeat 
certain  prayei*s  before  she  ascends  the  pile,  it  requires  tlie  pos- 
session of  all  her  senses  unimpaired  to  perform  these  aright. 

It  is  not  compulsory  on  the  Hindoo  woman  to  perform  tliis 
"  Suttee '';  it  is  only  regarded  as  a  pious  act  on  her  part,  and  it 
may  be  noted  that  it  is  generally  the  Brahmins'  widows  who  per- 
form it.     The  reason  is  obvious. 

A  woman  of  that  high  cjiste  is  left  a  widow ;  from  being  es- 
teemed as  a  goddess,  worshipped  by  those  beneath  her  as  part 
of  Brahma,  the  giver  of  life  —  before  whom  kings  were  abject 
slaves  —  who  could  commit  any  crime  so  long  as  it  did  not  infringe 
the  sacred  laws  of  caste  —  in  a  word,  one  of  the  chosen  of  the 
earth,  she  sinks,  by  her  refusal  to  become  a  "  Suttee  "  with  her 
husband,  to  be  an  unclean  thing,  loathed,  despised,  and  treated 
with  contempt  by  the  very  Pariahs,  for  whose  shadows  to  fall  upon 
lier  a  few  hours  before  was  contamination  the  most  vile. 

For  a  delicate  girl  like  her  to  lose  all  caste  is  misery  compared 
with  which  the  agony  of  a  few  minutes  is  nothing.  These  facts 
we  must  tiike  into  account  if  we  would  justly  estimate  the  motives 
which  induce  a  Hindoo  widow  to  be  burned  with  her  husband,  or 
in  default  of  burning  to  be  buried  alive. 

In  1829,  Lord  William  Bentinck,  among  the  many  other  excellent 
reforms  which  he  was  the  means  of  introducing  into  India,  forbade 
the  performance  of  *'  Suttee  "  within  the  British  dominions,  under 
severe  penalties.  Notwithstanding  the  passive  resistance  of  some 
of  the  Indian  conservatives  of  those  days,  and  the  presentation  of 
a  petition  to  the  Privy  Council  in  favor  of  it  by  some  rich  Hindoos, 
the  action  of  the  Governor-General  was  supported  by  the  Home 
Government,  and  ''  Suttee  "  is  now  rare,  or  conducted  with  great 
secresy,  in  the  British  Territories  as  well  as  in  the  Protected  States. 


THR   BULK   or   CA8TE.  271 

3%a  law»  of  inheritance  among  tlie  Hindoos  are  very  curious. 
The  momeitt  a  son  ia  born  he  acquires  a  vested  right  in  his 
father's  property,  which  c-annot  be  sold  without  the  recognition 
of  this  right  of  joint  ownership.  It  is,  in  fact,  simply  a  sort  of 
Hindoo  law  of  entail,  with,  however,  muny  viiriations  on  the 
'  European  system. 

For  instance,  when  a  hou  comes  of  age,  he  can,  even  agiuust 


the  will  of  the  jmrent,  coniijel  a  divisiDn  of  tlie  piofMirty ;  and, 
should  the  parent  acquiesre,  one  sou  can  always  have  a  division  of 
the  property  against  the  will  of  the  others.  On  such  a  division 
taking  pWe.  the  father  lias  no  advaiitaj^-  ovf;r  his  childrt'n,  except 
that  he  has  two  shares  iiislea<l  of  nni;. 

Sir  Henrj'  Maine,  the  great  English  livwyv",  oh:seives  that  the 
ancient  law  of  the  German  tribes  ^vas  very  similar ;  the  atloil,  or 
flomoin,  of  ihe  family  being  the  joint  iiro^ierty  of  the  father  and 
his  sona.  Among  the  Hindoos,  also,  there  are  cases  in  which  the 
law  of  primogeniture  is  followed  as  i-egards  politii^al  office  and 
power,  but  not  regarding  property,  a  singular  distinction. 


272  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

JSducation  is  at  a  low  stand  in  Hindostan.  Tlie  child  generally 
begins  to  acquire  the  elements  of  knowledge  in  its  fifth  year,  being 
then  taught  the  alphabet,  or  sent  by  its  father  to  school.  With  the 
exception  of  architecture  and  the  manufacture  of  jewelrj',  the  fine 
arts  have  never  greatly  prospered  in  India,  the  grinding  despotisms 
which  from  time  immemorial  have  crushed  the  country,  having 
been  unfavorable  to  the  progress  of  painting  and  other  branches  of 
art.  In  architecture  even,  it  is  probable  that  they  never  attained 
any  great  perfection  until  the  Moliammedans  came  among  thorn. 

For  instance,  arched  bridges  are  believed  to  have  been  unknown 
to  the  native  engineers.  The  art  of  sculpture  early  occupied  the 
Hindoo  mind,  and  most  of  their  designs  were  influenced  by  theii* 
religious  opinions,  the  gods  and  their  mythology  being  the  solitary 
subject  in  which  the  minds  of  the  artists  revelled.  Hence  the 
appalling  sameness  in  most  of  their  figures. 

Painting  has  been  less  Jissiduously  cultivated  than  the  sister  art 
of  sculpture.  The  color  in  their  pictures  —  generally  frescoes  — 
is  often  good,  but  the  drawing  is  bad,  and  the  style  hard,  and 
lacking  in  light  and  shade.  The  modem  artists,  though  minutely 
copying  tlie  object  on  which  they  are  at  work,  have  no  idea  of 
middle  tints  or  of  the  harmonies  of  hues. 

Music  is  at  an  equally  low  standard  or  rather  ebb,  fur  it  is  clear 
that  formerly  the  Hindoos'  skill  and  taste  in  this  art  were  higher 
than  now  ;  but  some  of  their  poems,  such  as  those  in  tlie  "  Vedas," 
are  of  a  very  high  literary  value. 

Jewelry  is  manufactured  with  the  sim[)lest  appliances,  in  very 
beautiful  patterns — frequently  by  plaiting  wire-work  in  dainty  forms, 
though,  of  course,  with  much  of  that  brilliant  barbarism  which  is 
associated  with  everything  Oriental,  and  in  Delhi  a  jeweller  pur- 
suing his  ti-ade  in  the  street  used  to  l>e  no  uncommon  sight. 

Agriculture  varies  in  different  partis  of  India,  as  might  l)e 
expected  from  a  people  so  various  in  i*ace.  Horses  are  never 
employed,  their  places  in  all  the  labora  of  the  field  being  supplied 
by  cows,  bullocks,  or  oxen.  The  illustrations  which  we  give  of 
Indian  husbandry  show  how  primitive,  even  to  tliis  day,  are  the 
methods  and  machines  in  vogue. 

Of  the  many  extraordinary  sights  which  are  common  in  India 
none,  perhaps,  is  more  wonderful  and  fearfully  fascinating  to  a 


THB  HULK   UF   CA8TB.         .  178 

stranger  than  an  exhibdtion  bf  snake-charming.  For  a  couple  of 
rupees  —  about  eighty  cents  —  one  can  witnesa  this  spectacle  in 
almost  any  Indian  village,  for  there  are  numerous  strolling  vaga- 
bonds who  seem  able  to  handle  the  most  deadly  snakes  with  ajtparent 
impunity  hy  meant  of  music. 

It  is  said  that  tliese  snakes  have  their  fangs  extnicted.  This,  no 
doubt,  is  often  the  caav;  but  not  invariably  so,  for  men  ai«  now 
and  then  bitten  by  these  cobras  and  die  in  frightful  contortions. 
Some  of  the  iierfomiances  of  these  serpeiit-cliarnicrs  are  remark- 
jd)lc,  as  will  Ik- 
seen  by  the  follow- 
ing |>assage  from 
Oeneral  C'anii>- 
liell's  Indian  Jour- 
nal :  — 

When  I   was  on 
General  I>alryra- 
j>lc'a    staff   at    Tri- 1 
chinopoly,  there  m 
a  dry  well   in   the  I 
garden,  whiph    ■ 
the    favorite    iutunt  | 
of    snakes    and 
wliich   I   shot   se 
era).     One  morning  9 
I  discovered  a  large  ] 
o>bra-di-capcllo 
the  bottom  of  this  I 
well,  basking  in  the  ' 
Miin;    but    while    I 
ran  to  fetch  my  gnn, 
some  of  the  native 

servants  began  to  pelt  him  with  Atones,  nml  drove  him  into  liis  hole 
among  the  brick-work,  T  therefore  sent  f<ir  the  snake-cliamifni  to  get 
hitn  out. 

Two  of  these  worthies  liaving  arrived,  we  lowere<l  tliem  into  the  well 
by  means  of  a  rope.  One  of  them,  after  performing  sundry  incan- 
tations, and  sprinkling  himself  and  his  companion  with  ashes  prepared 
from  the  dung  of   a  saorcd  cow,  began  to  play  a  shrill  monotonous 


274  THE    8TORV    OF     GOVERNMENT. 

ditty  upon  a  pipe  ornamented  witli  shells,  brass  rings,  and  beads,  while 
the  other  stood  on  one  side  of  the  snake's  hole,  holding  a  rod  furnished 
at  one  end  with  a  slip  noose. 

At  first  the  snake,  who  had  been  considerably  annoved  before  he 
took  refuge  in  his  hole,  was  deaf  to  the  notes  of  the  charmer;  but 
after  half  an  hour's  constant  playing,  the  spell  began  to  operate,  and 
the  snake  was  heard  to  move.  In  a  few  minutes  more  he  thrust  out 
his  head ;  the  horsehair  noose  was  dexterously  8lij)j)ed  over  it  and 
drawn  tight,  and  we  hoisted  up  the  men,  dangling  their  snake  in 
triumph.  Having  carried  him  to  an  open  8[>ace  of  ground,  they 
released  him  from  the  noose. 

The  enraged  snake  immediately  made  a  rush  at  the  bystanders, 
])utting  to  flight  a  crowd  of  native  servants  who  had  assembled  to  wit- 
ness the  sport.  The  snake-charmer,  tapping  him  on  the  tail  with  a 
switch,  induced  him  to  turn  up<m  himself,  at  the  same  time  sounding 
his  pipe. 

The  snake  coiled  himself  up,  raised  his  head,  expanded  his  liood, 
and  appeared  about  to  strike ;  but  instead  of  doing  so,  he  remained 
in  the  same  position,  as  if  fascinated  by  the  music,  darting  out  his 
slender  forked  tongue,  and  following  with  his  head  the  motion  of  the 
man's  knee,  which  he  kept  moving  from  side  to  side,  within  a  few 
inches  of  him,  as  if  tempting  him  to  bite. 

N"o  sooner  did  the  music  cease,  than  the  snake  dashed  forward  with 
such  fury  that  it  required  great  agility  on  the  part  of  the  man  to  avoid 
him,  and  then  immediately  the  snake  made  off  as  fast  as  he  could  go. 
The  sound  of  the  pipe,  however,  invariably  made  him  stop,  and  obliged 
him  to  remain  in  an  upright  position  as  long  as  the  man  continued  to 
play. 

^Vfter  repeating  this  experiment  several  times,  :i  fowl  was  placed 
within  its  reach,  which  he  instantly  dashed  at  and  bit.  The  fowl 
screamed  out  the  moment  it  was  struck,  but  ran  off,  and  began  picking 
among  its  companions  as  if  nothing  had  happened. 

I  pulled  out  my  watch  to  see  how  long  the  venom  took  to  operate. 
In  about  half  a  minute,  the  comb  and  wattles  of  the  fowl  began  to 
change  from  a  red  to  a  livid  line,  and  were  soon  nearly  black,  but  no 
other  symptom  was  apparent.  In  t\yo  minutes  it  began  to  stagger,  was 
seized  with  strong  convulsions,  fell  to  the  ground,  and  continued  to 
struGfccle  violently  till  it  expired,  exactly  three  minutes  and  a  half  after 
it  had  been  bitten. 

On  i)lucking  the  fowl,  we  found  that  it  had  merely  been  touched  on 
the  extreme  ])oint   of   the   pinion.     The   wound,   not  larger  than  the 


276  THE   STORY-  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

puncture  of  a  needle,  was  surrounded  by  a  livid  spot ;  but  the  remain- 
der of  the  body,  with  the  exception  of  the  comb  and  wattles  (which 
were  of  a  dark  livid  hue),  was  of  the  natural  color;  and  I  afterwards 
learned  that  my  coachman  (a  half-caste)  had  eaten  it. 

Thq  charmer  now  offered  to  show  us  his  method  of  catching  snakes,  and 
seizing  the  reptile  (about  five  feet  long)  by  the  point  of  tlie  tail  with  his 
left  hand,  he  slipped  the  right  along  the  body  with  lightning  swiftness 
and,  grasping  him  by  the  throat  with  his  finger  and  thumb  held  him  fast, 
and  forced  him  to  open  his  jaws  and  display  his  poisonous  fangs. 

Having  now  gratified  my  curiosity,  I  proposed  that  the  snake  should 
be  destroyed,  or  at  least  that  his  fangs  might  be  extracted,  an  operation 
easily  performed  with  a  pair  of  forceps.  But  the  snake  being  a  remarka- 
bly fine  one,  the  charmer  was  unwilling  to  extract  his  teeth,  as  he  said 
the  operation  sometimes  proved  fatal,  and  begged  so  hard  to  be  allowed 
to  keep  him  as  he  was,  that  I  at  last  suffered  him  to  put  him  in  a  basket 
and  carry  him  off. 

After  this  he  frequently  brought  the  snake  to  the  house,  still  with 
his  fangs  entire,  as  I  ascertained  by  personal  inspection,  but  so  tame 
that  he  handled  him  freely  without  fear.  But  one  day  the  snake 
bit  the  charmer  and  ended  his  life. 

The  moral  character  of  the  Hindoo  has  been  much  misrepre- 
sented by  ignorant  men,  incapjible  through  prejudice,  or  from  the 
want  of  that  habit  of  making  duo  allowance  for  the  different  cir- 
cumstances under  which  the  Hindoo  is  placed,  of  forming  a  calm 
and  charitable  judgment  on  the  mce. 

The  Hindoo  must  not  be  weighed  in  an  American  balance,  any 
more  than  an  American  should  be  measured  according  to  Hindoo 
standards.  Morality  may  be  absolute,  not  comparative  or  relative ; 
but,  at  the  same  time,  putting  mere  philosophical  ethics  aside, 
we  must,  for  the  sake  of  arriving  at  something  like  an  intelligible 
estimate,  adoi)t  a  standard  somewhat  elastic. 

The  perfectly  moral  nation  is  a  poet's  dream  of  the  future,  as 
the  utterly  wicked  is  a  something  which  has  not  yet  existed.  The 
Hindoos,  it  must  be  remembered,  notwitlistanding  the  magnifi- 
cence of  their  courts,  the  gorgeousness  of  their  shrines,  and  even  the 
high  state  of  some  of  the  arts  among  them,  are  a  comparatively  bar- 
barous people.  Their  sacred  books  may  be  exalted  in  tone ;  but  their 
religion  is  nevertheless  gross,  licentious,  and  cruel  in  many  of  its 
^ain  featui-es. 


THE  RULE   OF   CASTE. 


277 


Their  paseions  are  excited  by  art  and  by  religious  pageantries, 
and  their  religious  fanaticLsm  by  a  cunning,  unscrupulous  priest- 
hood, ^vhich  his,  by  the  aid  of  that  most  ingeniously  devised 
legend  of  caste, 
Imund  all  beneath 
it,  and  there  iti  no 
one  above  it,  in 
iron  b  o  11  d  t  as 
merciless  jind  un 
Ijreakable  as  tlioso 
<if  fate  according 
to  the  old  Oieek 
idea. 

But  tlie  Indian 
is  not  the  sinie 
(dl  over  India 
The  fierce  wild 
men  of  the  lonei 
Himalayan  liilU 
who  used  to  be 
Imnted  like  wild 
Iteasts  by  the  Eng- 
lish, seem  haidly 
the  Hjvme  race  as 
the  polished,  po- 
lite and  subtle 
denizens  of  the 
j^reat  cities.  The 
bold  mountain 
tribes  are  vastly 
superior  in  manly 
virtues  to  the  peo- 
ple of  the  plains, 
and  even  the 
dwellers    in    the  mountain  t 


low  lands  and  in  the  valley  of  the  Lower  Ganges  differ  in  charao- 
ter.  Yet,  wherever  we  find  the  Hindoo  he  is  deceitful  and  sUppery, 
full  of  adulation  and  compliment,  treacherous  and  rather  wicked. 


278  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

He  excels  in  etiquette  and  courtesy.  He  has  at  least  five 
different  ways  in  which  he  will  make  obeisance,  according  to 
the  circumstances  of  the  case,  or  the  person  before  whom  he 
desires  to  debase  himself,  and  he  runs  a  close  race  with  the 
Spaniard  in  the  skill  with  which  he  can  invent  and  pour  forth 
high-sounding  titles  and  cringing  flatteiy  to  the  person  addressed. 

Of  all  the  races  of  India  a  Bengalee  is  the  most  despicable. 
Lord  Macaulay,  who  had  lived  among  them  and  knew  them  well, 
long  ago  expressed  their  character  thoroughly.  Speaking  of  the 
men  with  whom  Warren  Hastings  had  to  deal,  he  says :  — 

What  the  Italian  is  to  the  Englishman,  what  the  Hindoo  is  to  the 
Italian,  what  the  Bengalee  is  to  other  Hindoos,  that  was  Nuncomar 
[a  native  minister]  to  other  Bengalees.  The  physical  organization 
of  the  Bengalee  is  feeble  even  to  effeminacy. 

He  lives  in  a  constant  vapor  .bath;  his  pursuits  are  sedentary,  his 
limbs  delicate,  his  movements  languid.  During  many  ages  he  has  been 
trampled  upon  by  men  of  bolder  and  more  hardy  breeds.  Courage, 
independence,  and  veracity,  are  qualities  to  which  his  constitution  and 
his  situation  are  equally  unfavorable. 

His  mind  bears  a  singular  analogy  to  his  body.  It  is  weak  even  to 
helplessness  for  purposes  of  manly  resistance ;  but  its  suppleness  and 
tact  move  the  children  of  sterner  climates  to  admiration  not  un mingled 
with  contempt.  All  those  arts  which  are  the  natural  defence  of  the 
weak  are  more  familiar  to  this  subtle  race  than  to  the  Ionian  of  the 
time  of  Juvenal,  or  to  the  Jew  of  the  dark  ages. 

What  the  horns  are  to  the  buffalo,  what  the  paw  is  to  the  tiger, 
what  the  sting  is  to  the  bee,  what  beauty  —  according  to  the  old  Greek 
song  —  is  to  woman,  deceit  is  to  the  Bengalee.  Large  promises,  smooth 
excuses,  elaborate  tissues  of  circumstantial  falsehood,  chicanery,  per- 
jury, and  forgery,  are  the  weapons,  offensive  and  defensive,  of  the 
people  of  the  Lower  Ganges.  .  .  . 

As  usurers,  as  money-changers,  as  sharp  legal  practitioners,  no  class 
of  human  beings  can  bear  a  comparison  with  them.  With  all  his  soft- 
ness, the  Bengalee  is  by  no  means  placable  in  his  enmities,  or  prone 
to  pity.  TheT[)ertinacity  with  which  he  adheres  to  his  purposes  yields 
only  to  the  immediate  pressure  of  fear.  Nor  does  he  lack  a  certain 
kind  of  courage  which  is  often  wanting  in  his  masters.  To  inevitable 
evils  he  is  sometimes  found  to  oppose  a  passive  fortitude,  such  as  the 
Stoics  attributed  to  their  ideal  sage. 


THE  «ULE   OF   CA8TK.  279 

A  European  warrior,  who  rushes  on  a  battery  of  cannon  with  a  loud 
hurrah,  will  sometimes  shriek  under  the  surgeon^s  knife,  and  fall  in  an 
agony  of  despair  at  the  sentence  of  death.  But  the  Bengalee,  who 
would  see  his  country  overrun,  his  house  laid  in  ashes,  his  children 
murdered  or  dishonored,  without  having  the  spirit  to  strike  one  blow, 
has  yet  been  known  to  endure  torture  with  the  Hrraness  of  Mucins, 
and  to  mount  the  scaffold  with  the  steady  step  and  even  pulse  of 
Algernon  Sidney. 

The  general  lack  of  kindness  with  which  the  Hindus  are  treated 
by  their  Anglo-Saxon  masters  strikes  the  most  careless  and  unob- 
servant traveller  in  every  corner  of  Victoria's  Oriental  possessions. 
Nor  does  time  nor  the  frightful  warning  given  by  the  Sepoy  Rebel- 
lion seem  to  soften  in  any  w<ay  the  English  habit  of  oppression. 

An  English  clergyman  not  long  ago  saw  the  following  sight, 
A  passing  Hindu,  he  says,  was  rudely  taken  to  task  by  a  petty 
captain  for  not  making  a  salaiim,  or  profound  bow,  on  the  street 
to  him. 

"  Why  should  I  ?  "  said  the  man.  ^^  You  have  conquered  our 
race,  but  I  won't  salaam."  "  I'll  take  you  to  the  general,"  said 
the  captain,  "and  see  if  you  will  then."  This  was  done,  and  the 
geneml,  as  brutal  as  his  inferior  officer,  roared  out :  "  Make  a 
salaam,  sir."  The  num  still  firmly  but  calmly  refused,  whereupon 
the  general  seized  him  by  the  neck,  tlirew  him  to  the  ground, 
buried  his  face  in  the  dust,  and  ordered  fifty  lashes  to  be  given 
him. 

Thus  by  sheer  brute  force  was  this  Hindu  punished  for  an  inde- 
pendence which  did  him  honor.  But  the  mild  Hindu,  as  a  rule, 
submits  to  the  English  as  to  a  superior  race,  and  all  he  can  do  is 
to  bide  his  time.  Yet,  if  not  subdued  by  justice  and  kindness, 
will  he  not  seek  his  revenge  some  day,  especially  as  his  intelligence 
increases  ? 

What,  then,  is  to  l)e  the  immediate  future  of  this  empire  of  many 
mysteries,  which  is  regarded  by  our  scientists  as  the  original  birth- 
place or  8tarting-ix)int  of  humanity  ?  The  question  is  involved, 
apparently,  not  so  much  in  the  evolution  of  the  present  East 
Indian  race,  as  it  is  in  several  European  questions  of  political, 
racial,  and  governmental  quality,  now  pressing  forward  for  answer. 


280  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

For,  as  hinted  in  the  beginning  of  this  brief  pen-picture,  the 
English,  though  now  dominating  India,  are  merely  a  light  fringe 
on  her  vast  darkness.  Underneath  the  supple  servility  shown  to 
them,  a  keen-eyed  traveller  cannot  help  detecting  an  intense 
bitterness  —  an  immense  hate. 

But  the  East  Indians,  thanks  to  their  system  of  caste,  have  little 
cohesion  or  faculty  of  continuous  cooperation.  They  might  by  a 
sudden  uprising  drive  their  present  ownei-s  into  the  ocean,  but  in 
a  few  yeai-s,  very  likely,  some  other  predatory  nation  would  be 
again  setting  the  heel  of  conquest  or  of  commerce  upon  their 
necks. 

With  the  Russians  restlessly  pushing  south,  and  with  a  collision 
between  Russia  and  England,  as  is  probable,  in  the  early  part  of 
the  twentieth  century,  India  might  possibly  achieve  a  temporary 
independence,  but  it  would  seem  far  more  liable,  if  it  had  a  chance, 
to  welcome  the  Russian  invasion  and  glide  from  English  under 
Russian  sway,  simply  as  a  change  of  evils. 

Yet  it  is  difficult  for  even  the  heartiest  hater  of  England's 
commercial  civilization  to  see  how  the  East  Indian  people  could 
benefit  by  any  such  change.  Russia  is  still  only  a  barbarism  very 
lightly  gilded,  and  Russo-Indian  rule  would  be  more  likely  to  ravage 
ruthlessly  what  remains  of  India's  former  splendor  in  the  way  of 
palaces  and  temples  than  to  restore  or  maintain  what  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  has  spared.  And,  as  for  the  masses  of  the  people,  they 
would  find  individual  Russians  as  cruel  or  more  so  than  the  average 
English  officer  or  private  of  to-day. 


Pekhaps  tlie  oddest  kind  of  government  —  a 
icholastic  oligarchy^  with  a  figurelieud  en]i)eror 
^f  — ia  tliiit  furnished  hy  the  vast  Empire  of  China 
vhich  may  be  regarded  an  the  most  compact  country  in  the  world, 
since  it  encloses  an  area  of  nearly  4,000,000  square  milea.  That 
China  is  the  oldest  of  nations  of  which  we  have  anj'thing  like  a 
continuous  and  tolerably  correct  history,  little  doubt  can  be 
entertained. 

The  researches  of  antiquarians  have  jH-oved  that  in  Babylon 
astronomical  observations  and  calculiitious  were  mada  2,231  years 
liefoie  Christ,  and  Chinese  records  speak  of  an  eclipse  calculated 
2,155  years  before  our  em  of  reckoning.  That  this  eclipse 
really  occurred  was  proved  by  the  Jesuit  missionaries  who  visited 
China  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

Gaubil,  a  Jesuit  preeminent  for  his  mathematical  attainments, 
examined  the  series  of  thiily-six  ecliiKes,  tt)  whit-li  the  Chinese 
philosopher,  Confucius,  alludes  in  his  writings,  and  the  Catholic 
scholar  decided  that  thirty-two  of  these  were  absolutely  correct, 
two  uncertain,  and  two  false.  But  the  chronology  of  the  Chinese 
extends  far  back  of  the  flnjt  of  these  eclipses  whose  occurrence 

rernmcnt  by  «  Itv,  Hnil  In  >U  agai  bu  been  one  o(  IIib 


THE   BTOKY  OF   GOVEllNMENT. 


the  scientific  priest  declared  to  be  established  as  evidence  of  the 
accuracy  of  Chinese  history. 

Before  considering  the  form  of  government  among  this  mysteri- 
ous people,  perhaps  a  brief  sketch  of  the  countrj'  and  some  of  its 
customs  might  furnish  good  stepping-stones  to  an  underatanding 
of  its  political  peculiarities.  China  proper  lies  Ijetween  18°  and 
41°  north  latitude.  Its  eastern  extremity  bordering  on  Corea  is 
marked  by  124°  east  longitude,  and  iia  western  boundary  on 
Burraah  and  Western  Thibet  is  cut  by  98°  east  longitude.  Its 
seaboard  extends  over  2,500  miles  with  many  bays  and  estuaries, 
so  thickly  studded  wth  islands  that  from  this  geographical  fact  is 

derived  one  of 
the  titles  of  the 
emperor,  "Lord 
of  ten  thousand 
isles." 

This  e  n  o  r  - 
mous  territory  is 
divided  into 
eighteen  prov- 
inces varying  in 
size.  Each  prov- 
ince is  sub-di- 
vided into  poo», 

A.   QLIMPBE   OF    THE   OREAT    WALU  .  , 

counties,  and 
pi-efectures.  A  poo,  the  capital  of  which  is  a  market  town,  con- 
sists of  a  number  of  towns  and  villages.  A  county,  the  capital 
■  of  which  is  a  walled  city,  consists  of  a  number  of  poos;  and  a 
prefecture,  the  cajiital  of  which  is  also  a  walled  city  but  larger, 
is  a  collection  of  counties,  the  province  being  several  prefectures 
with  a  still  larger  walled  city  taken  genciiilly  iis  its  capital. 

Tluis  the  eighteen  provinces  contain  about  four  thousand  walled 
cities,  the  walls  in  some  cases  being  so  broad  that  two  carriages 
can  lie  driven  abreast.  The  great  wall  of  China,  built  to  keep 
out  the  Tartars,  runs  hundreds  of  miles  across  the  country.  It  is 
now  in  ruins.  Tiie  wall  around  Nankin  is  eighteen  miles  in 
hmgth.  These  Avails,  as  a  rule,  are  crowned  with  castles  and 
iiave  embra-surcs  for  artilleiy  and  loopholes  foi'  musketry,  and  on 


A  8CH(;lasti(!  oligarchy.  283 

Uie  ramparts  huge  tttoiica  me  luoisely  piled  to  be  mlled  dowu  on 
Iiesiegers.  During  the  war  in  which  Chribtiau  England  forced 
opium  as  an  article  of  nieicliandise  nn  the  Cluneuc,  this  primitive 
kind  of  warfare  (that  seern»  to  belong  more  to  the  tlays  when 
PjTi'hus  was  killed  at  Aigos  hy  a  tile  from  the  hands  of  a  woman) 
came  into  uae,  and  some  English  soldiera  were  killed  by  these  stones. 
At  the  north,  eiust,  west,  mid  south  sitles  of  eiich  Chinese  city 


are  folding  gates  of  great  strength  which  are  fui-tlirr  secured  hy 
equally  massive  inner  giites.  The  south  g;ite  is  called  the  gate 
of  honor,  being  regarded  as  especially  governmental.  Jtv  it  the 
officials  always  enter  and  depart,  and  no  funerals,  or  unclean 
men'handise  are  allow.'^d  ti.  go  thmugh;  and  the  simlh  gate  of 
I'ekin  is  genenilly  kept  I'losed  except  for  the  einpeiin-. 


284  THE    STORY    OF    GOVERNMENT. 

The  streets  are  wider  iu  the  north  than  in  the  south  of 
China,  and  those  of  Pekin  are  very  broad  —  and  diity  beyond 
description  or  conception.  They  must  be  smelt  to  be  idealized. 
The  narrowness  of  the  streets  makes  them  cool  in  the  summer 
months  and  in  many  towns  they  are  partially  roofed  by  the 
residents  with  canvas,  matting,  or  thin  planks  of  timber.  Many 
of  the  towns  also  in  the  north  of  Formosa  are  ])rotected  in  this 
way. 

The  sidewalks  to  the  shops  are  arched  over,  and  as  they  are 
frequent!}'  constructed  in  rude  arcades,  it  is  possible  to  pass 
from  one  end  of  the  town  to  tfie  other  withcmt  annoyance  from 
sun  or  rain,  thus  furnishing  a  model  for  the  umbrellaed  streets 
of  that  reformed  Boston  which  Bellamv  l)eheld  in  his  vision, 
"Looking  Backward."  The  streets  are  paved  with  granite  slab;, 
bricks,  or  cobblestones ;  Canton,  for  iiLstancje,  being  entirely 
slabbed,  while  Soochow  is  l)artly,  and  partly  cobblestoned. 

But  the  sewerage  system  may  be  best  descril)ed  as  a  mai-vellously 
successful  scheme  to  produce  an  intolerable  stench  in  the  summer 
montlis,  which  the  high-sounding  titles  of  the  streets  might 
seem  by  force  of  sarcasm  to  render  still  more  exasperating,  for 
one  encountei-s  sucli  names  as  "The  Street  of  (iolden  Profits,  the 
Street  of  Benevolence  and  Love,  of  Saluting  Dmci^oiis,  of  Refresh- 
ing Breezes,  of  Five  Happinesses,  of  Ninefold  Brightness,  of 
Accumulated  Goodness,"  and  so  forth.  Other  streets  are  simplv 
numbered  Fii-st,  Second,  Third,  etc. 

Chinese  shops,  which  are  called  Hongs,  are  built  of  bricks,  as 
a  rule,  and  arc  entirely  open  in  front.  Very  few  of  them  have 
glass  windows,  except  in  tlie  city  of  Pekin.  At  tlie  door  stand 
very  long  signboards  on  each  side  of  which,  in  bright  letters  of 
gold,  orange,  and  other  gay  coloi-s,  are  painted  thc^  name  of  the 
hong,  and  of  the  various  commodities  which  it  contains. 

In  some  cases  the  shopkeeper  placets  above  the  door  a  small  sign- 
board in  shape  of  some  pailicular  article  which  he  has  for  sale;  ius, 
for  instance,  a  boot-maker  might  display  a  boot;  or  a  spectacle- 
maker  a  i)air  of  spectacles.  Some  shopkeepei-s,  not  satisfied  with 
the  enormous  signboards,  advertise  themselves  still  further  by 
painting  their  names  and  a  list  of  their  wares  in  large  characters 
on  the  outer  walls  of  the  cities  in  which  thev  live. 


OTZll.  f 

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IF!1 

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■ 

KI^C^ 

y|;4— Vf^i^K 

^J^]..ii^^^l 

^!s~ 

s»l 

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■^Ih^^^''!^'^'  Si 

!■■■ 

IIEj^i^ 

1 

9 

^sUl./i 

l^'«!     1 

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IH 

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H^S 

^^XW  jjftSKTN^^H^SH 

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ft#           V^ 

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WriTil  1  ir             ij^b^ 

IH 

^l^^l 

286  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERXMENT. 

In  the  rural  districts,  on  the  outer  wall  of  their  dwelling 
houses,  is  a  board  recoixling  the  name  of  each  person  residing 
within,  and  this  custom  extends  to  some  of  the  towns.  Above 
the  entrance  of  each  hong  lanterns  are  suspended  and  from  the 
rooi  lamps  of  glass  or  of  thin  liom,  on  which  are  gaily  colored 
images  of  players  and  pagodas. 

These  numerous  bright  signboards  and  lanterns  lend  a  Chinese 
street  a  most  cheerful  and  animated  look.  The  hongs  are  not 
distributed  promiscuously  throughout  Chinese  towns  but  are  con- 
fined to  certain  quartera,  each  branch  of  tmde  having  its  special 
place.  No  members  of  the  tradesman's  family  reside  either  above 
or  behind  the  shop,  and  in  the  evening  when  the  shutters  are  put 
up,  the  tradesman  hastening  to  his  home  in  another  part  of  the 
town  leaves  his  stock  in  the  care  of  his  apprentices. 

In  the  streets  where  the  gentry  reside,  the  houses  are  very  well 
built,  but  of  one  story  only.  As  the  walls  which  front  the  street 
have  no  windows,  they  present  in  many  cases  the  appearance  of 
encampments.  Chinese  houses,  also,  have  no  fireplaces  and  in 
cold  weather  the  occupants  keep  themselves  warm  by  wearing 
much  clothing,  or  by  means  of  bi-aziers  in  which  charcoal  embers 
are  kept  burning.  As  the  houses  and  shops  which  form  the 
streets  of  a  Chinese  city  are  rarely  of  the  same  height,  or 
an-anged  in  straight  lines,  every  t^)wn  has  a  strikingly  in^egular 
appearance. 

The  streets  or  squares  are  not  adorned  like  thase  of  Euro- 
pean cities  with  stone,  marble,  or  bronze  statues  of  the  learned, 
the  brave,  and  the  good,  but  instead,  in  nearly  all  the  chief 
cities  of  China  monumental  arches  arc  erected  in  honor  of  re- 
nowned warriors,  illustrioiLs  statesmen,  public-spirited  citizens, 
learned  scliolars,  and  last,  but  not  least,  virtuous  Avomen  Such 
monuments  are  built  of  brick,  marl)lo,  and  old  red  sandstone,  or, 
more  commonly,  of  granite. 

A  monument  of  this  kind  consists  of  a  triple  arch  or  g<iteway, 
that  is,  a  large  centre  gate  and  smaller  gate  on  each  side.  On  a 
large  smooth-shining  slab  above  the  middle  gateway  are  sculp- 
tured figures,  or  cliai-acters,  setting  forth  the  object  for  which  the 
citizens,  by  Inq)crial  permission,  raised  the  arch.  One  of  the 
largest  of  these  monuments  is   in  the  city  of  Toong-Ping  Chan, 


288  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERXMENT. 

ill  honor  of  a  scholar  who,  at  the  fige  of  eighty-two,  took  the  firat 
place  at  the  examination  for  the  Hanlin,  or  Doctor's  degree. 
As  Baltimore  with  us  is  called  the  City  of  Monuments,  IIoo 
Chow  Foo  in  China  is  called  the  City  of  Arches.  When  the 
traveller  entei-s  this  city  by  the  south  gate,  a  vista  of  arches  very 
impressive  greets  his  gaze,  each  of  them  being  of  vast  dimen- 
sions and  riclily  s(?ulptured. 

riie  Chinese  tiike  many  precautions  to  save  their  cities  from 
conflagrations.  Wells  are  sunk  in  many  streets,  and  the  law 
lequires  that  in  various  parts  of  the  cities  large  tubs  of  water 
nnist  be  kept.  On  the  tops  of  the  houses,  also,  they  frequently 
place  earthen  jai-s  containing  water,  and  in  all  large  cities  there 
are  several  fire  brigades  maintained  entirely  by  public  contribu- 
tions. Tlie  engines,  water-buckets  and  lanterns  of  these  brigades 
are  usually  kept  in  different  temples.  The  officers  and  men  have  a 
unifonn,  and  on  their  hats  in  large  characters  the  name  or  num- 
l)er  of  their  brigade,  and  the  words  "  Kow-Fow  "  or  fire-quencher. 

Besides  these  provisions  by  tlie  citizens,  the  members  of  the 
local  government  of  each  city  are  called  on  to  render  their  help. 
For  instance,  in  Canton  each  luagisti-ate  hixs  in  his  employ  sevend 
men  whose  special  duty  it  is  to  prevent  robberies  when  fires  occur, 
and  under  the  connnand  of  the  governor  are  two  hundred  men 
whose  duty  consists  in  helping  lirenien. 

In  addition  to  this,  from  the  forty-eight  guardhouses  of  the 
ritv,  in  the  event  of  a  fire,  two  men  are  instantly  told  off  to 
hasten  to  the  scen(;,  and  at  the  close  of  every  month  the  prefect 
and  provincial  tn^asurer,  who  are  very  high  ofiicials,  are  required 
to  inspect  all  the  goverjimcnt  servants  whose  duties  lie  in  the 
<li reaction  of  extinixuisliin<r  fires. 

Moreover,  with  the  view  of  keeping  all  officials  thoroughly 
awake  to  their  duties,  it  is  the  law  that  in  case  eighty  houses 
are  destroyed  bv  a  conflairration,  all  the  officials  where  it 
occurred  arc  reducecl  in  rank  one  decrree,  and  even  when  ten 
houses  are  destroyed,  the  matter  is  reported  to  the  centml  govern- 
ment at  Pekin. 

A  few  days  after  a  fire,  the  firemen  of  each  brigade  present 
receive  tis  a  reward  for  their  services  roast  pig  — a  great  Chinese 
delicacy  —  jars  of  choice  wine,  and  small  sums  of  money,  the  men 


A  SCHOLASTIC  OLIOABCHY.  289 

who  hokl  the  hcnie  receiving  more  thaii  otheiv,  anil  those  who  }uij>- 
pen  to  receive  wouikIh  during  this  puhlie  duty  being  still  more 
liberally  remunerated.  Persons  who  cause  fires  ]>y  carelessness, 
or  otherwise,  when  caught,  ai'e  severely  punislie<I.  It  i^  only  just 
to  add  that  the  Chinese  are  excellent  firemen;  i[nick  to  an'ive  . 
at  the  !ice>ie  of  action,  and  very  daring. 

The  jKipulation  of  Oliiniv,  according  to  SacliarofF  fifty  years  ago, 
liad  reached  the  3tU{>endoiis  figure  of  414,68t!,9(t4.  During  the 
next  twenty  years  a  great 
rebellion  occun'ed,  in  wliich 
many  cities,  towns,  and  vil- 
lages with  all  their  inliabi- 
tants  were  blotted  out.  This 
rebellion  covered  a  i>eriod  of 
fifteen  yeara,  but  in  spite  of 
Bocli  reduction  and  cheek  of 
population,  it  is  probable 
that  tlie  empire  contains  to- 
day 450,000  000 

Of  the  moml  diaracter  of 
this  people  whase  i  normon'* 
number  tempts  us  to  liken 
them  to  the  sands  on  the  sea 
shore,  it  is  not  eii.s>  to  speik 
justly;  for  tins  tliaracter  !■< 
a  book  written  lu  strange  let 
ters  more  complex  to  one  of 
another  race,  religion,  aiul 
language,  and  more  difficult 

to  decipher   than   the  ofldly  <ni>Ksi-,  mujuku. 

shaped  word-symbols  that  compose  their  written  language. 

In  the  same  indivi<luals,  virtues  and  vices  almost  incompi-e- 
hensibly  incompatible  are  found  side  by  side.  Oentleness, 
modesty,  industry,  cheerfulness,  politeness,  filial  affection  and 
reverence  for  old  age  are  in  one  and  the  same  Cliinaman  the 
comi>anionB  of  insincerity,  cruelty,  jealousy,  ingratitude,  and 
avarice. 

But  inatanees  of  moral  inconsistencies  might  be  found  among 


290  THE   8TORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

other  nations;  and  if  a  native  of  the  Flowery  Kingdom,  for 
the  purpose  of  acquiring  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  American 
people,  should  familiarize  himself  with  the  records  of  our  police 
and  other  law  courts,  and  with  the  curious  transactions  that  occur 
in  our  commercial  circles,  and  the  scandals  that  so  often  drag  our 
society  do\vn  from  its  dollar-shining  pinnacle,  sucli  a  Chinese 
traveller  might  give  his  countrymen  at  home  a  very  one-sided  and 
dei)reciatory  account  of  this  country. 

Besides,  we  should  not  forget  that  we  possess  tlie  manifold  bless- 
ings of  Christianity  of  many  kinds,  fnmi  Catholicism  to  Univer- 
salism,  and  that  we  have  a  fonn  of  government,  under  which  we 
are,  at  least,  invited  to  tlream  that  we  are  free.  So  that,  when 
we  consider  the  political  and  social  condition  of  China  and  her 
institutions,  it  would  seem  to  us  rather  extraordinary  that  such 
an  amount  of  good  can  be  found  in  the  national  characiter. 

The  government,  to  be  sure,  is  an  irresponsible  despotism; 
their  judges  are  bribable;  their  judicial  procedure  places  its 
whole  reliance  on  the  infliction  of  torture.  Their  police  are  dis- 
honest and  their  prisons  dens  of  cruelty.  Their  social  life  lalx)rs 
under  the  blight  of  polygamy  and  of  slavery;  and  their  customs 
hold  women  in  a  state  of  degmdation.  Yet,  notwitkstanding  the 
conditions  so  unfavorable  to  the  development  of  civil  and  social 
virtues,  the  Chinese  may  l>e  fairly  characterized  as  a  courteous, 
orderly,  industrious,  sober,  patriotic  and  j^eace-loving  people. 

The  Emperor  of  China  is  taught  to  regard  himself  as  the  inter- 
preter of  the  decrees  of  heaven,  and  he  is  recognized  by  the  people 
as  their  connecting  link  with  the  gods,  l)eing  designated  by 
such  titles  as  the  ^^Son  of  Heaven,"  the  '*Lord  of  Ten  Thousand 
Yeai-s,"  and  the  "Imperial  Supreme."  This  mighty  potentiite  is 
assisted  in  the  management  of  his  government  by  a  cabinet  of  four 
ministers.  In  addition  to  which  general  council  are  six  supreme 
tribunals  for  the  conduct  in  detail  of  all  governmental  business. 

Tlie  first  of  these  tribunals  is  termed  Loo  Poo,  and  divided  into 
four  departments;  the  first  of  which  selects  officers  to  fill  the 
various  places  in  the  respective  provinces  and  districts.  The 
second  takes  cognizance  or  keeps  watch  on  all  such  officials. 
The  tliird  affixes  the  imperial  seal,  along  side  of  which  the  em- 
peror sometimes  makes  marks  in  lettei's  of  red  with  what  is  styled 


A   SCHOLABTLC   OLKiARUHY.  liSl 

the  vermilion  pencil,  to  all  books  and  pnrchmente;  and  the  fourth 
keei«  the  record  of  the  j^od  service  and  merits  of  distinguished 
men. 

The  second  Boai-d  ia  termed  Hoo  Poo,  and  has  the  care  of  the 
imperial  revenues.  The  third,  called  Lee  Poo,  superintends  the 
religions  rites  of  the  people  and  keeps  in  order  all  temples 
endowed  by  the  imperial  government.  The  fourth  Board,  Ping 
Poo,  has  charge  of  all  the  naval  and  military  establishments. 
The  fifth.  King  Poo,  supervises  all  criminal  proceedings.  The 
sixth,  which  is  termed  Ling  Poo,  superintends  all  public  works 
such  as  mines,  manufactories,  highways,  canals,  bridges,  etc. 

The  chief  minister  of  each  of  these  tribunals  lays  the  decisions 
or  the  information  secured  by  his  particular  board  before  the 
cabinet  and  when  the  cabinet  lias  thoroughly  discussed  them,  they 
are  submitted  with  due  reverence  to  his  Imperial  Majesty. 
The  power  of  these  ministers  is  apparently  nominal,  since  the 
emperor  holds  himself  responsiUe  to  none  but  the  gods,  and  looks 
upon  the  people  ae  his  childi-en. 

But  while  outwardly  a  Chinese  sovereign  might  manifest  con- 
tempt for  the  suggestion  of  his  cabinet,  as  a  rule,  in  practice 
mnch  heed  is  given  to  their  advice;  very  few,  indeed,  of  the 
sovereigns  of  China  feeling  themselves  sufficiently  endowed  with 
the  wisdom  of  this  world  to  be  able  to  rule  without  the  advice 
of  others.  Besides  tlie.se  councils,  there  are  two  others  —  the  Too- 
Cha  Yum  and  the  Tsung-Pin  Fow. 

The  former  as  a  Board  of  Censors  is  supposed  to  attend  the 
meetings  of  the  councils  just  described  for  the  purpose  of  ascer- 
taining whether  plots  are  being  concocted  against  the  stability  of 
^e  government;  and  the  members  of  this  boaid  are  also  frequently 
sent  into  the  provinces  to  watch  the  way  things  are  going  there. 
Or,  in  other  words,  the  Absolutism  of  China  depends  almost  as 
much  for  its  safety  on  the  service  of  spies  as  the  Plutocracy  of 
America- is  beginning  to  depend  on  the  Pinkertons. 

The  second  of  these  two  extra  Boards  consists  of  six  high  offi- 
cials, who  keep  a  register  of  the  births,  deaths,  marriages,  and 
relations  of  the  princes  of  the  blood  royal,  and  make  reports  upon 
their  conduct.  These  records  are  referred  to  the  emperor  everj- 
-decade,  on  which  occasion  he  confers  titles  and  rewards. 


292  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

These  titles  are  of  four  kinds  —  hereditary,  honorary,  for  state 
service,  and  for  literary  attainments,  and  it  is  imperative  on  the 
ministers  of  this  Board  to  furnish  at  frequent  intervals  to  the  first- 
named  tribunals  repoits  on  the  conduct  of  the  emperor's  different 
sons,  so  that  it  may  be  discerned  which  one  possesses  in  the  high- 
est degree  the  essentials  of  a  good  sovereign.  These  repoils,  like 
all  others,  finally  come  to  the  emperor  who  has  the  power  of 
naming  his  successor.  As  a  general  rule,  however,  the  eldest  son 
succeeds. 

As  every  emperor  of  each  <lynasty  had  many  Avives,  the  scions 
of  imperial  houses  are  numerous,  and  once  it  was  the  custom 
to  give  official  employment  to  each  of  them.  But  this  custom 
caused  so  much  trouble  and  gave  rise  to  so  many  conspiracies  and 
rebellions  that  it  was  abandoned,  and  each  prince  nowadays  lias 
to  rest  satisfied  with  the  high-sounding  but  empty  title  of  his 
rank,  and  he  is  liable  to  be  deprived  of  that,  if  any  act  on  his 
part  is  deemed  beneath  the  family  dignity. 

While  the  emj^eror  is  regarded  by  his  people  as  the  representa- 
tive of  heaven,  the  Empress,  or  head  wife,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
the  representative  of  Mother  Earth,  and  is  sup[)ose(l  to  exercise 
some  peculiar  influence  over  nature,  one  of  hc^r  chief  duties 
being  to  sec  that  woi'shi[)  i:;  duly  paid  to  the  tutelary  deity  of 
silkwomis.      It  is  also  her  official  function  to  examine  carefullv 

« 

the  weaving  of  the  silk  stuff  which  the  ladies  of  the  Imperial 
harem  make  into  garments  for  c(?rt;iin  state  idols. 

She  is  supposed  to  know  no  politics,  but  there  are  instances  on 
record  of  Chinese  empresses  who  have  been  as  familiar  tis  some  of 
the  noted  French  dames  of  the  bust  century  with  the  minutest 
details  of  State  intrigues.  The  choice  of  an  empress  and  of  the 
sub-wives  of  the  sovereign  depends  solely  on  their  beauty  or  per- 
sonal qualities,  and  not  on  their  family  connections.  Tliey  ai-e 
chosen  in  the  following  fashion. 

The  (laughter  of  the  empress-dowager,  or  in  her  alwence  a  royal 
lady  invested  with  authority  for  the  purpose,  liolds  what  might  W 
fashionably  termed  a  "'drawing-room,"  and  invites  Tartar  ladies 
and  daughtei*s  of  Bannermen,  that  is,  oi  those  Ixvronial  houses 
which  have  a  right  to  carry  banners  from  various  paiis  of   the 

ipirc.     The  belle  of  this  assembly  is  chosen  to  be  itiised  to  the 


A   SCHOLuUTIC   OLIGA&GHT.  298 

dignity  of  empreas,  and  those  next  in  personal  attractions  am 
selected  for  the  rank  of  sub-wivea. 

But  BOmetiniea  a  woman  of  the  lower  orders  attains  to  this 
lofty  rank.  The  mother  of  the  Emperor  Hien-Fung  was  the 
keeper  of  a  fruit  store  and,  like  Nell  Gwynne,  the  orange  girl 
who  attracted  the  attention  of  Charles  II.,  and  from  whose  liaison 
with  him  are  descended  some  of  the  peers  of  England,  her  grace 
and  beauty  raised  her  to  a  power  in  the  state. 

In  each  of  the 
piDvinces  there  is  a 
formidable  army  of 
officials,  namely: 
govemor-g  e  n  e  r  a  1 , 
governor,  treasurer, 
special  commissioner, 
literary  chancellor, 
chief  justice ;  the  last 
fonr  being  of  equal 
rank;  six  tautaie  of 
equal  rank ;  ten  pre- 
fects of  equal  rank; 
and  s  e  V  e  n  t  y-t  w  o 
comity  rulers  of 
equal  rank. 

Each  of  these  offi- 
cials has  11  council  to 
assist  him  in  the  dis- 
charge of  \\\A  duties, 
and  besides  these  of- 
ficials every  town  and  village  has  its  governing  body,  so  tliat 
the  empire  may  be  said  to  be  honey-combed  with  officialism.  All 
these  officials,  as  it  was  in  ancient  Peni,  are  subordinate  to  the 
one  above  them;  it  is  a  continuous  chain.  Officials  of  certain 
grades  are  not  allowed  t«  hold  office  in  their  native  province,  nor 
without  Imperial  permission  to  marry  in  the  province  where  they 
have  been  appointed  to  office;  and  to  prevent  the  possibility  of 
acqniiing  too  much  local  influence,  they  are  removed  in  some  cases 
ereiy  tluee  years  and  in  other  cases  every  six  to  other  posts  of  duty. 


THE  FRmr  a  OIL  wuo 


294 


THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 


All  officials  are  supposed  to  be  appointed  by  the  emperor  on 
recommendation  of  the  Board  of  Ceremonies,  and  candidates  for 
office,  according  to  law,  have  to  be  men  who  have  graduated  at 
great  literary  examinations.  But  the  memberij  of  the  Board  of 
Ceremonies  sometimes  submit  to  the  notice  of  his  majesty  the 
names  of  men  whose  literary  rank  has  been  bought. 

There  are  nine  marks  of  distinction  by  which  the  rank  of  a 
Chinese  officer  may  be  readily  recognized;  A  member  of  the  first 
class  wears  on  the  band  of 
his  cap  a  dark  red  coral 
ball  or  button ;  for  the 
second  class  tliis  button  is 
light  red;  for  the  third, 
light  blue ;  for  the  fourth, 
dark  blue;  the  fiftli  class 
wear  a  ball  of  crystal, 
while  mother  of  pearl  is 
the  ball  of  the  sixth  class 
mandarin.  Members  of 
the  seventh  and  eighth 
cluss  wear  a  golden  ball, 
in  one  case  smaller,  and 
for  the  ninth  class,  a  sil- 
ver ball.  Each  official 
may  be  further  distin- 
guished by  a  decoration  of 
peacock  feathers.  This 
feather  runs  from  the  base 
of  the  ball  on  the  hat  slop- 
ing downwards  at  the  back.  The  first  of  the  outer  garments 
worn  by  an  officer  is  a  long  loose  robe  of  blue  silk,  richly  em- 
broidered with  threads  of  gold.  It  reaches  the  ankles  of  the 
wearer,  and  is  bound  around  his  waist  by  a  belt.  Above  this 
robe  is  a  violet  tunic  with  very  wide  sleeves,  but  usually  thrown 
back  over  the  wrists, 

When  an  officer  approaches  the  Imperial  presence  for  the  pur- 
pose of  conferring  with  the  emperor  or  performing  the  kowtow, 
which  in  China  is  the  usual  act  of  obeisance,  etiquette  prescribes 


A  8CH0L.ASIIC   OLIOABCHT. 


295 


that  the  sleeres  of  tiiis  tunic  should  be  stretched  over  the  hands, 
which  action  of  course  renders  him  helpless.  This  custom  was 
originally  adopted  to  preclude  any  attempt  on  the  life  of  the 
emperor  by  those  whose  duties  call  them  into  his  presence.  A 
similar  one  prevails  in  the  Court  of  Peraia. 

The  army  is  made  up  uf  the  lowest  class  io  the  empire,  and 
used  to  he  uniformed  so  as  to  frighten  the  beholder.  Govern- 
ment residences  are  provided  for  all  Chinese  officials.  These 
buildings  are  called  yamum  and  sometimes  are  extensive,  cover- 


A  OULPBTT 


BY  HIS  WIFE. 


ing  acres.  Fi-om  the  i-oofs  of  the  halls  iu  many  of  these  official 
dwellings  riclily  gilded  boai-ds  are  hung  on  which  are  set  forth 
moral  maxims  from  Confucius  and  other  of  tlie  great  ^vriters; 
some  of  these  illuminated  niottoen  being  the  gifts  of  the  emperor  to 
former  officers  distinguished  for  faithful  service.  To  these 
l/amun»  are  attached  public  office:*,  and  to  thase  occupied  by  dis- 
trict ruletij,  chief  justices,  etc.,  large  prisons  are  attached. 

County  rulere,  prefects,  and  chief  justices  are  the  officials 
specially  appointed  to  preside  in  the  courts  of  law;  and  whether 
it  be  of  civil  or  criminal  character,  a  judge  is  assisted  by  deputies 
or  a  deputy.     To  explain  fully  how  justice,  so-called,  is  admin- 


296  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

istered  in  China,  it  is  necessary  to  state  that  the  accused  person  is 
first  brought  before  the  gentry  or  elders  of  his  village  or  county. 

These  punish  him,  if  the  crime  be  of  a  criminal  nature,  either  by 
imprisonment  or  by  exposing  him  for  some  time  in  what  is  called 
a  cangue  at  the  corner  of  one  of  the  most  frequented  thorough- 
fares, or  right  near  the  place  where  the  crime  was  committed;  or 
by  ha/ing  him  whipped  through  the  streets  with  a  crier  reciting 
his  crime, 

One  form  of  the  cangue  is  a  box,  through  the  top  of  which  the 
head  protrudes,  and  through  the  sides  of  which  both  hands,  with  a 
chain  connecting  them,  are  thrust.  Tlie  illustration  represents  a 
loving  Chinese  wife  feeding  her  cangued,  or  canned,  husband, 
who  has  committed  some  slight  offence  against  the  peace  and 
dignity  of  the  emperor  —  possibly,  by  fighting  near  the  temple. 
A  commoner  form  of  the  cangue  is  just  the  wooden  collar  alone  of 
a  proportion  to  the  man  as  in  the  illustration. 

Should  a  case,  however,  appear  of  importance,  the  prisoner, 
with  the  depositions  and  the  comments  on  his  case,  is  forwarded 
for  the  mandarin  or  ruler  of  the  Poo  to  which  the  village  belongs. 
If  the  mandarin  finds  the  case  within  his  jurisdiction,  he  pun- 
ishes the  prisoner;  if  not,  he  sends  him  up  to  a  still  higher  official, 
the  county  ruler,  Avho  might  send  up  the  case  to  the  prefect  of 
his  department,  who  in  turn  might  send  it  up  to  the  provincial 
capital,  where  the  chief  justice,  who  only  tries  capital  cases,  has 
his  residence. 

The  chief  justice  will  then  submit  his  decision  to  the  governop- 
gencral  and,  before  a  sentence  of  the  chief  justice  can  be  carried 
into  effect,  it  would  be  necessary  that  the  criminal  in  the  pres- 
ence of  the  governor-general  should  make  an  acknowledgment  of 
his  guilt.  If  the  prisoner  were  convicted  of  treason,  piracy,  or 
highway  robbery,  the  governor-general  could  order  his  execution  at 
once.  But  if  lie  were  guilty  of  parricide,  matricide,  or  fratricide, 
the  governor-general  must  bring  the  case  to  the  notice  of  the  King 
Poo,  or  Board  of  Punishments,  at  Pekin;  the  president  of  Avhich 
would  submit  it  in  turn  to  the  cabinet,  who,  after  brooding 
over  it,  would  lay  it  before  the  emperor,  who,  it  is  said,  carefully 
examines  the  depositions  on  all  such  cases  before  confirming  the 
sentence. 


A.  SCHOLASTIC   OLIQABCHY. 


297 


A  cnriouB  sort  of  lottery  adds  a  certain  spice  to  the  life  of  con- 
victed criminals,  for  at  the  close  of  each  year  the  governor-general 
forwardj  to  Pekin  a  register  of  the  names  of  those  condemned  to 
death.  The  emperor,  after  inspecting  each  registiT,  with  liis 
vermilion  pencil  makes  a  mark  against  three  or  fuur  names  on 
each  page.  Tlie  registers  are  then  returned  to  tht!  provincial 
governor  and  the  law  takes  its  course  against  the  marked  men. 

Those,  however,  whose  names  have  been  jxtsaed  over  do  not  obtain 
a  free  pardon;  bat  the  second  and  third  year  go  up  with  names 
of  fresh  offenders  to  lie  passed  Upon  by  the  emperor.     Should  they 


e8ca]>e  the  mark  of  the  vermilion  pencil  on  the  third  occasion, 
their  death  sentence  is  then  commuted  to  trauijportatioii  for  life. 

The  mode  of  trials  in  China  is  startlin;;  to  all  who  live  in  lands 
■where  the  sj-stem  of  giving  a  prisoner  every  opportunity  to  defend 
and  explain  liiinsclf  i»revaih;  for  trials  in  Cliincso  courts  of 
law  are  conducted  by  torturi;.  P.nt  then  we  who  jiridc  ourselves 
on  our  advance  in  civilization  must  remcnilHir  that  only  two  hun- 
dred ycara  ago  our  ancestoi-s  were  torturing,  not  only  [Kilitical 
prisoners,  but  also  women  and  young  girls,  to  uhtain  confessions 
of  their  pr!u;tii'e  of  witi-Iicraft.  Young  girls  praci  isi^  just  as  much 
witchcraft  to-diiy,  hut  they  jia^  not  the  ones  who  ai-e  tortured  on 
account  of  it. 

Chinese  court«  arc  open  to  the  general  public,  but  (heir  cruel- 
ties keep  away  all  visitors  except  those  personally  interested  in 
the  case.  A  calendar  of  '•^•^■^  '»  l-  tiF'"''  "''*''  *'"'  prisoners' 
names  subjoined,   used  tg^^^ffiuM'^Al^^Spnter  gates  of   the 


298  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

yamun^  but  this  custom  has  lapsed  into  disuse  and  the  list  is  now 
placed  on  a  pillar  in  one  of  the  inner  courts,  where  it  has  no 
chance  of  attracting  public  attention. 

The  judge  sits  behind  a  large  table  covered  with  a  red  cloth, 
and  the  prisoner  is  made  to  kneel  in  front  as  a  mark  of  respect  to 
the  court,  by  whom  he  is  accounted  guilty  until  proved  innocent. 
Secretary  and  turnkeys  stand  on  each  side,  no  one  sitting  but  the 
judge.  The  charge  is  read  aloud  and  the  prisoner  called  upon 
to  plead  either  guilty  or  "not  guilty."  As  the  prisoner  rarely 
pleads  guilty,  trials  are  very  numerous. 

The  prisoner  is  asked  a  great  many  leading  questions,  and 
should  his  answers  be  evasive,  torture  is  at  once  applied  to  him  as 
a  means  of  extracting  truth.  The  commonest  form  of  this  torture 
is  a  beating  over  his  neck  and  shoulders  with  a  double  cane 
in  the  hands  of  the  state  turnkey.  Should  he  continue  to  gfive 
evasive  answers,  he  is  likely  to  be  beaten  about  the  jaws  with 
two  thick  pieces  of  leather,  shaped  not  unlike  the  sole  of  a 
slipper. 

Sometimes  this  latter  instrument  is  applied  with  such  force  as 
to  loosen  his  teeth  and  cause  his  mouth  to  swell  to  such  a  degree 
that  for  days  he  is  unable  to  speak  or  masticate.  If  he  still  main- 
tains his  innocence,  he  is  beaten  over  the  ankles  with  pieces  of 
hard  wood,  and  sometimes  as  a  result  of  this  the  ankle  bones  are 
broken.  If  he  still  persists  in  refusing  to  plead  guilty,  a  severer 
torture  is  applied.  The  present  writer  saw  the  following  pun- 
ishment administered  in  Canton  in  1873. 

A  large  trestle  was  placed  perpendicularly,  and  the  prisoner  in 
a  kneeling  posture  was  made  to  lean  against  it.  His  arms  were 
then  pushed  backward  and  stretched  into  the  upper  legs  of  the 
trestle  from  the  ends  of  which  they  were  suspended  by  cords 
fastened  around  the  thumbs  of  each  hand.  The  legs  were  then 
pushed  backwards  and  drawn,  his  knees  resting  on  the  ground, 
toward  the  upper  legs  of  the  trestle  by  cords  around  the  large  toe 
of  each  foot.  « 

When  he  had  thus  been  bound,  the  questions  were  again  put 
to  him,  and  his  answers  being  unsatisfactory  he  was  whipped 
up  and  down  his  thighs  by  a  split  bamboo  cane  till  the  blood 
ran  down   and   the   man  fainted.     Whereupon  he  was  untied, 


292  THE   8TOKY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

These  titles  ai-e  of  four  kinds  —  hereditary,  honorarj-,  for  state 
service,  and  for  literary  attainments,  and  it  is  imperative  on  the 
ministers  of  this  Board  to  furnish  at  frequent  intervals  to  the  first- 
named  tribunals  reports  on  the  conduct  of  the  emperor's  different 
sons,  so  that  it  may  l^e  discerned  which  one  possesses  in  the  high- 
est degree  the  essentials  of  a  good  sovereign.  These  reports,  like 
all  others,  finally  come  to  the  emperor  who  has  the  power  of 
naming  his  successor.  As  a  geneml  rule,  however,  the  eldest  son 
succeeds. 

As  every  emperor  of  each  dynasty  had  many  wives,  the  scions 
of  imperial  houses  are  numerous,  and  once  it  was  the  custom 
to  give  official  employment  to  each  of  them.  But  this  custom 
caused  so  much  trouble  and  gave  rise  to  so  many  conspimcies  and 
rebellions  that  it  was  abandoned,  and  each  prince  nowadays  has 
to  rest  satisfied  with  the  high-sounding  but  empty  title  of  his 
rank,  and  he  is  liable  to  be  deprived  of  that,  if  any  art  on  his 
part  is  deemed  beneath  the  family  dignity. 

While  the  emperor  is  regarded  by  his  people  as  the  representa- 
tive of  heaven,  the  Empress,  or  head  wife,  on  tlie  other  hand,  is 
the  representative  of  Mother  Earth,  and  is  su})posed  to  exercise 
some  peculiar  influence  over  nature,  one  of  her  chief  duties 
being  to  sec  tliat  woi-sliij)  i:;  duly  paid  to  the  tutelaiy  deity  of 
silkwonns.  It  is  also  licr  official  function  to  examine  carefully 
the  weaving  of  the  silk  stu(T  wliidi  the  ladies  of  tlie  Imperial 
harem  make  into  garments  for  certain  state  idols. 

Slie  is  supposed  to  know  no  polities,  but  there  are  instances  on 
record  of  Chinese  empresst^s  who  have  been  as  familiar  jus  some  of 
the  noted  French  dames  of  the  bust  century  with  the  minutest 
details  of  Stiito  intrigues.  The  choice  of  an  empress  and  of  the 
sub-wiyes  of  the  soyereign  depends  solely  on  their  l)eauty  or  j)er- 
sonal  qualities,  and  not  on  their  family  connections.  Tliey  are 
chosen  in  the  following  fashicm. 

The  daughter  of  the  empress-dowager,  or  in  her  absence  a  royal 
lady  invested  with  authority  for  the  puri)ose,  liolds  wliat  might  Ih^ 
fashionably  termed  a  *' drawing-room, "  and  inyites  Tartar  ladies 
and  daughters  of  Bannermen,  that  is,  of  those  baronial  houses 
which  hayc  a  right  to  carry  banners  from  various  parts  of  the 
empire.      The  l)elle  of  this  assembly  is  chosen  to  be  raised  to  the 


A  SCHOLASTIC   OLIOA&CHT.  29S 

dignity  t£  empiess,  and  tiiose  next  in  personal  attractions  are 
selected  iat  the  rank  of  sub-wives. 

But  sometimea  a  woman  of  the  lower  orders  attains  to  this 
lofty  rank.  The  mother  of  the  Emperor  Hieu-Fuug  was  the 
keeper  of  a  fruit  store  and,  like  Nell  Gwynne,  the  orange  girl 
who  attracted  the  attention  of  Charles  II.,  and  from  whose  liaison 
with  him  are  descended  some  of  the  peers  of  England,  her  grace 
and  heauty  raised  her  to  a  power  in  the  8tat«. 

In  each  of  the 
provinces  there  is  a 
formidable  array  of 
ofBcials,  namely: 
governor-g  e  n  e  r  a  1 , 
governor,  treasurer, 
special  commissioner, 
literary  chancellor, 
chief  justice;  the  last 
four  being  of  equal 
rank;  six  tautais  of 
equal  rank;  ten  pre- 
fects of  equal  rank; 
and  a  e  V  e  n  t  y-t  w  o 
coonty  rulers  of 
equal  rank. 

Each  of  these  offi- 
ciah)  has  a  council  to 
assist  him  in  the  dis- 
chai^  of  his  duties, 
and  besides  these  of- 
ficials every  town  and  village  has  its  governing  body,  so  that 
the  empire  may  be  said  to  be  honey-combed  with  officialism.  All 
these  officials,  as  it  was  in  ancient  Peru,  are  subordinate  to  the 
one  above  them;  it  is  a  continuous  chain.  Officials  of  certain 
grades  are  not  allowed  to  hold  office  in  their  native  province,  nor 
without  Imperial  permission  to  maiTy  in  the  province  where  they 
have  been  appointed  to  office;  and  to  prevent  the  possibility  of 
acquirii^  too  much  local  influence,  they  are  removed  in  some  cases 
ereiy  Uiroe  years  and  in  other  cases  every  six  to  other  poets  of  duty. 


THE  FRurr 


294 


THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 


All  officials  are  supposed  to  be  appointed  by  the  emperor  on 
recommendation  of  the  Board  of  Ceremonies,  and  candidates  for 
oEGce,  according  to  law,  have  to  be  men  who  have  graduated  at 
great  literary  examinations.  But  the  members  of  the  Board  of 
Ceremonies  sometimes  submit  to  the  notice  of  his  majesty  the 
names  of  men  whose  literary  rank  has  been  bought. 

There  are  nine  marks  of  distinction  by  which  thu  rank  of  a 
Chinese  officer  may  be  readily  recognized :  A  member  of  the  first 
class  wears  on  the  band  of 
his  cap  a  dark  red  coral 
ball  or  button ;  for  the 
second  class  this  button  is 
light  red;  for  the  third, 
light  blue ;  for  the  fourth, 
dark  blue;  the  fifth  class 
wear  a  ball  of  crystal, 
while  mother  of  pearl  is 
the  ball  of  the  sixth  class 
mandarin.  Members  of 
the  seventh  and  eighth 
class  wear  a  golden  ball, 
in  one  case  smaller,  and 
for  the  ninth  class,  a  sil- 
ver ball.  Each  official 
may  be  further  distin- 
guished by  a  decoration  of 
peacock  feathers.  T  li  i  s 
feather  runs  from  the  base 
of  the  ball  oil  the  hat  slop- 
ing downwards  at  the  back.  The  first  of  the  outer  garments 
worn  by  an  officer  is  a  long  loose  robe  of  blue  silk,  richly  em- 
broidered with  threads  of  gold.  It  reaches  the  ankles  of  the 
wearer,  and  is  bound  around  his  waist  by  a  belt.  Above  this 
robe  is  a  violet  tunic  with  verj-  wide  sleeves,  but  usually  thrown 
back  over  the  wrists. 

When  an  officer  approaches  the  Imperial  presence  for  the  pur- 
pose of  conferring  with  the  emperor  or  performing  the  kowtow, 
which  in  China  is  the  usual  act  of  obeisance,  etiquette  prescribes 


A   SCHOLASTIC   OLIQARCHT.  296 

that  the  sleoTes  of  this  tunic  should  he  stretched  over  the  hands, 
vhich  action  of  course  renders  him  helpless.  This  custom  was 
originally  adopted  to  preclude  any  attempt  on  the  life  of  the 
emperor  by  tliose  whose  duties  call  them  into  his  presence.  A 
similar  one  prevails  in  the  Court  of  Pereia. 

The  army  is  made  up  of  the  lowest  class  in  the  empire,  and 
used  to  be  uniformed  so  as  to  frighten  the  Iwholder.  Govern- 
ment residences  are  provider!  for  all  Chinese  officials.  These 
boildings  aie  called  yamum  and  sometimes  are  extensive,  cover- 


ing acres.  Fiom  the  i-oofs  of  the  balls  in  many  of  these  official 
dwellings  richly  gilded  boards  are  hung  on  which  ai-e  set  forth 
moral  maxims  from  Confucius  and  oilier  of  the  great  writers; 
some  of  these  illuminated  mottoes  I>eing  the  gifts  of  the  emperor  to 
former  officers  distiiiguislied  for  faithful  ser\-icc.  To  these 
yavmn»  are  attached  publit;  offices,  and  to  those  occupied  by  dis- 
trict rulers,  chief  justices,  etc.,  large  prisons  are  attached. 

County  rulci-s,  prefects,  and  chief  justices  are  the  officials 
specially  appointed  to  preside  in  the  courtit  of  law ;  and  whether 
it  be  of  civil  or  crimiiml  cliaracter,  a  judge  is  assisted  by  deputies 
or  a  deputy.     To  explain  fully  how  justice,  so-called,  is  admin- 


296  THE   STOBY   OF     GOVERNMENT. 

istered  in  China,  it  is  necessary  to  state  that  the  accused  person  is 
first  brought  before  the  gentry  or  elders  of  his  village  or  county. 

These  punish  him,  if  the  crime  be  of  a  criminal  nature,  either  by 
imprisonment  or  by  exposing  him  for  some  time  in  what  is  called 
a  cawpie  at  the  corner  of  one  of  the  most  frequented  thorough- 
fares, or  right  near  the  place  where  the  crime  was  committed;  or 
by  ha/.ing  him  whipped  through  the  streets  with  a  crier  reciting 
his  crime. 

One  form  of  the  cangue  is  a  box,  through  the  top  of  which  the 
head  protrudes,  and  througli  the  sides  of  which  both  hands,  with  a 
chain  connecting  them,  are  thrust.  The  illustration  represents  a 
loving  Chinese  wife  feeding  her  cangued,  or  canned,  husband, 
who  has  committed  some  slight  offence  against  the  peace  and 
dignity  of  the  emperor  —  possibly,  by  fighting  near  the  temple. 
A  commoner  form  of  the  cangue  is  just  the  wooden  collar  alone  of 
a  proportion  to  the  man  as  in  the  illustration. 

Should  a  case,  however,  appear  of  importance,  the  prisoner, 
with  the  depositions  and  the  comments  on  his  case,  is  forwarded 
for  the  mandarin  or  ruler  of  the  Poo  to  which  the  village  belongs. 
If  the  mandarin  finds  the  case  within  his  jurisdiction,  he  pun- 
ishes the  prisoner;  if  not,  he  sends  him  up  to  a  still  higher  official, 
the  county  ruler,  who  might  send  up  the  case  to  the  prefect  of 
his  department,  who  in  turn  might  send  it  up  to  the  provincial 
capital,  where  the  chief  justice,  who  only  tries  capital  cases,  has 
his  residence. 

The  chief  justice  will  then  submit  his  decision  to  the  governop- 
general  and,  before  a  sentence  of  the  chief  justice  can  be  carried 
into  effect,  it  would  Ix)  necessary  that  the  criminal  in  the  pres- 
ence of  the  governor-general  sliould  make  an  acknowledgment  of 
his  guilt.  If  the  prisoner  were  convicted  of  treason,  piracy,  or 
highway  robbery,  the  governor-general  could  order  his  execution  at 
once.  But  if  Tie  were  guilty  of  parricide,  matricide,  or  fratricide, 
the  governor-general  must  bring  the  case  to  the  notice  of  the  King 
Poo,  or  Board  of  Punishments,  at  Pekin;  the  president  of  which 
would  sul)nnt  it  in  turn  to  the  cabinet,  who,  after  brooding 
over  it,  would  lay  it  before  tlie  emperor,  who,  it  is  said,  carefully 
examines  the  depositions  on  all  such  cases  before  confirming  the 
sentence. 


A  SCHOLASTIC   OUOABCHT.  .     297 

A  cmioos  sort  of  lottery  adds  a  oertain  spice  to  the  life  of  cod- 
Ticted  criminals,  for  at  the  close  of  each  year  the  governor-general 
forwards  to  Fekin  a  register  of  the  names  of  those  condemned  to 
death.  The  emperor,  after  inspecting  eacli  register,  with  his 
vermilion  j>encil  mnkes  a  mark  against  three  or  four  names  on 
each  page.  The  renters  are  then  returned  to  the  jirovincial 
governor  and  the  law  takes  its  course  against  the  marked  men. 

Th(»e,  however,  whose  names  have  been  passed  over  do  not  obtain 
a  free  pardon;  but  the  second  and  third  year  go  up  with  names 
of  fresh  offenders  to  be  passed  upon  by  the  eniperor.     Shonld  they 


A  PABRICIDE. 


escape  the  mark  of  the  vermilion  pencil  on  the  third  occasion, 
their  death  sentence  is  then  commuted  to  tranajwrtatinn  for  lite. 

The  mode  of  trials  in  China  is  startling  to  all  who  live  in  lands 
where  the  system  of  giving  a  prisoner  cveiy  opportnnity  to  defend 
and  explain  himaclE  prevails;  for  trials  in  Chinese  courts  of 
law  are  conducted  by  tortui-e.  lint  then  we  who  i)ride  ourselves 
on  our  advance  in  civilization  must  remember  that  only  two  hun- 
dred years  ago  our  aniiestora  were  torturing,  not  only  political 
prisoners,  but  also  women  and  young  girls,  to  obtain  confessions 
of  tlieir  practice  of  witchcraft.  Young  girls  practise  Just  as  much 
witchcraft  to-day,  but  they  arc  not  the  ones  who  are  tortured  on 
account  of  it. 

Chinese  courts  are  open  to  the  genenil  public,  but  their  cruel- 
ties keep  away  all  visitors  except  those  personally  interested  in 
the  case.  A  calendar  of  casg^,ii^J^^ried,  with  the  prisoners' 
names  subjoined,   used  ^0^v»ih(M'<it£^0Sputer  gates  of  the 


298  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

yamun^  but  this  custom  has  lapsed  into  disuse  and  the  list  is  now 
placed  on  a  pillar  in  one  of  the  inner  courts,  where  it  has  no 
chance  of  attracting  public  attention. 

The  judge  sits  behind  a  large  table  covered  with  a  red  cloth, 
and  the  prisoner  is  made  to  kneel  in  front  as  a  mark  of  respect  to 
the  court,  by  whom  he  is  accounted  guilty  until  proved  innocent. 
Secretary  and  turnkeys  stand  on  each  side,  no  one  sitting  but  the 
judge.  The  cliarge  is  read  aloud  and  the  prisoner  called  upon 
to  plead  either  guilty  or  "not  guilty."  As  the  prisoner  rarely 
pleads  guilty,  trials  are  very  numerous. 

The  prisoner  is  asked  a  great  many  leading  questions,  and 
should  his  answers  be  evasive,  torture  is  at  once  applied  to  him  as 
a  means  of  extracting  truth.  The  commonest  form  of  this  torture 
is  a  beating  over  his  neck  and  shoulders  with  a  double  cane 
in  the  hands  of  the  state  turnkey.  Should  he  continue  to  gfive 
evasive  answers,  he  is  likely  to  be  beaten  about  the  jaws  with 
two  thick  pieces  of  leather,  shaped  not  unlike  the  sole  of  a 
slipper. 

Sometimes  this  latter  instrument  is  applied  with  such  force  as 
to  loosen  his  teeth  and  cause  his  mouth  to  swell  to  such  a  degree 
that  for  days  he  is  unable  to  speak  or  masticate.  If  he  still  main- 
tains his  innocence,  he  is  beaten  over  the  ankles  with  pieces  of 
hard  wood,  and  sometimes  as  a  result  of  this  the  ankle  bones  are 
broken.  If  he  still  persists  in  refusing  to  plead  guilty,  a  severer 
torture  is  applied.  The  present  writer  saw  the  following  pun- 
ishment administered  in  Canton  in  1873. 

A  large  trestle  was  placed  perpendicularly,  and  the  prisoner  in 
a  kneeling  posture  was  made  to  lean  against  it.  His  arms  were 
then  pushed  backward  and  stretched  into  the  upper  legs  of  the 
trestle  from  the  ends  of  which  they  were  suspended  by  cords 
fastened  around  the  thumbs  of  each  hand.  The  legs  were  then 
pushed  backwards  and  drawn,  his  knees  resting  on  the  ground, 
toward  the  upper  legs  of  the  trestle  by  cords  around  the  large  toe 
of  each  foot.  • 

When  he  had  thus  been  bound,  the  questions  were  again  put 
to  him,  and  his  answers  being  unsatisfactory  he  was  whipped 
up  and  down  his  thighs  by  a  split  bamboo  cane  till  the  blood 
ran  down   and   the   man  fainted.     Whereupon  he  was   untied, 


800  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

thrown  like  a  log  of  wood  into  a  large  flat  basket,  and  carried  by 
two  men  from  the  Court  of  Justice  into  the  prison  attached  to  it. 
As  soon  as  his  skin  healed  over  suificiently  to  be  flayed  again, 
the  judicial  examination  would  continue. 

Justice  in  China  may  be  rightly  called  a  "Serial  Story  of 
Torture,"  and  there  are  other  forms  of  judicial  investigation  more 
frightful  than  these  described,  which  must  be  left  to  the  imagina- 
tion of  the  reader,  for  the  pen  refuses  to  paint  them.  But 
are  there  no  witnesses?  Yes,  but  as  they  are  also  in  some  cases 
subjected  to  torture  it  is  a  task  of  some  difficulty  to  distinguish 
which  of  the  unfortunate  men  kneeling  before  the  judgment  seat 
is  the  prisoner,  and  which  the  witness ;  for  anyone  suspected  of 
having  a  knowledge  of  another's  guilt,  and  manifesting  any  un- 
willingness to  give  evidence,  would  be  likely  to  receive  a  pre- 
liminary beating  by  way  of  encouragement. 

The  process  in  civil  cases  is  somewhat  different.  If  a  dispute 
arises  between  two  persons  with  regard  to  houses  or  lands,  at  first, 
as  a  rule,  they  have  recourse  to  arbitration,  the  arbitrators  being 
generally  the  principal  elders  of  the  street  or  neighborhood.  But 
if  either  party  is  dissatisfied  with  their  decision,  the  matter  is 
taken  into  the  law  court  and  goes  before  the  county  ruler. 

But  the  person  thus  appealing  has  to  incur  great  expense  in 
bribing  the  miderstrappers  about  the  yamuns  to  bring  his  petition 
to  the  eyes  of  the  judge,  for  in  China  briber}^  is  the  only  avenue 
to  success  in  anything.  By  liberally  paying  these  underlings  he 
is  allowed  to  stand  at  the  folding  doors  of  one  of  the  inner  courts, 
and  when  the  ruler  passes  he  falls  upon  his  knees  in  front  of  the 
sedan  chair  of  the  magistrate  who  calls  upon  one  of  his  chair 
bearers  to  hand  him  the  suj)pliant\s  petition  and,  having  read  it, 
appoints  a  day  for  the  case.  In  these  civil  cases,  also,  it  is  not 
uncommon  for  the  judge  to  inflict  torture. 

If  of  great  importance,  the  case  would  be  appealed  to  higher 
tribunals,  but  not  as  in  criminal  cases  to  the  provincial  chief  jus- 
tice, but  to  the  provincial  treasurer,  and  from  his  court  an  appeal 
lies  to  that  of  the  governor  or  governor-general  of  the  piovince. 
But  the  decision  of  this  viceroy  is  not  final,  for  the  next  appeal 
lies  to  the  governor-general  of  the  adjoining  province,  and  from 
him  to  the  emperor  through  the  Cabinet. 


A   SCHOLASTIC   OLIQABCHY. 


801 


Formerly  civil  suits  were  appealed  from  the  highest  tribunal 
of  t^heir  province  to  the  emperor  in  person,  but  now  another 
wall  of  protection  to  the  sovereign  against  the  annoyance  of  too 
much  litigation  has  been  built  up  by  making  the  governor  of 
the  adjoining  province  an  intermediate  tribunal. 


Another  peculiarity  of  Chinese  government  is  that  registers  are 
kept  in  which  are  recorded  the  merits  and  demerits  of  the  various 
civil  and  military  officials.  This  custom,  which  is  of  great 
antiquity,  was  also  practised  by  other  nations.  The  records  of 
the  Persians  and  the  Greeks  contain  frequent  allusions  to  it. 
Although  Chinese  officials  are,  perhaps,  as  a  class,  the  most  cor- 


302  THE   6T0HY  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

rapt  Btate  servants   in  the  world,  there  are  exceptional  men  of 
high  integrity  -who  are  held  in  great  esteem  by  the  people. 

When  Ache-Ong  was  governor  over  the  province  of  Kwang- 
Tung,  at  his  departure  from  Canton  tlie  citizens  gave  him  a 
most  in:pressive  ovation.  An  imposing  procession  which  took 
twenty  minutes  to  pass  a  given  point  escorted  him  to  tlie  place  of 
embarkation,  carrying  silk  umbrellas  and  three  hundred  painted 
boards  of  praise  which  had  been  presented  to  him  by  the  people. 
The  way  was  spanned  at  frequent  intervals  by  arches,  and  on  hang- 
ing banners  were  painted  or 
embroidered  in  large  letters 
Buch  titles  as  "  Friend  of  the 
People,"  "Bright  Star  of 
the  Province,"  "Benefector 
of  the  Age." 

Deputations    of     different 
trade-guilds  awaited  his  ar- 
rival at  various  temples, 
where  he  alighted  from  his 
A  PUBLIC  WHIPPING.  sedan  chair  to  exchange  fare- 

well compliments  and  par- 
take of  refreshments.  But  it  was  cot  the  formal  arrangements 
that  Bpoke  of  his  popularity  so  much  as  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
people;  for  the  silence  generally  keptj'  when  a  Chinese  ruler 
passes,  was  continuously  broken  by  hearty  exclamations  of  "When 
will  your  excellency  come  back  to  us?"  and  at  many  points  the 
crowd  was  so  great  as  to  interrupt  the  line  of  march,  and  almost 
upset  his  chair  of  state. 

Though  the  penal  code  of  China  is  so  extremely  severe, 
especially  in  cases  attacking  the  safety  and  stability  of  the  throne 
or  the  peace  of  the  empire,  it  has  some  verj-  humane  traits. 
Thus,  a  judge  may  grant  a  free  pardon  to  an  only  son  who  has 
been  sentenced  to  transportation.  This  pardon  is,  of  course, 
granted  for  the  sake  of  the  parents,  and  shows  how  the  religion 
of  China  interfuses  with  its  laws. 

Or,  for  another  instance,  when  three  brothers,  the  only  sons  of 
their  parents,  have  committed  a  crime  deserving  of  decapitation 
or  tiaiuiportation,  the  two  youngest  would  be  punished,  and  the  • 


804  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

first  bom  pardoned.  Or,  if  a  father  be  transported,  the  law  per- 
mits his  son  to  accompany  him  into  exile,  and  the  wives  of 
convicts  are  allowed  to  sojourn  with  their  husbands  in  penal 
settlements. 

Imperial  clemency  also  extends  to  all  offenders  who  are  crip- 
pled ;  nor  does  the  law  allow  convicts  to  be  sent  into  banishment 
during  the  first  month  of  the  year,  which  is  regarded  as  a  month 
of  rest  and  indulgence ;  nor  during  the  sixth  month,  as  the  heat 
is  supposed  to  render  travelling  very  uncomfortable. 

Reference  to  the  religion  of  China  having  been  made,  perhaps 
a  little  information  concerning  it  would  not  be  out  of  place. 
According  to  their  fable  of  creation,  in  the  beginning  there  came 
out  of  a  vast  egg  a  Being,  who  has  always  been  known  in  Chinese 
annals  as  Poon-Koo-Wong.  Of  the  upper  part  of  his  cast-off 
shell  he  formed  the  hollow  heavens;  of  the  lower,  the  convex 
earth.  To  dispel  the  darkness,  with  a  wave  of  his  right  hand  he 
made  the  sun,  and  with  his  left,  the  moon,  and,  of  course,  the 
stars  also. 

Then  he  called  into  existence  the  five  elements:  earth, 
water,  fire,  metal,  and  wood;  and  then  in  order  to  people  the 
world,  Poon-Koo-Wong  caused  a  cloud  of  vapor  to  rise  from 
a  piece  of  gold,  and  a  similar  cloud  from  a  piece  of  wood. 
Breathing  on  the  gold  vapor  he  made  the  male  principle ;  and  on 
the  wood  vapor,  the  female.  From  the  union  of  these  two  human- 
shaped  clouds,  or  spirits,  sprang  a  son  and  daughter  —  Ying-Yee 
and  Cha-No-We  —  whose  descendants  over-spread  the  whole 
country. 

In  honor  of  Poon-Koo-Wong  there  are  many  temples  through- 
out China.  The  idol  of  this  hero  of  antiquity  is  an  almost  naked 
figure  made  of  wood  or  clay,  wearing  an  apron  of  leaves.  This 
was  probably  their  original  religion,  for  their  present  one  is  a 
mysterious  mixture  of  several  creeds.  At  one  time  they  appeared 
to  have  worshipped  a  supreme  being  with  attributes  of  omni- 
science, omnipotence,  and  immutability,  whom  they  sj^eak  of  as 
Shang-Te.  They  appear  to  have  some  ideas  of  a  Judgment  Day, 
and  a  picture  of  their  method  of  dividing  the  sheep  from  the  goats 
after  death  may  amuse  the  reader. 

But  this  primitive  monotheism  has  become  associated  with  the 


E  CHIKESB  JUSOKEHT  DAT, 


806  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

worship  of  departed  ancestors  and  of  spirits  supposed  to  preside 
over  the  various  operations  of  nature :  and  with  this  combination 
that  still  holds  its  place  as  a  national  religion,  the  name  of  their 
great  philosopher,  Confucius,  is  associated. 

Dark  as  the  despotism  of  Chinese  government  may  seem  at  a 
first  casual  glance  (which  is  generally  careless  unless  tlie  eye  be 
naturally  full  of  sympathy),  some  stars  of  promise  light  up  its 
present,  and  tempt  believers  in  man  to  expect  for  the  vast  yellow 
race  an  evolution  as  rich  and  fair  to  look  upon  as  is  their  chosen 
imperial  or  national  color,  charming  one's  eye  so  often  with  its 
infinite  varieties  which  no  custom  stales. 

For  nowhere  in  this  gold- adoring  world  is  wealth  less  courted, 
and  caressed,  and  cringed  to.  In  China  power  and  honor  spring 
from  learning.  Hence,  mere  wealth  must  be  always  vulgar,  and, 
if  undistinguished  by  any  other  qualities,  the  mere  possessor  of 
riches  must  rank  as  inferior  to  the  mandarin,  who,  by  his  knowl- 
edge, can  rise  to  the  highest  offices  of  the  state,  next  to  the 
emperor  himself;  and  in  many  cases,  the  learned  man  can  finally 
achieve  a  wealth  also  to  which  "Money-bags,"  who  has  made  his 
fortune  by  buying  and  selling,  huckstering  and  cheating  it  may 
be,  can  never  aspire.  The  unlearned  rich  man  is  not  held  in 
respect;  he  is  valued  infinitely  less  than  the  poorest  scholar  who 
has  taken  a  degree  at  the  great  competitive  examinations. 

There  is  no  hereditary  nobility  in  the  empire,  unless  the 
descendants  of  the  Imperial  family  can  be  considered  such,  thougli 
these  do  not  constitute  the  real  aristocracy  of  the  country,  which 
is  official  and  not  heredita^}^ 

Rank  is  graded  by  literary  examinations.  Every  office  except 
that  of  the  emperor,  is  determined  by  these,  which  are  accordingly 
of  extreme  interest,  especially  since  we  in  this  country  have  lately 
adopted  a  similar  method  of  appointing  the  minor  officers  of  state, 
and  have  thus  been  imitating  the  civil  service  system  of  the 
Chinese,  with  all  its  good  and  bad  points. 

To  obtain  the  first  degree  three  examinations  must  be  under- 
gone ;  the  preliminary  one  taking  place  in  the  chief  town  of  the 
district  where  the  candidate  is  native.  There  are  always  great 
numbers  of  candidates,  and  the  examinations  are  severe.  In  1832, 
out  of  4,000  who  competed  in  the  two  districts  around  Canton, 


A   SCHOLASTIC   OLIQAKCHT. 


SOT 


•only  iTtrenty-seTen  were  successful.     Indeed,  for  fifteen  to  be  suc- 
■oessful  out  of  five  hundred  is  reckoned  rather  remarkable. 

The  next  examination  is  h<  Id  in  tlio  depirlinciital  ( ity,  and  the 
zuimber  of  candidates  who  [ircsr  nl  th<  inselves  arc  of  course  much 


fewer.  At  the  first  examination  the  roa«ls  leading  to  the  district 
towns  are  crowded  with  candidates  on  foot,  on  horseback,  in  carts, 
or  in  palanquins.  After  this  departmental  examination  another 
sifting  occura.  Those  who  liave  [Kissed  liave  their  names  placarded 
aa  having  gained  "a  name  in  the  department,"  just  as  at  the  pre- 
vious examination  they  had  obtained  "a  name  in  the  village." 
The  next  examiuation  is  severer  still,  being  hehl  under  the 


806  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

worship  of  departed  ancestors  and  of  spirits  supposed  to  preside 
over  the  various  operations  of  nature :  and  with  this  combination 
that  still  holds  its  place  as  a  national  religion,  the  name  of  their 
great  philosopher,  Confucius,  is  associated. 

Dark  as  the  despotism  of  Chinese  government  may  seem  at  a 
first  casual  glance  (which  is  generally  careless  unless  tlie  eye  be 
naturally  full  of  sympathy),  some  stars  of  promise  light  up  its 
present,  and  tempt  believers  in  man  to  expect  for  the  vast  yellow 
race  an  evolution  as  rich  and  fair  to  look  upon  as  is  their  chosen 
imperial  or  national  color,  charming  one's  eye  so  often  with  its 
infinite  varieties  which  no  custom  stales. 

For  nowhere  in  this  gold- adoring  world  is  wealth  less  courted, 
and  caressed,  and  cringed  to.  In  China  power  and  honor  spring 
from  learning.  Hence,  mere  wealth  must  be  always  vulgar,  and, 
if  undistinguished  by  any  other  qualities,  the  mere  possessor  of 
riches  must  rank  as  inferior  to  the  mandarin,  who,  by  his  knowl- 
edge, can  rise  to  the  highest  offices  of  the  state,  next  to  the 
emperor  himself;  and  in  many  cases,  the  learned  man  can  finally 
achieve  a  wealth  also  to  which  "Money-bags,"  who  has  made  his 
fortune  by  buying  and  selling,  huckstering  and  cheating  it  may 
be,  can  never  aspire.  The  unlearned  rich  man  is  not  held  in 
respect;  he  is  valued  infinitely  less  than  the  poorest  scholar  who 
has  taken  a  degree  at  the  great  competitive  examinations. 

There  is  no  hereditary  nobility  in  the  empire,  unless  the 
descendants  of  the  Imperial  family  can  be  considered  such,  though 
these  do  not  constitute  the  real  aristocracy  of  the  country,  whicli 
is  official  and  not  hereditarj'. 

Rank  is  gi^aded  by  literary  examinations.  Every  office  except 
that  of  the  emperor,  is  determined  by  these,  which  are  accordingly 
of  extreme  interest,  especially  since  we  in  this  country  have  lately 
adopted  a  similar  method  of  appointing  the  minor  officers  of  state, 
and  have  thus  been  imitating  the  civil  service  system  of  the 
Chinese,  with  all  its  good  and  bad  points. 

To  obtain  the  first  degree  three  examinations  must  be  under- 
gone; the  preliminary  one  taking  place  in  the  chief  town  of  the 
district  where  the  candidate  is  native.  There  are  alwajrs  great 
numbers  of  candidates,  and  the  examinations  are  severe.  In  1832, 
out  of  4,000  who  competed  in  the  two  districts  around  Canton, 


A  SCHOLASTIC   OLIGABCHT.  307 

■only  twenty-fleven  were  successful.     Indeed,  for  fifteen  to  be  auc- 
oessful  out  of  five  hundred  is  reckoned  rather  remarkable. 

The  next  examination  is  held  in  the  departmental  city,  and  the 
aamber  of  candidates  who  present  themselves  are  of  course  much 


fewer.  At  the  first  examination  the  roads  lejuling  to  tlie  district 
towns  are  crawded  with  candidates  on  foot,  on  horseback,  in  carts, 
or  in  palanquins.  After  tliis  departmental  examination  another 
sifting  occurs.  Those  who  Iiave  passed  liave  their  names  placarded 
as  having  gained  "a  name  in  the  department,"  just  as  at  the  pre- 
vious examination  they  had  obtjiined  "a  name  in  the  village." 
The  next  examination  is  severer  still,  being  held  under  the 


808  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

supervision  of  an  imperial  examiner,  who  visits  every  department 
twice  in  three  years.  The  "bachelor  degree,"  if  one  may  use 
this  term,  is  gained  by  this,  and  is  only  given  to  a  certain  num- 
ber of  the  successful  candidates  in  proportion  to  the  population  of 
the  respective  districts.  Most  men  do  not  think  of  going  beyond 
this  degree,  unless  they  intend  to  seek  official  employment.  The 
possession  of  it  confers  many  privileges ;  amongst  others  exemp- 
tion from  corporal  punishment. 

The  next  examination  occurs  every  three  years  at  the  j)rovincial 
capital  in  September,  and  is  sometimes  attended  by  as  many  as 
ten  thousand  bachelors,  anxious  to  compete  for  the  degree  of 
licentiate.  It  is  conducted  by  two  examiners  from  Pekin.  At 
Nankin,  on  one  occasion,  twenty  thousand  men  competed,  and  the 
degree  of  licentiate  was  awarded  to  less  than  two  hundred. 

Out  of  seventy-three  candidates,  who  on  one  occasion  obtained 
this  degree  at  Canton,  five  were  under  twenty-five  years,  eight 
between  twenty  and  twenty-five,  fifteen  between  twenty-five  and 
thirty,  eighteen  between  thirty  and  thirty-five,  nine  between 
thirty-five  and  forty,  twelve  between  forty  and  forty-five,  three 
between  forty-five  and  fifty,  while  three  were  over  fifty. 

Hence  it  appears  that  few  attain  this  degree  till  well  advanced 
in  life.  However,  all  these  are  not  fresh  candidates;  many  are 
unsuccessful  and,  until  rendered  hopeless  by  being  "plucked" 
year  after  year,  will  regularly,  as  the  examinations  come  round, 
make  attempts  to  obtain  the  coveted  distinction. 

On  an  average  from  twelve  hundred  to  seventeen  hundred 
may  annually  obtain  the  degree  in  all  the  eighteen  provinces. 
At  these  examinations  each  student  is  placed  for  several  suc- 
cessive days  in  a  little  cell,  so  uncomfortable  that  it  does  not 
admit  of  the  occupant  lying  down  at  full  length.  Every  candi- 
date must  have  a  cell  to  himself,  and  the  number  of  competitors 
being  so  great,  regard  has  to  be  had  to  economy  of  space, 
especially  as  all  Chinese  cities  are  very  crowded. 

The  third,  or  examination  for  the  doctor's  degree,  is  held  at 
Pekin,  and  thither  all  the  competing  licentiates  must  go.  These 
seldom  exceed  from  two  hundred  to  three  hundred.  The  highest 
degree  is  that  of  "Han-lin."  It  is  also  held  at  Pekin,  and  the 
few  who  attain  it  become  members  of  the  Han-lin  College,  and 


A  BCHOLASnO  OLIOABCHT.  oQil 

leoeive  fixed  Balaries.  The  licentiates  are  on  tlie  high  load  for 
preferment  as  vacancies  occnrj  the  doctots  are  ensured  an  imm^ 
diate  and  important  ofiBce,  Trhile  from  the  select  Han-lin  College 
are  chosen  tlie 
emperor's  minis- 
ters. 

The  greatest 
care  is  taken  that 
these  examina- 
tions shall  be 
foirly  conducted. 
Tlie  building  in 
which  they  are 
held  is  specially 
constructed  for 
the  purpose,  with 
double  Avails,  be- 
tween which  sen- 
Iries  are  continu- 
ally pacing.  The 
gates  are  strictly 
watched,  and 
when  the  candL 
dates  enter  the 
examination  hall 
they  are  searched 
for  books  or 
BcntpB  of  paper 
that  might  assist 
them  in  writing 
tlieir  essays,  and  the  most  ticrupulous  precautions  are  taken  to 
prevent  communications  between  the  canditlates. 

Their  food  they  take  with  them,  and  the  government  provides 
a  pitcher  of  water  for  eacli.  Three  sets  of  themes  are  given,  each 
occupying  two  days  and  a  night.  Until  that  time  has  expired  no 
one  is  allowed  to  leave  his  examination  cell. 

When  the  essays  are  written,  they  are  iiist  scrutinized  as  to 
dieix  oonfomuty  with  the  regulations,  for  they  most  not  exceed 


i.  aCHOOLMABTKK  0 


810  THE  8T0BY  OF  OOVERKMENT. 

seven  htmdred  characters,  nor  must  there  be  any  character  written 
over  the  ruled  red  lines  of  the  examination  paper  which  all  have 
to  use ;  nor  is  erasure  or  correction  of  any  kind  allowed.  Nor, 
although  the  theme  might  be  the  same,  can  anyone  repeat  with 
improvements  an  essay  of  a  former  examination. 

Any  obvious  fault  in  composition  observed  by  the  officers  who 
superintend  this  department  would  prevent  the  essay  from  being 
placed  in  the  hands  of  the  higher  examiners.  These  latter  then 
select  the  best  essays,  to  the  number  of  two  or  three  hundred,  and 
subject  them  to  the  judgment  of  the  two  chief  examiners,  who 
finally  decide  which  are  best,  and  arrange  them  in  the  order  of 
merit.  In  granting  offices  the  emperor  follows  the  order  of 
names.  In  addition  to  these  precautions  equal  care  is  taken  that 
the  examiners  shall  not  abuse  the  confidence  reposed  in  them  by 
showing  favoritism,  or  having  any  chance  to  gratify  malice  against 
any  candidate. 

The  examiners  are  brought  from  a  distance,  and  surrounded  by 
troops,  as  much  to  keep  them  from  being  tampered  with,  as  to  do 
them  honor  in  the  eyes  of  the  populace.  They  are  not  allowed  to 
see  the  actual  examination  papers,  but  only  copies  made  by  official 
transcribers,  until  they  have  passed  a  paper  as  satisfactory,  when 
the  original  is  brought  to  them  to  compare  with  the  copy,  and 
then,  if  all  be  right,  the  candidate's  name  is  seen  which  up  to  this 
point  is  unknown,  having  been  pasted  between  two  sheets  of 
paper. 

Yet  when  such  great  things  are  staked  upon  these  trials  of 
intellect,  it  can  be  readily  believed  that  the  ingenuity  of  the 
Chinese  literati  manages  sometimes  to  elude  the  most  lynx-eyed 
examiners.  Most  amusing  are  some  of  the  ways  in  which  this  is 
attempted. 

The  American  undergraduate  who  takes  into  the  examination 
hall  a  series  of  notes  on  his  shirt-cuffs,  and  half  a  dozen  problems 
of  Euclid  on  his  capacious  palms,  is  a  bungler  compared  with  his 
Chinese  brother  in  academical  iniquity.  The  trick  of  employing 
a  learned  substitute  —  himself  a  graduate  —  to  enter  under  the 
name  of  a  candidate,  perfoim  the  exercises  and,  on  leaving  the 
building,  substitute  his  essays  for  those  of  the  real  candidate,  is 
a  well-worn  device  in  China. 


A  SCHOLASTIC   OUGABGHY.  811 

Now  and  then  it  happens  that  a  friend  in  the  building  learns 
the  themes  of  the  expected  essays,  writes  them  in  tiny  characters 
on  slips  of  paper,  and  drops  them  enclosed  in  wax  into  the  water 
supplied  to  the  candidate  whom  he  wishes  to  favor.  But  the 
most  daring  plan  which  the  reminiscences  of  the  Chinese  Dons 
can  recall  was  that  of  a  candidate  who  engaged  a  friend  to  tunnel 
under  the  walls  of  the  examination  hall,  and  thus  convey  to  him 
through  the  floor  of  his  cell  the  documents  and  other  information 
needed. 

The  ancestral  worship  of  China,  to  which  allusion  has  been 
made,  is  carried  in  certain  practical  ways  to  an  exti'eme  frightful 
to  contemplate.  A  parent  has  absolute  control  over  the  lives  of 
his  children.  If  he  kills  one  intentionally,  he  is  subject  only 
to  a  year's  imprisonment,  and  the  chastisement  of  the  bamboo; 
if  the  child  struck  him  previously,  there  is  no  punishment 
whatever. 

As  among  the  Hebrews,  the  penalty  of  striking  or  cursing 
parents  is  death,  and  so  tenacious  of  order  are  the  Chinese,  that 
for  one  person  to  strike  another  with  hand  or  foot  is  accounted 
not  only  a  private  but  a  public  offence.  Hence  the  common 
spectacle  of  two  Chinese  quarrelling  with  endless  gesticulations, 
but  without  coming  to  blows,  the  surrounding  crowd  also  taking 
care  to  see  that  the  quarrel  does  not  lead  the  disputants  to  close 
quarters.  This  instinct  has  now  become  hereditary  with  the 
Chinese,  for  even  in  the  foreign  countries  to  which  they  have 
emigrated  they  carry  this  wholesome  habit  of  allowing  the  tongue 
rather  than  the  fist  to  act  as  their  safety-valve. 

Some  of  their  habits  of  life  and  modes  of  thought  are  closely 
interwoven  with  their  governmental  system,  and  are  full  of  inter- 
est. A  Chinese  debtor,  for  instance,  is  allowed  a  reasonable  time, 
fixed  by  law,  to  discharge  his  obligations ;  but  if,  after  the  expira- 
tion of  these  da)rs  of  grace,  he  fails  to  pay,  he  is  liable  to  the 
punishment  of  the  bamboo  stick.  A  creditor  sometimes  quarters 
himself  with  his  family  ujx)n  a  debtor,  and  though  this  is  not 
recognized  by  the  law,  no  one  interferes,  provided  it  be  done  with- 
out tumult  or  violence. 

Death  is  looked  upon  by  a  Chinaman  with  the  utmost  uncon- 
cern, and  suicide  is  adopted  as  a  means  of  freeing  himself  from  the 


812  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

most  trifling  worry.  Yet  death  is  rarely  mentioned  directly  in 
their  ordinaiy  conversation,  but  is  alluded  to  in  a  round-about 
fashion.  Ancestors  are  worshipped,  and  in  every  rich  man's 
house  is  a  chamber  dedicated  to  this  filial  duty.  Here  are  pre- 
served tablets  inscribed  with  the  names  of  the  deceased,  and  at 
stated  seasons,  and  according  to  forms  prescribed  in  that  huge 
etiquette  code  of  China  —  the  "  Book  of  Rites  "  —  prostrations 
and  ceremonies  are  perfonned  before  them. 

When  a  person  dies  it  is  said  that  "he  has  made  his  salutation 
to  the  age,"  or  has  *' ascended  to  the  sky."  "To  be  happy  on 
earth,"  they  say,  "one  must  be  born  in  Soo-chow,  live  in  Canton, 
and  die  in  Lianchan ; "  Soo-chow  being  famous  for  pretty  women, 
Canton  for  luxury,  and  Lianchan  for  furnishing  excellent  wood, 
for  that  last  important  article  which  a  Chinese  sets  so  much  store 
by  —  his  coffin. 

The  Chinese  idea  of  beauty,  or  at  least  of  the  figure  that  suits  a 
person  of  fashion,  is  rather  peculiar.  A  woman  should,  for 
instance,  be  extremely  slender  in  appearance,  while  a  man  should 
be  corpulent,  or  what  we  understand  as  "aldermanic." 

Both  men  and  women  of  rank,  or  at  all  above  the  laboring 
class,  wear  their  finger-nails  long,  as  a  sign  that  they  are  not  com- 
pelled to  stoop  to  manual  labor ;  and  to  such  an  extent  are  these 
nails  allowed  to  grow,  that  cases  of  ivory,  silver,  and  even  of  gold, 
ornamented  with  precious  gems,  are  used  to  preserve  them  from 
being  accidentally  broken.  Even  servants  now  and  then  attempt 
this  bit  of  foppery  and,  to  preserve  them  from  being  broken,  splice 
them  onto  thin  slips  of  bamboo. 

The  small  feet  of  the  Chinese  women  are  caused  by  the  curi- 
ous inverted  ideas  of  beauty  which  Fashion  in  all  nations  some- 
times succeeds  in  inspiring  and  maintaining.  In  China,  this 
monstrosity  must  have  prevailed  for  a  thousand  years,  because 
the  Tailar  women  do  not  favor  it,  and  have  never  adopted  it. 
Hence  the  argument  that  it  antedates  the  Tartar  invasion. 

It  is  produced  in  early  childhood  by  cramping  the  feet  arti- 
ficially by  means  of  bandages ;  and  though  it  renders  those  thus 
mutilated  incapable  of  walking,  except  by  holding  on  to  walls,  or 
by  very  skilfully  tottering  along,  it  is  regarded  as  exceedingly 
"genteel,"    probably   from   the    idea    of    its    being    associated, 


A  SOHOIiASTIC    OUQAROBir. 


818 


like  the  correBponding  case  of  long  nails,  with  exemption  from 
lahor. 

The  Chinese  poets  rave  of  such  deformed  feet  as  "golden 
lilies,"  and  describe  the  rocking  of  the  women  in  attempting  to 
walk  as  the  "waving  of  a  willow."  The  muscles  of  the  leg  from 
not  being  in  use  dwindle  away,  so  that  the  space  from  the  ankle 
to  the  knee  is  not  so  thick  as  the  wrist.  Women  who  have  not 
this  deformity  of  the  feet  will  sometimes  hobble  along  the  street 


FARIIIONABLK   FOOTINO. 


in  a  manner  intended  to  deceive  the  observers  into  believing  thftt 
the  fashionable  foot  is  theint. 

Ridiculous  as  this  custom  is,  the  student  of  strange  methods 
for  "improving"  the  person  gets  habituated  to  otliers  equally 
strange:  and  we  who  have  seen,  in  the  course  of  our  studies  of 
mankind,  jKople  flattening  their  foreheads,  tattooing  their  persons, 
cutting  off  their  lingers,  filing  their  teeth  or  dyeing  them  black, 
painting  their  bodies,  slitting  their  ears,  compressing  the  waist, 
putting  stones,  hones,  or  metal  through  the  lips,  cheeks,  or  ears, 
or  in  a  dozen  other  ways  interfering  with  nature,  have  only  a 
gentle  compassion  instettd  of  profound  contempt  for  such  exhibits 


814  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

of  feminine  vanity  on  the  part  of  Cliinese  ladies,  as  depicted  in 
our  illustration  of  a  belle  resting  her  fashionable  understanding 
on  a  table. 

Never  was  there  a  more  elaborate  code  of  etiquette  than  that  of 
China.  It  is  not  alone  a  court  etiquette,  but  one  regulated  by  the 
State  in  the  elaborate  "Book  of  Rites,"  preserved  through  ages; 
an  etiquette  which  is  never  altered  by  fiishiou  —  for  fashion  never 
changes  —  and  which  controls  the  every-day  action  of  all  the 
Chinese  from  the  emperor  to  the  coolie.  Their  prescribed  cei-e- 
monial  usages  are  three  thousand  in  number.  The  most  abject 
method  of  showing  respect  to  a  superior  is  by  performing  the 
Kow-tow^  and  is  that  by  which  a  vassal  signifies  his  obedience 
to  his  superior. 

When  an  audience  is  about  to  be  obtained  of  the  emperor,  this 
prostration  is  previously  made  before  a  yellow  screen,  and  though 
it  has  been  performed  by  the  ambassadors  of  the  Dutch  —  a  nation 
which  in  the  East  has  submitted  to  any  indignity  which  promised 
to  result  in  profit  —  it  has  been  always  refused  by  the  English 
and  Russian  ambassadors,  and  of  late  years  has  not  been  expected 
from  the  representatives  of  any  nation  except  such  as  owe  vassal- 
age to  China. 

There  are  various  grades  of  the  Kow-tow.  For  instance,  standing 
and  bending  the  head  is  less  submissive  than  kneeling  on  one  or 
both  knees,  and  putting  the  hands  and  forehead  to  the  ground. 
Doing  this  once  is  not  so  humble  an  act  of  acknowledgment  of 
inferiority  as  doing  it  three,  six,  or  nine  times.  Abject  as  it  is, 
such  is  the  innate  filial  obedience  in  China,  that  the  emperor  will 
perform  it  before  his  mother. 

Chinese  ladies  are  taught  to  paint  on  silk,  to  embroider,  and  to 
acquire  some  skill  in  music;  and  though  cases  of  learned  ladies 
are  not  unknown,  yet  they  are  not  as  a  rule  studiously  inclined. 
The  better  class  of  them  are  modest.  To  such  an  extent  is  this 
carried  that  it  is  accounted  indecorous  in  a  lady  to  show  her 
hands,  and  accordingly  they  are  covered  with  long  sleeves. 
When  they  have  been  shown  pictures  of  the  very  dScolletS  dress 
worn  by  fashionable  European  ladies,  they  very  natiually  ex- 
press themselves  much  shocked  at  such  immodest  and  indecent 
costumes. 


■Ililllllllllllllllllllllilllll) 


816  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

Polygamy  is  not,  as  frequently  described  in  books,  sanctioned 
by  the  law.  Every  man  is  limited  to  one  wife,  but  "  left-handed  " 
marriage  is  permitted  to  any  extent  that  a  man  may  feel  justifiable 
according  to  his  purse.  But  the  first  wife  is  regarded  as  the 
social  head  of  the  household,  and  the  bickerings  which  naturally 
follow  the  practice  of  polygamy  render  it  less  common  thaii  it 
would  otherwise  be. 

If  the  wife  has  no  family,  then  the  taking  of  a  handmaid  is  con- 
sidered as  natural  —  the  Chinese  looking  upon  the  want  of  a  son 
as  a  terrible  affliction.  These  handmaids  are  generally  bought  for 
a  sum  of  money  from  the  lowest  ranks  of  the  population,  and 
really  enter  the  family  as  domestic  slaves. 

No  man  is  allowed  to  marry  any  woman  with  the  same  surname 
as  himself,  all  people  of  the  same  surname  being  considered  kin, 
and  no  government  official  can  marry  an  actress.  Not  only  is 
such  a  mairiage,  if  contracted,  void,  but  both  parties  are  punish- 
able'with  sixty  blows;  though,  if  the  official  hold  the  degree 
of  licentiate,  this  punishment  must  be  remitted  for  one  of  cor- 
responding severity,  into  which  corporal  punishment  does  not 
enter.  Finally,  though  the  legal  wife  is  small-footed,  the  brevet 
ones  are  not. 

A  man  may  divorce  his  wife  for  seven  different  reasons:  1. 
Barrenness,  though  this  is  generally  never  taken  as  an  excuse,  as 
he  has  his  remedy  in  legal  concubinage.  2.  Adulter}'.  3.  Dis- 
obedience to  the  husband's  parents;  the  mother-in-law  being  more 
kindly  regarded  in  China  than  in  Europe.  4.  Talkativeness, 
5.   Thieving.     6.   Ill-temper.     7.  Inveterate  infirmities. 

Any  of  these,  however,  may  be  set  aside  by  three  circum- 
stances: the  wife  having  mourned  for  her  husband's  parents;  the 
family  having  acquired  wealth  since  the  marriage ;  and  the  wife 
being  without  parents  to  receive  her  back.  It  is  in  all  cases  dis- 
reputable, and  in  some  (as  those  of  a  particular  rank)  illegal,  for 
a  widow  to  marry  again. 

Whenever  a  widow  is  herself  unwilling,  the  law  protects  her; 
and  should  she  act  by  the  compulsion  of  parents  or  other  rela- 
tions, these  are  severely  punishable.  Widows,  indeed,  have  a 
very  powerful  dissuasive  from  second  wedlock,  in  being  absolute 
mistresses  of   themselves   and  children  so   long  as  they  remain 


A  80HOLA8TI0   OUGABOHY.  817 

widows.  Marriage  is  predestined,  the  Chinese  believe,  and  early 
marriages  are  greatly  encouraged.  ^^  There  are  three  great  acts  of 
disobedience  to  parents,  and  to  die  without  progeny  is  the  chiefs'** 
is  a  Chinese  maxim. 

The  amusing  contrariety  of  Chinese  customs  as  compared  with' 
ours  has  been  thus  epitomized  by  a  traveller :  — 

On  inquiring  of  the  boatman  which  way  Macao  lay,  I  was  answered, 
** in  the  west-north";  the  wind,  as  1  was  informed,  being  east-south. 
**  We  do  not  say  so  in  Europe,"  thought  I ;  but  imagine  my  surprise 
when,  in  explaining  the  compass,  the  boatman  added  that  '^  the  needle 
pointed  to  the  south  I  " 

Desirous  to  change  the  subject,  I  remarked  that  I  supposed  he  was 
going  to  some  high  festival,  or  merrymaking,  as  his  dress  was  com- 
pletely white.  He  told  me,  with  a  look  of  much  dejection,  that  his 
only  brother  had  died  the  week  before,  and  that  he  was  in  the  deepest 
mourning  for  him. 

On  my  landing,  the  first  object  that  attracted  my  attention  was  a 
military  mandarin,  who  wore  an  embroidered  petticoat,  with  a  string  of 
beads  round  his  neck,  and  who  besides  carried  a  fan ;  and  it  was  with 
some  dismay  that  I  observed  him  mount  on  the  right  side  of  his  horse. 
Another  strange  sight  was  a  wagon  impelled  partly  by  a  sail.  I  was 
surrounded  by  natives,  all  of  whom  had  the  hair  shaven  from  the  fore 
part  of  the  head,  while  some  of  them  permitted  it  to  grow  on  their  faces. 

On  my  way  to  the  house  prepared  for  my  reception,  I  saw  two 
Chinese  boys  discussing  with  much  earnestness  who  should  be  the  pos- 
sessor of  an  orange.  They  debated  the  point  with  a  vast  variety  of 
gesture,  and,  at  length,  without  venturing  to  fight  about  it,  sat  down 
and  divided  the  orange  equally  between  them.  At  that  moment  my 
attention  was  drawn  to  several  old  Chinese,  some  of  whom  had  gray 
beards,  and  nearly  all  of  them  huge  goggling  spectacles. 

A  few  of  them  were  chirruping  and  chuckling  to  singing  birds,  which 
they  carried  in  bamboo  cages,  or  perched  on  a  stick ;  others  were  catch- 
ing flies  to  feed  the  birds  \  the  remainder  of  the  party  seemed  to  be 
delightedly  employed  in  flying  paper  kites,  while  a  group  of  boys  were 
gravely  looking  on,  and  regarding  these  innocent  occupations  of  their 
seniors  with  the  most  serious  and  gratified  attention.  .  .  . 

Resolute  in  my  determination  to  persevere,  the  next  morning  found 
me  provided  with  a  Chinese  master,  who  happily  understood  English. 
I  was  fcdly  prepared  to  be  told  that  I  was  about  to  study  a  language 
without  an  alphabet,  but  was  somewhat  astonished,  on  his  opening  the 

Public 


818  THE   STORY   OP   GOVBRNMBNT. 

Chinese  volume,  to  find  him  begin  at  what  I  had  all  mj  life  preirioosly 
considered  the  end  of  a  book.  He  read  the  date  of  publication  — 
**  The  fifth  year,  tenth  month,  twenty-third  day."  "  We  arrange  our 
dates  differently,"  I  observed ;  and  begged  that  he  would  speak  of  their 
ceremonials. 

He  commenced  by  saying,  "  When  you  receive  a  distinguished  guest, 
do  not  fail  to  place  him  on  your  left  hand,  for  that  is  the  seat  of 
honor ;  and  be  cautious  not  to  uncover  the  head,  as  it  would  be  an  un- 
becoming act  of  familiarity."  Hardly  prepared  for  this  blow  to  my 
established  notions,  I  requested  he  would  discourse  of  their  philosophy. 

He  reopened  the  volume,  and  read  with  becoming  gravity, "  The 
most  learned  men  are  decidedly  of  opinion  that  the  seat  of  the 
human  understanding  is  the  stomach."*  I  seized  the  volume  in  despair, 
and  rushed  from  the  apartment. 

Speaking  of  stomachs,  the  Chines^  gourmands  seem  to  excel  in 
inventing  extraordinary  dishes.  One  of  the  most  remarkable  of 
these  consists  of  young  crabs  thrown  into  a  vessel  of  vinegar  some 
time  before  dinner  is  served.  The  vinegar  corrodes  their  delicate 
shells,  so  that  when  the  lid  of  the  vessel  is  removed,  the  lively 
young  crabs  scramble  out  and  run  all  over  the  table  until  their 
career  is  cut  stort  by  each  guest  snatching  up  what  he  can. 

The  Chinese  population  is  said  to  be  decreasing,  though  whether 
this  is  owing  to  the  terrible  destruction  of  life  caused  by  the 
Taeping  Rebellion,  when,  through  massacre,  and  famine,  and  dis- 
ease whole  provinces  were  decimated,  or  to  an  exhaustion  of 
vitality  in  the  race,  the  lack  of  anything  like  a  regular  census 
renders  all  theories  of  purely  personal  value.  Mr.  Colbome 
Baber,  Chinese  Secretary  of  the  British  Legation  at  Pekin,  tells 
a  story  which  may,  perhaps,  explain  this  deficiency  of  statistics. 

In  very  early  times  the  city  of  Wa-ming-hsien  was  governed  by 
a  prefect  of  more  than  usual  discrimination  and  energy.  Having 
directed  a  census  to  be  taken  by  two  independent  officials  he  was 
not  astonished  to  find  that  the  two  reports  exhibited  such  an  enor- 
mous discrepancy  that  they  had  to  be  cancelled,  and  the  deputies 
reported  to  the  governor  for  punishment.  The  prefect  then 
appointed  two  other  olBcers  to  number  the  people. 

•  This  is  a  mistake  for  they  place  it  in  the  heart.  It  is  an  old  maxim  amon^  good  house- 
wives that  the  way  to  keep  a  man's  heart  lies  through  his  stomach,  but  this,  like  many  a  pro- 
verb, is  a  libel  on  human  nature. 


A   SCHOLASTIC   OLIGARCHY.  819 

But  they,  taking  warning  by  the  fat«  of  their  predecessors,  com- 
pared notes,  and  in  due  time  announced  Wa-ming-hsien  to  contain 
exactly  20,401  souls.  However,  being  unable  to  agree  whether 
the  odd  figure  referred  to  a  male  or  a  female,  they,  in  their  turn, 
were  reported  to  the  governor  for  punishment.  The  prefect  then 
determined  to  t,ike  the  census  himself  and  set  out  for  the  city. 
But,  in  the  meantime,  the  timid  citizens,  alarmed  at  the  perti- 
nacity of  the  prefect,   and  apprehending  that  he  was  coming  to 


levy  some  oppressive  tax,  fled  from  the  town  and  hid  themselves 
in  the  fields. 

The  astonished  satrap,  finding  the  place  deserted,  and  fearing 
to  be  "reported  to  the  governor  for  punishment,"  lianged  himself 
in  the  gate,  and  when  his  body  was  discovered,  there  was  found 
firmly  clenched  in  his  grasp  a  paper  containing  the  following 
words:  "Return  of  census  of  the  city  of  Wa-ming-hsien,  in  the 
department  of  Mu-yu-fu:  men,  none;  women,  none;  children 
under  fourteen  years  of  age,  of  both  sexes,  none  —  grand  total, 
none." 

In  China  now  are  three  great  religions,  if  they  can  be  bo  called, 
Confucianism,  Taouism,  and  Buddhism.  The  first  two  are 
indigenous;  the  last  is  an  importation  from  India.  Koon-foo-tse, 
or,  as  his  name  has  been  latinized  in  the  M'ritings  of  the  early 
miBBionaries,  Confucius,  was  bom  about  551   b.  c,  and  is  now 


320  THE   STORY    OF   GOVERNMENT. 

accounted  the  great  sage  and  teacher  of  China.  He  was  the  son 
of  a  statesman,  and  chief  minister  in  his  native  kingdom,  one  of 
the  many  into  which  China  was  then  divided. 

Despising  the  amusements  and  gaieties  common  to  his  age,  he 
devoted  himself  to  study  and  reflection  in  moral  and  political 
science;  but,  unlike  the  Greek  philosopher  Aristotle,  he  investi- 
gated none  of  the  branches  of  natural  science,  nor  did  he  interfere 
with  the  common  superstitions.  His  doctrines,  therefore,  form  a 
code  of  moral  and  political  philosophy  rather  than  a  religious 
system,  and  his  followers  are  really  philosophers  more  than  reli- 
gious sectarians.  He  endeavored  to  correct  the  corruptions  which 
had  crei)t  into  the  state,  and  to  restore  the  maxims  of  the  ancient 
kings,  who  are  celebrated  in  traditional  history. 

Unswayed  by  personal  ambition,  he  promulgated  his  doctrines 
with  a  singleness  of  purpose  that,  even  in  conservative  China, 
gained  him  respect  and  multitudes  of  followers;  and  after  being 
employed'  in  high  offices  of  state  he  retired  in  the  company  of  his 
chosen  disciples  to  compile  those  collections  of  philosophical 
maxims  which  have  now  become  the  sacred  books  of  China. 

Nor  can  it  be  denied  that,  though  erroneous  in  some  respects, 
they  deserve  much  of  the  honor  which  has  been  paid  them. 
"Treat  others  according  to  the  treatment  which  thou  wouldst 
desire  at  their  hands,"  and  "guard  thy  secret  thoujhtSy^^  were 
among  his  favorite  maxims.  Filial  affection  he  taught,  and  even 
enjoined  it  to  such  an  extent,  that  he  ordered  that  the  slayer  of  a 
father  should  be  put  to  death  by  the  son;  that  "he  should  not  live 
under  the  same  heaven,"  were  the  words  in  which  lie  urged  this 
application  of  the  lex  talionis. 

He  was  modest  in  his  demeanor,  though  this  virtue  has  not 
descended  with  his  doctrines  to  his  modern  disciples,  who  are  self- 
sufficient  and  overbearing  to  all  who  do  not  profess  the  state 
religion  of  Cliina,  as  Confucianism  really  is. 

Confucius  began  early  in  life  to  labor  as  a  public  teacher  and 
gathered  around  him  a  large  circle  of  disciples.  He  devoted 
himself  to  reducing  the  traditions  and  reigning  records  of  antique 
Chinese  wisdom,  gathered  l)y  the  emperors  Yaou  and  Chun,  into 
a  more  perfect  form,  and  before  his  death  had  compiled  and  edited 
the  five  canonical  books  of  the  Chinese. 


822  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

The  first,  the  "Yih  King,"  or  the  "Book  of  Changes,*'  treats  of 
the  beginning  of  things  and  of  morals,  and  may  be  called  a  cos- 
mological  and  ethical  treatise.  The  second,  "Choo  King,**  was  a 
book  of  histories.  The  third,  "Chee-King,**  was  a  book  of  poetry, 
a  collection  of  ballads,  to  which  things  Confucius  attached  great 
value  as  means  of  moulding  the  national  chaittcter. 

The  fourth,  the  "Lee-Ke,"  was  a  "Record  of  Rites,'*  and  is  an 
account  of  the  national  ceremonials  and  religious  usages,  a  knowl- 
edge of  which  is  considei*ed  essential  among  the  Chinese  for  the 
maintenance  of  social  order  and  the  promotion  of  virtue.  The 
fifth,  the  "Chum-To-Ew,"  or  Spring  and  Autumn,  is  a  history  by 
Confucius  of  his  time  and  of  a  few  preceding  reigns.  The  others 
are  compilations,  though  containing  much  original  matter,  but 
the  fifth  is  said  to  be  the  work  of  the  sage  himself. 

The  writings  which  rank  next  to  these  books  in  popular  estima- 
tion are  the  "Four  Shoos,"  which  consists  mainly  of  records  of  his 
early  sayings  gathered  by  his  disciples,  except  the  fourth  which 
contains  the  works  of  Mencius,  a  celebrated  writer  of  the  Con- 
fucian school. 

These  books  of  Confucius  liave  had  a  curious  destiny,  having 
survived  imperial  jealousy;  for  in  the  third  centurj'-  Che-IIwang- 
Te,  who  had  established  the  supremacy  of  tlie  Tsin  Dynasty, 
ordered  the  sacred  books  of  Confucius  to  be  destroyed  because 
they  suggested  unfavorable  comparisons  between  his  own  and 
former  reigns. 

This  order  was  tremblingly  obeyed,  the  first  alone  being 
exempted  from  general  destruction.  As  it  was  then  customary 
for  the  literati  to  memorize  the  writings  Qi  the  various  philoso- 
phei-s,  this  cruel  emperor  tried  to  perfect  his  infamous  scheme  by 
putting  four  hundred  Confucian  pliilosophers  to  death.  But 
under  succeeding  sovereigns,  these  lost  works  of  Confucius  were 
rescued  from  where  they  had  been  hidden  by  the  philosophers  or 
restored  by  those  who  had  been  trained  and  had  trained  others  to 
keep  them  in  memory. 

"The  kings,"  said  Confucius  on  his  death-bed,  "will  not 
hearken  to  my  doctrines;  I  am  no  longer  of  use  on  earth,  and  it 
is  time  for  me  to  go."  But  to-day,  while  tenets  of  other  national 
philosophers  liave  been  superseded,  those  which  came  from  the 


A  BGHOLASTIO   OLIGABCHV.  828 

lips  of  Confucius  are  admired  and  embraced  by  one  third  of  the 
great  human  family. 

Throughout  the  empire  his  works  are  regarded  as  the  standard 
of  moral  and  political  wisdom.  Only  by  a  knowledge  of  them 
can  literary  and  political  distinction  be  won;  and  filial  piety 
which  has  assumed  the  form  of  ancestral  worship  and  which  was 
the  pivotal  point  of  the  system  of  Confucius  may  be  regarded  as 
the  chief  religion  of  the  Chinese;  for  the  doctrines  of  Taouism 
and  of  Buddhism  have  but  a  very  small  percentage  of  followers  in 
comparison  with  those  of  Confucius. 

The  Chinese  li^^rature  is  certainly  the  most  extensive  and  com- 
prehensive in  Asia.  The  printed  catalogue  of  the  emperor's 
library  is  contained  in  122  volumes,  and  it  is  said  that  a  collec- 
tion of  the  Chinese  classics,  with  scholia  and  commentaries,  com- 
prises 180,000  volumes.  In  addition  to  the  "classics,"  such  as 
the  writings  of  Confucius  and  Laoutsze  there  are  the  codes  of  the 
law  of  China,  and  a  rich  series  of  works  on  medicine,  natural 
history,  agriculture,  music,  astronomy,  etc.,  and  numerous  dic- 
tionaries. 

There  are  also  various  encyclopaedias  and  geographical  works, 
as  well  as  a  series  of  the  national  annals  from  the  year  B.  c.  2698 
to  A.  D.  1645,  comprising  3,706  books.  Poetry  and  the  drama 
are  also  cultivated,  and  they  have  now  so  far  thrown  off  their 
national  pride  and  reserve  as  to  have  translated  several  of  the  best 
English  works  on  medicine,  surgery,  etc.,  into  the  Chinese  lan- 
guage. Book-sellers'  shops  are  common  in  every  town,  and  books 
can  be  bought  cheap. 

All  classes  read;  even  the  coolie,  resting  on  his  burden  for  a 
minute  or  two,  will  pull  out  a  book,  it  may  be  a  i-omance  or  a 
volume  of  popular  songs,  and  commence  reading.  Such  is  the 
respect  for  written  or  printed  paper  that  any  waste  material  of 
that  sort  is  burnt  daily  in  front  of  the  door,  or  collected  by  men 
who  go  about  from  house  to  house  in  case  any  of  it  should  be 
profaned. 

A  few  Chinese  proverbs  may  show  the  character  of  the  people 
and  their  way  of  thinking  better  than  any  mere  description:  "A 
wise  man  adapts  himself  to  circumstances,  as  water  shapes  itself 
to  the  vessel  that  contains  it;"   "Misfortunes  issue  out  where 


824  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

disease  enters  in  —  at  the  mouth ; "  "  The  error  of  a  moment 
may  become  the  sorrow  of  a  lifetime ; "  V  Disease  may  be  cured, 
but  not  destiny;"  "A  vacant  mind  is  open  to  all  suggestions,  as 
the  hollow  moimtiiin  rctuins  all  sounds;"  "He  who  pursues  the 
stag  regards  not  hjires ; "  "  If  the  roots  be  left  the  grass  will  grow 
again "  (this  is  the  reason  given  for  exterminating  a  tmitor's 
family);  "Tlie  gem  cannot  be  polished  without  friction,  nor  the 
man  perfected  without  trials ; "  '*  A  wise  man  forgets  ohl 
grudges ; "  "  Riches  come  better  after  poverty  than  poverty  after 
riches;"  "A  bird  can  roost  but  on  one  branch;"  '*A  horse  can 
drink  no  more  than  its  fill  from  a  river  "  (Enough  is  as  good  as  a 
feast);  "When  the  port  is  dry  the  fishes  will  be  seen"  (When 
the  accounts  are  settled,  the  profits  will  appear);  "Who  swallows 
quick  can  chew  but  little"  (applied  to  learning);  "You  cannot 
strip  two  skins  off  of  one  cow;"  "He  who  wishes  to  rise  in  the 
world  should  veil  his  ambition  with  the  forms  of  liumility;" 
"The  gods  cannot  help  a  man  who  loses  opportunities;  "  "Dig  a 
well  before  you  are  thirsty"  (Be  prepared  against  contingencies); 
"The  full  stomach  cannot  comprehend  the  evil  of  hunger;" 
"  Eggs  are  close  things,  but  the  chicks  come  out  at  last "  (Murder 
will  out);  "To  add  feet  to  a  snake"  (Superfluity  in  a  discourse 
when  the  subject  is  altered) ;  "  Who  aims  at  excellence  will  be 
above  mediocrity;  who  aims  at  mediocrity  will  fall  short  of  it;  " 
"To  win  a  cat  and  lose  a  cow"  (consequences  of  litigation);  "I 
will  not  try  my  porcelain  lx)wl  against  his  earthen  dish ; " 
"Though  the  life  of  man  fall  short  of  a  hundi-ed  yeai*s,  lie  gives 
himself  as  much  anxiety  as  though  he  were  to  live  a  thousand." 


N'(i^^ 


VIII. 


Patert;)al 


Socialisn;)^ 


ASYSTEM  of  government  that  reduces  material  misery 
to  a  minimum ;  that  makes  sober  habits  of  industry 
characteristic  of  the  people ;  that  converts  chaos  into 
order  and  wreathes  order  with  beauty,  is  surely 
worthy  of  study,  although  it  lui^  j)erished  from  tlie  face  of  the 
earth  and  lives  to-day  only  in  the  annals  of  the  more  forcible 
civilization  which  is  trying  to  build  upon  its  ruins. 

It  would  seem,  too,  especially  worthy  of  attention  at  this  time 
in  this  country,  because  the  unnecessary  inequalities  between  man 
and  man,  the  vast  and  intricate  problem  that  stret^-hes  between 
the  two  extremes  of  tramp  and  millionnaire,  the  foolish  waste  of 
energy  and  mat^n*ial  which  marks  our  present  industrial  state,  are 
pressing  on  the  minds  of  all  candid  students  and  are  forcing  a 
path  into  our  politics  with  the  tremendous,  too  often  misdirected, 
energy  of  those  whose  thinking  is  rather  a  rude  ])iussionate  feel- 
ing than  an  orderly  outcome  of  ripe  reason. 

Time,  the  best,  though  slowest,  of  teachei's,  brings  about  many 
changes  in  the  meaning  or  value  of  words.  Twenty  years  ago  if 
a  man  in  this  country  called  himself  a  Socialist,  he  would  have 
been  looked  ui)on  Avitli  grave  suspicion  either  as  a  cmnk  or  an 


32' 


B26  THE   STORY    OF   GOVERNMENT. 

enemy  to  society.  To-day  a  man  who  has  been  professor  of  inter- 
national law  at  one  of  our  leading  colleges  permits  himself  to  be 
nominated  on  a  Socialist  ticket  in  New  York,  and  actually  receives 
over  thirteen  thousand  votes.  Nor  is  this  an  exceptional  fact. 
In  many  State  legislatures  bilk  are  being  introduced  which  are 
either  openly  or  veiledly  socialistic  in  their  tendencies. 

Socialism  to  many  of  us  comes  with  the  electric  shock  of  a  new 
idea,  and  at  first  some  are  unable  to  decide  whether  the  shock  is  a 
pleasant  one  or  the  reverse.  The  question,  of  course,  at  once 
arises  what  is  it  ?  what  does  it  mean  ?  And  the  answer  is  rather 
difficult,  because  in  modern  days  there  are  a  great  many  varieties. 
The  fundamental  ethics  of  it,  however,  are  not  new.  They  are 
expressed  or  implied  in  every  great  religion,  and  especially  are 
they  marked  with  strength  in  the  teachings  of  the  founder  of 
Christianity  and  in  the  early  development  of  that  belief. 

Probably  the  purest  expression  of  the  ethical  side  of  Socialism  is 
that  implied  by  Christ  in  the  parable  of  the  vineyard.  The  master 
paid  those  who  came  in  to  work  at  the  eleventh  hour  just  the  same 
as  the  workers  who  had  borne  the  heat  and  burden  of  the  day,  and 
rebuked  those  wlio  grumbled  at  the  apparent  unfairness  of  this. 
The  surface  argument  is  that  the  first  had  no  cause  to  complain 
because  they  received  all  they  had  bargained  for,  and  the  employer 
had  an  inherent  right  to  pay  just  lus  much  as  he  wished  to  the 
others  who  worked  less. 

But  a  comparative  study  of  all  Christ's  attitudes  towards  the 
economic  conditions  of  his  time  is  likely  to  draw  a  candid  mind 
to  the  conclusion  that,  under  the  superficial  argument  of  the  em- 
ployer's inherent  right  to  do  as  he  pleased  with  his  own,  lies  the 
intended  suggestion  that  those  men  who  only  had  the  opportunity 
or  ability  to  work  one  hour  were  paid  the  same  by  the  just  and 
tender  taskmaster  on  the  broad  ground  that  their  human  needs 
were  the  same. 

The  modern  phrasing  of  this  doctrine  is  that  society  should 
demand  from  each  a  measure  of  work  in  accordance  with  ability, 
and  should  give  to  each  a  measure  of  comfort  according  to  indi- 
vidual need;  or,  in  other  words,  the  philosophic  Socialist  aims  to 
equalize  men  as  much  as  possible  materially,  being  cognizant,  of 
coui-se,  that  vast  moral  and  mental  inequalities  must  continue  to 


328  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

prevail  for  ages;  must  always,  indeed,  persist  within  certain 
degrees,  else  there  would  be  no  difference  of  character,  but  one 
vast  dead-sea  level  of  monotony. 

Briefly  stated,  the  chief  moral  argument  of  modem  Socialism, 
and  perhaps  the  strongest  plea  that  could  be  put  foi*th  in  its  favoi*, 
is  that,  by  doing  away  with  the  sordid  pressure  of  materijil  in- 
equalities, a  greater  opportunity  will  be  afforded  for  the  develop- 
ment of  finei,  more  original  individualities. 

Men  to-day  in  the  mass  are  becoming  too  much  like  the 
madiines  which  they  tend.  Our  civilization  seems  to  be  reduc- 
ing itself  to  an  absurd  play  of  mere  materialistic  forces,  and  to  be 
bringing  forth,  on  an  average,  as  its  children,  a  mere  concatena- 
tion of  echoes,  —  not  men,  but  sounding  brasses  and  tinkling 
symbols  of  men. 

But  some  individuals  are  inclined  to  recoil,  when  brought  face 
to  face  with  the  ultimate  economic  proposition  of  Socialism, 
namely,  that  every  business  necessary  to  the  general  welfare 
should  be  managed  by  the  people  collectively;  that  is,  that 
every  municipality  should  have  its  public  bakeries,  shoeshops, 
etc.,  and  supply  its  citizens  with  the  necessaries  of  life  at  cost, 
instead  of  allowing  private  citizens  to  make  fortunes  at  the 
expense  of  the  majority  of  workers  by  the  accidents  or  the  chica- 
neries of  trade. 

Socialism,  it  is  true,  already  operates  as  an  active  element  in 
the  Government  of  the  United  States,  —  the  post-office  being  a 
shining  example  of  it  on  a  national  scale  and  the  ownership  by 
some  cities  and  towns  of  their  water  supplies,  gas  and  electric 
light,  being  instances  also  of  its  advance  into  popular  favor. 

But  while  all  sensible  men  who  have  ever  given  the  matter 
sufficient  study  agree  as  to  the  advisability  of  socializing  the 
larger  businesses  of  the  country  such  as  railroads,  telegraphs,  tel- 
ephones, expressage,  mines  of  all  kinds,  lighting  and  water  sup- 
plies, and  possibly  meat,  bread,  and  ordinary  clothing,  yet  some 
cautious  thinkers  are  inclined  to  feel  that  Socialism  might 
become  too  much  like  a  monstrous  monotonous  despotism,  if  it 
were  permitted  to  permeate  all  the  avenues  of  human  activity. 

Still  there  would  be  a  vast  difference  in  a  Socialism  like  that 
of  ancient  Peru,  which  emanated  from  an  authority  above,  forcing 


330  THE   STORY   OF    GOVERNMENT. 

itself  down  on  a  people,  and  the  Socialism  that  grows  up  from  a 
democratic  community  superseding  the  old  fancy  of  government 
as  a  power  independent  of  the  governed,  and  making  it  mean 
a  simplified  administration  of  the  business  of  the  people  con- 
sidered as  an  organic  whole. 

Many  small  examples  of  democratic  Socialism  have  existed,  and 
in  the  chapter  on  Switzerland  its  political  aspects  are  fully  presen- 
ted. There  are  to-day  certain  communities  in  the  United  States 
which  are  Socialistic  in  character,  though  religious  in  name ;  but 
there  have  been  very  few  examples  in  the  world  of  Socialism  on 
a  national  scale.  The  present  Emperor  of  Germany  is,  indeed, 
giving  spread  to  a  belief  that  he  intends  to  socialize  his  empire  as 
much  as  possible,  but  it  can  liardly  be  called  an  example  of  national 
Socialism,  though  it  presents  many  of  its  features. 

To  find  our  best  illustration,  therefore,  we  are  forced  to  look  in 
the  early  history  of  the  new  world,  for  when  Pizarro,  with  a  mere 
handful  of  greedy  adventurers,  conceived  the  audacious  project  of 
wresting  the  empire  of  Peru  from  the  grasp  of  the  Incas,  he  foimd 
himself  face  to  face  with  a  system  of  government  more  strange  to 
the  European  mind  of  that  epoch  than  any  of  the  physical  marvels 
which  the  Europeans  who  followed  Colimibus  had  gazed  on  in 
Mexico  or  Panama. 

Pizarro,  of  whom  we  present  a  picture  in  one  of  his  most  famous 
attitudes,  was  a  wonderful  man,  although  he  could  neither  read 
nor  write.  Nearly  every  schoolboy  remembers  how  in  his  day  of 
apparent  weakness  and  disaster,  he  diew  a  line  in  the  earth  with 
his  sword,  saying,  "On  this  side  lies  Panama  with  it^  poverty,  on 
that,  Peru  with  its  untold  treasures.  Those  who  will  follow  me, 
step  across  that  line,"  and  a  famous  little  band,  whose  names  the 
Spanish  historian  proudly  records,  crossed  the  line,  after  which 
there  was  no  hint  of  turning  back. 

The  Government  of  Peru  was  an  absolutism,  but  not  in  the  sense 
with  which  we  apply  that  word  to  Russia  or  China,  because  under 
the  beneficent  rule  of  the  Peruvian  kings  the  country  from  the 
Andes  to  the  ocean  had  been  transformed  into  a  garden,  and  the 
government,  apart  from  tlie  necessary  maintenance  of  the  emperor 
and  the  national  religion,  was  essentially  the  Inisiness  of  the  peo- 
ple, wisely  administered  and  witli  very  little  friction. 


PATERNAL    SOCIALISM. 


331 


That  n  vast  coantry  in  which  the  term,  national  wealth,  really 
meant  national  health  —  a  polity  which  had  largely  multiplied  and 
then  fairly  divided  the  sum  of  human  happiness  —  should  have 
succumbed  so  easily  to  so  smiill  a  band  as  Pizarro  led,  might  seem 
to  imply  some  inherent  weakness  in  the  socialistic  scheme  as  a 
hasis  for  permanent  government. 

For  two  hundred  men  to  seize  such  an  empire  —  what  a  miracle  I 
But  Fate  fought  on  the  Spanish  side. 


DltAWINO   TUE   L 


Coming  as  they  did  partly  on  the  lioi-se,  a  new  and  monstrous 
sight  to  Peruviau  eyes,  and  clad  in  shining  armor,  and  having 
strange  and  terrible  weapons  full  of  thunder  and  lightning,  the 
Spanish  invadera  seemed  unnuestionably  tlie  diviiie  cliildi-en  of 
the  Sun,  fresh  from  Heaven,  for  whom  popular  sujMjrstition  had 
long  looked  forwaixl.  Tlicn,  too,  Pizarro,  imitating  Cortez,  seized 
the  Inca's  person,  and  tlie  Inca,  being  High-priest  as  well  jis 
Emperor,  his  subjects  hardly  dared  to  attempt  a  lescue,  lest  his 
sacred  blood  should  be  shed. 


8S2  THE  STOBY  OF  GOYEBNMENT. 

The  Spanish  historians  record  with  grave  amazement  that  they 
had  discovered  a  miraculous,  land  in  which  there  was  no  such 
thing  as  a  poor  or  discontented  man ;  in  which  everybody  worked, 
from  the  emperor  downward,  a  reasonable  length  of  time  at  tasks 
fitted  to  their  strength  and  their  ability;  in  which  the  problem  of 
mere  living,  as  it  confronts  us  modems  in  our  so-called  civilized 
cities,  had  been  satisfactorily  settled;  in  which  the  average  of 
human  happiness  was  large  and  increasing.  The  Spaniard  found 
Peru  a  comparative  paradise  of  paternal  Socialism;  he  made  it 
a  hell  of  brutal  competition. 

This  wonderful  Socialistic  Empire  (which,  partly  because  of 
the  superiority  of  the  Spanish  fire-arms  to  the  Peruvian  weapons, 
and  partly  because  the  superstitious  people  readily  believed  that 
their  invaders,  so  fair  of  countenance,  were  direct  children  of  the 
Sim,  fell  such  an  easy  pi*ey  to  Spanish  cupidity)  was  at  this  period 
of  its  overthrow  spreading  its  power  in  every  direction,  and  some 
of  the  neighboring  nations  which  it  was  trying  to  absorb  were  of 
a  civilization  almost  equal  in  splendor,  if  not  in  some  respects 
superior;  as  for  instance,  the  Chimuans,  whose  architecture,  as 
conjecturally  restored  from  ruins  by  the  modem  scientific  mind, 
must  have  been  something  at  once  delicate  and  massive,  and  far  in 
advance  of  Peruvian  art.  The  contrast  between  clashing  systems 
of  civilization  is  sometimes  clearly  shown  in  their  architecture, 
and  the  two  pictures,  "  A  Castle  in  Spain "  and  "  A  Chimuan 
Palace,*'  with  which  this  chapter  opens,  are  excellently  suggestive 
examples  of  this  fact. 

Tlie  material  realm  of  the  Incas,  when  Pizarro  seized  it  with 
an  audacity  that  has  no  parallel  in  history,  was  of  vast  extent  and 
singular  shape.  It  fronted  the  Pacific  Ocean  from  2^  north  lati- 
tude to  about  37°  south;  or,  in  other  words,  it  consisted  of  the 
western  part  of  tlie  modern  republics  of  Ecuador,  Peru,  Bolivia, 
and  Chili,  with  an  indeterminate  stretch  to  the  east  where  the 
mountiiins  and  barbarous  tribes  made  its  expansion  somewhat  slow, 
although  that  growth  had  been  constant  for  tliree  hundred  years. 

This  comparatively  nan-ow  strip  of  land,  rarely  more  than  sixty 
miles  in  width, ^  was  a  country  apparently  unfavorable  to  agri- 

*  One  of  the  native  historians,  Oarcilasso,  intimates  that  the  empire  at  its  widest  plaoe  did 
not  exceed  four  hundred  miles. 


884  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

culture  or  to  easy  intercomraunication  and  comfortable  living,  for 
along  the  sandy  coast  it  rarely  rained,  and  but  scanty  streams  fed 
the  earth,  and  it  was  hemmed  in  all  along  by  colossal  mountains 
from  three  to  four  miles  high  who^e  solemn  and  forbidding 
grandem*  seemed  to  cast  a  sort  of  deterrent  shadow  over  the 
aspirations  and  attempted  improvements  of  man. 

The  steeps  of  these  sierras  with  their  fro\vning  giant  faces  of 
naked  porphyry  and  granite,  the  frightful  precipices,  furious 
torrents,  and  gorges  of  impenetrable  gloom  that  abound  in  these 
regions,  at  times  struck  terror  or  at  least  dismay  into  the  stout 
hearts  of  the  invading  Europeans.  But  they  found,  as  they 
advanced,  that  the  art  of  man  had  conquered  the  stubborn  heart 
of  nature  in  a  way  that  filled  them  with  wonder;  for  Europe  at 
that  time  presented  no  equal  spectacle  or  even  hint  of  such  superb 
triumphs  of  mind  over  matter  as  the  Government  of  Peru  had 
achieved  for  its  people. 

The  naturally  barren  coast  was  fertilized  by  a  system  of  canals 
and  underground  aqueducts.  Many  of  the  most  imposing  moun- 
tains were  terraced  up  to  their  snowy  plateaus  with  gardens  in 
which  the  fruits  and  vegetables  of  various  zones  were  raised,  and 
amid  these  orchards  and  gardens  at  many  points  towns  and  ham- 
lets were  seen  clinging  to  the  mountain  sides  so  high  above  the 
average  track  of  the  clouds  as  to  delude  at  first,  when  the  da\vn 
disclosed  them  to  the  beauty-loving  eyes  of  the  Spaniard,  with 
the  physical  fancy  that  these  villages  were  suspended  in  mid-air 
and  might  vanish,  like  dreams,  at  the  voice  of  the  breeze  of 
morning. 

Above  these  towns  nestling  so  confidingly  on  the  breasts 
of  the  giant  mountains,  were  snowy  ])lains  that  rose  gradually 
towards  tlie  peaks,  and  over  these  white  desei-ts  of  the  sky  wan- 
dered innumerable  flocks  of  llamas,  the  Peruvian  sheep,  from 
whose  wool  tlie  government  clothed  the  people.  And  across 
chasms,  from  the  like  of  which,  when  they  travei-sed  the  empire's 
borders,  the  Spaniards  had  sluunk  back  almost  with  horror  as  from 
living  pictures  of  the  abysses  of  that  hell  with  which  their  religion 
threatened  them, — across  ravines  whose  dark,  dizzying  depths 
tempted  such  as  gaze  too  long  to  plunge  into  annihilation,  — 
across  wide  gorges  where  tumultuous  torrents  chanted  mad  litanies 


PATERNAL   SOCtAUSH.  885 

of  liberty  or  seemed  like  the  rude  flasliiug  laughters  of  the  Titaa 
mountains,  —  laughters  at  tlie  pygmy,  Man,  who  had  dared 
attempt  to  utilize  their  forces,  — across  these  divisions  of  unco- 
operant  and  defiant  nature  tlie  genius  of  the  Peruvian  hatl  swung 
suspension  bridges,  binding  precipice  lo  steep  aud  hill  to  hill 
with  rope-ro;i(Ls  made  from  tlie  fibres  of  tlie  maguey. 


These  ropes  woe  twisttd  into  t,ables  thi  &iz«  of  a  man's  body, 
and  fitted  into  liohs  in  inimcnM,  pill  ii-s  of  solid  iwk  carved  out 
of  the  opposite  finijof  the  cliffs  Thej  \urc  cross-pieced  with 
wood  and  other  smaller  ropes,  and  the  sides  were  protected  by  a 
sufficiently  high  railing.  Of  cout^ie,  there  wiis  some  elasticity  to 
bridges  made  of  such  material,  and  their  oscillations  under  the  pass- 
age of  troops  were  at  first  frightful  and  sea-sickish  to  the  Spaniards. 

But  these  bridges,  in  their  size,  frequency,  and  stability, 
together  with  tlie  great  smooth  stone  roads  traversing  the  moun- 


886  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

tain  passes  and  connecting  the  capital,  Cuzco,  with  the  remotest 
villages  of  the  empire,  never  ceased  to  excite  the  admira- 
tion of  the  conquerors.  These  roads  have  been  suffered  now  to 
fall  from  disrepair  into  decay,  and  mostly  into  disappearance. 
But  the  fragmentary  stretches  that  remain  attest  their  pristine 
massiveness,  and  the  great  traveller  and  philosopher,  Humboldt, 
always  sparing  in  his  praise,  ranks  them  among  the  most  useful 
and  stupendous  works  ever  executed  by  man.^ 

Let  us  glance  at  the  chief  capital  of  ancient  Peru,  the  city  of 
Cuzco,  ^  the  heart  of  the  empire  in  which  centred  all  the  roads 
like  the  arms  of  the  government.  Peru  was  not  the  name  of  the 
empire,  but  was  given  by  the  Spaniards  in  mistake.  The  natives 
with  pardonable  pride  called  their  country  Tavintinstiyu,  or  the 
Four  Quarters  of  the  World,  and,  as  if  in  token  of  the  truth 
thereof,  from  the  great  city  of  Cuzco  where  hundreds  of  thousands 
lived  happily,  with  no  want,  no  poverty,  and  but  little  disease, 
rayed  forth  four  great  roads  to  the  four  points  of  the  compass,  and 
the  four  provinces  of  the  empire. 

Cuzco,  too,  was  divided  into  four  quarters,  and  the  various 
races  that  gathered  there  lived  each  in  the  quarter  nearest  its  own 
province,  and  each  by  law  wore  the  general  costume  of  the 
province,  modified  of  course  in  some  measure  by  individual  taste, 
but  never  so  much  as  to  hide  the  place  or  the  rank  to  which  they 
belonged. 

The  capital  was  thus  a  miniature  of  the  empire.  Each  of  these 
provinces  was  ruled  by  a  viceroy,  or  royal  deputy,  and  a  council, 
and  these  viceroys  not  only  sent  continual  reports  to  the  sovereign 
or  Inca  residing  in  Cuzco  of  the  condition  of  the  people,  the 
weather,  crops,  etc.,  but  a  certain  part  of  every  year  they  con- 
vened in  Cuzco  to  pay  their  respects  to  the  Inca,  and  listen  to  his 
plans  for  the  improvement  or  extension  of  the  empire,  thus  form- 
ing a  sort  of  Cabinet  to  the  Crown. 

The  decimal  system  invented  by  the  French  and  adopted  by  all 
scientists  was  used  by  the  Incas  of  Peru  in  their  government  with 
remarkable  results.     Such  things  as  the  finding  of  an  unknown 

^Le  grand  chemin  de  Tinea  ^tait  un  des  ouvrages  les  plus  utiles  et  en  meme  temps  des  plus 
gif^antesques  que  les  hommes  aient  ex^nt^.—HumOohlt, 

*  It  was  situated  about  the  middle  of  present  Peru. 


PATERNAL   SOCIALISM.  837 

dead  body,  or  a  mjsterious  disappearance  which  we  so  often  read 
of  in  our  newspapers  was  an  impossibilitj  in  Peru,  for  every  per- 
son was  numbered,  not  in  the  sense  of  having  a  tag,  but  in 
the  sense  of  tiiat  Scriptural  passage  which  informs  us  that  in  the 
eyes  of  a  truly  i»aternal  deity  every  hair  of  our  heads  is  numbered. 
So  in  Peru,  tliere  was  no  one  so  insignificant  as  not  to  receive  the 
attention  of  the  government. 

The  nation  at  large  was  divided  into  decades,  or  tens,  and  eveiy 
tenth  man  was  an  officer,  or  liigh  servant  of   the  rest,  his  duty 


being  to  see  that  they  enjoyed  all  their  rigltta,  to  solicit  aid  for 
them  from  the  government  when  necessary,  and  to  bring  offenders 
to  justice.  Justice,  so  often  a  bitter  jest  with  us,  was  a  reality 
in  Peru,  for  in  case  of  neglect  tbe  judge  had  to  pay  the  penalty  of 
the  guilty,  and  lie  bad  only  live  days  to  decide  civses. 

These  decades  were  grouped  in  fives,  tens,  and  hundreds,  up  to 
ten  thousand,  each  head  of  a  decade  being  under  the  supervision 
of  a  man  representing  five  decades  sometimes,  but  generally  ten; 
or  in  other  words  each  hundred  men  had  nine  special  officers  and 
one  general  captain,  each  thousand  men  the  same,  every  captain 
of  one  grade  being  a  subordinate  of  tlie  next  higher  till  ten  thou- 


888  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

sand  was  reached.  The  whole  empire  was  arranged  in  depart- 
ments of  ten  thousand  with  a  special  governor  appointed  from  the 
Inca  nobility. 

Under  this  system  authority  was  so  subdivided  and  gntduated, 
and  had  so  nianv  mathematical  checks  on  it  that  individual 
oppression  or  domination  was  almast  impossible.  OflBcialism  or 
bureaucmcy  was  prevented  from  l)eing  an  evil  by  making  it 
all-pervasive. 

Not  only  was  every  man  accoimted  for  from  his  birth  to  his 
death,  but  he  felt  that  he  counted  in  the  vast  sum  of  serene  hap- 
piness which  radiated  from  the  sacred  person  of  the  Inca,  who 
was  at  once  the  hereditary  high  priest  of  the  national  religion, 
and  the  loving  manager  of  his  people's  material  affairs,  watch- 
ing over  the  minutest  concerns  of  their  daily  lives.  This  was 
not  felt  to  be,  as  some  administrations  in  France  have  been, 
a  vast  system  of  espionage,  but  a  sympathy  of  the  great  man  with 
his  children  that  was  tireless  and  almost  sleepless. 

The  Peruvian  felt  always  a  line  of  communication  vibrating 
from  himself  to  his  sovereign,  for  although  there  were  no  courts 
of  appeal,  and  the  few  laws  were  very  severe,  the  rights  of  the 
individual  were  safeguarded  by  a  committee  of  visitors  which 
at  certain  periods  perambulated  the  kingdom,  investigating 
the  character  and  conduct  of  the  magistrates,  and  punishing 
ip  a  summary  way  any  judicial  eiTors  or  delinquencies.  Nor  this 
alone,  for  the  lower  courts  had  to  make  monthly  reports  of  all 
cases  t/>  the  higher,  and  these  to  the  viceroy,  so  that  the  Inca 
seated  at  Cuzco  could  review,  reach  out  and  rectify  any  abuses. 

There  being  no  money  in  Peru,  few  laws  were  needed,  and 
crime  was  rather  a  rarity,  and  at  the  time  of  the  invasion  was 
probably  becoming  rarer,  because  death  was  the  penalty  of  the 
most  grave  violations  of  law,  and  criminals  were  thus  prevented 
from  perpetuating  themselves. 

The  crimes  of  theft  and  murder  were  capital,  and  so  was  a 
breach  of  the  marital  vow,  though  it  was  justly  provided  that 
extenuating  circumstances  might  be  taken  into  consideration  by 
the  judges  to  soften  the  sentence.  Blasphemy  against  the  Sun  or 
against  the  Sovereign, —  an  exceedingly  rare  offence, —  and  burn- 
ing a  bridge  were  death. 


PATERNAL   SOCIALISM. 


Removing  landmarkfi,  tumiag  a  water-coui-Mc  from  a  Jieighboi's 
land  to  one's  own,  and  destroying  a  lioiue  were  rigorously  pun- 
ished, as  for   instance,  by  a  public  flogging.     Yet  no  needless 


cruelty  was  displayed.  No  ingeniously  prolonged  torments  such 
as  we  used  to  have  in  the  mediicval  period  of  our  civilization 
were  permitted  among  the  mild  and  polished  Peruvians. 


840  THE   BTOBY  OF   QOVEBNMBNT. 

But  we  must  consider  their  religion  in  order  to  nnderstand 
folly  the  Tastness  of  the  authority  which  a  Peruvian  Inca  must 
Lave  possessed  in  order  to  be  able  to  pn>duc6  such  a  majestic 
fabric  of  government  composed  of  harmonized  minntia  like  a 
huge  temple  built  of  many  little  bricks,  and  furthermore  to  be 
able  to  hand  it  from  sire  to  son  for  centuries  with  improvement 
instead  of  impairment. 

This  religion  was  primarily  a  worship  of  the  sun,  whom  they 
identified  as  the  source  of  all  spirit  and  force  in  the  universe,  just 

as  our  modern 
science  ideutiflea 
that  luminary  as 
the  parent  of  all 
the  celestial  phe- 
nomena of  our 
system.  The 
late  die  turn  of 
Mcience,  that  our 
earth  and  all  its 
potentialities  had 
no  separate  crea- 
tion, but  was  at 
some  unimagin- 
ably distant 
ejwch  shot  forth 
from  the  sun  as  a  flying  spark  or  cooling  cinder  of  fiery  nebulous 
matter,  was  an  old  accepted  belief  with  the  Peruvians. 

The  earth  was  sun-bom,  and  all  its  children  were  of  that  high 
origin,  but  they  had  fallen  from  their  first  estate  according  to 
the  Peruvian,  as  well  as  the  Judfeau  tradition,  and  stood  in  sore 
need  of  redemption  from  their  degraded  habits  of  worshipping 
widely  and  wildly  nearly  eveiything  in  nature,  of  making  war 
their  pastime  and  cannibalism  their  festivity.  Therefore  the 
Sun-God  in  his  pity  sent  two  of  his  direct  children,  Manco  Capac 
and  Mama  Ocllo  Iluaco,  to  gather  the  natives  into  communities 
and  teach  them  the  arts  of  a  softer,  sweeter,  and  serener  life,  —  a 
life  more  worthy  of  their  originally  divine  descent.  Rarely  do 
fables  bear  such  practical  fruit  as  was  the  case  in  Peru. 


842  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

This  celestial  pair,  brother  and  sister,  husband  and  wife  like- 
wise, were  bidden,  so  saj'S  the  fable,  to  advance  along  the  high 
plains  near  Lake  Titicaca,  bearing  with  them  a  great  wedge  of 
gold,  and  where  the  wedge  should  slip  from  their  hantls  and  sink 
into  the  ground,  there  they  were  to  abide  and  found  tlie  Cit}'  of 
the  Sun.  Tliey  had  gone  but  a  short  spat;e  in  the  valley  of  Cuzco 
when  the  mini(jle  occuiTed,  and  proved  itself  completely  by  the 
wedge  sinking  speedily  into  the  earth  and  disappearing  forever. 
Here  was  founded  the  Holy  C'ity,  and  from  the  holy  pair  were 
descended,  so  the  people  believed,  the  Inca  race  wlio  ruled  them. 

High  descent  is  not  such  a  vain  thing,  after  all,  as  it  often 
seems  at  first  blush  to  a  philosopher,  if  those  who  have  it  strive 
to  live  up  to  it.  And  it  appeai-s  to  l)e  admitted  that  the  Inca 
sovereigns  were  as  deeply  conscious  of  what  was  due  from 
them  as  demi-divinities  to  the  j)eople  they  swayed,  as  they  were 
of  what  was  due  to  them  in  the  matter  of  reverence  and  honor. 
The  French  motto  ""^^ Noblesse  obUge^^  was  exemplified  in  the  lives 
of  the  Peruvian  princes  to  a  wonderful  degi-ee* 

Before  considering  the  minute  details  of  the  policy  develoj)ed 
by  these  extraordinary  monarclis,  perha})s  a  brief  2)icture  of  an 
Inca's  personal  pomp  might  be  of  interest  and  value.  The  Inca 
was  placed,  by  his  being  the  head  of  the  Church  as  well  as  of  the 
State,  so  immeasurably  above  all  his  subjects  that  even  the 
haughtiest  of  the  nobles  who  claimed  descent  from  the  same 
divine  luminary  could  not  venture  into  his  presence  except  bare- 
foot, and  bearing  on  the  shoulder  a  slight  burden  in  sign  of  servi- 
tude or  homage. 

As  the  sun  is  the  source  of  all  force,  so  the  Inca  was  the  foun- 
tain of  all  honor,  power,  or  wealth.  He  raised  annies  and 
usually  led  them  in  person,  whenever  an  extension  of  the  empire 
among  the  barbarous  tribes  to  the  East  was  planned.  He  imposed 
taxes,  made  the  laws,  and  appointed  the  judges.  Louis  XIV. 
of  France  was,  according  to  his  own  epigram,  himself,  the 
State,  but  a  Peruvian  Inca  was  more ;  he  was  Church  and  State 
in  one. 

And  the  Inca  never  forgot  the  supreme  seriousness  of  the  part 
assigned  him  by  destiny  in  the  dnima  of  this  earth-life.  He 
assumed   a  pomp  in   his   style    of    living    and  an  exclusiveness 


PATERNAL   &UC1AUSM.  848 

such  as  few  kings  could  conceive  orsusbuii.  Iliu  dress  wus  of 
tlie  finest  wool  dyed  in  divers  colore  and  crusted  profusely  with 
bits  of  gold  and  jewels.  A  many-colored,  many-folded  turban 
crowned  his  head,  blazing  with  jewels,  and  with  a  tasselled 
fringe  of  deep  scarlet,  while  two  feathers  of  a  rare  and  strange 
bird,  called  the  coraquevqiie,^  standin};  nprijjht  in  the  turban  gave 
a  certain  touch  of 
tenal  or  wingfid 
grace  to  the  daz- 
zling splendor  of 
the  1*0}  il  h  e  a  i\ 
dress 

But  though  the 
Tnc  I  was,  or  felt 
himself  to  be,  so 
superior  to  even 
the  liighest  of  his 
subjects,  he  con- 
descended o  c  c  a- 
sionally  to  frater- 
nize with  them, 
and  took  especial 
pains  to  inspect 
the  condition  of 
the  lower  classes 
and  to  provide  for 
their  pleasures.  At  some  of  the  religious  festivals  he  presided  in 
person,  instead  of  by  deputy,  and  even  entertained  at  his  table 
some  of  tlie  great  nobles,  complimenting  them  on  their  manage- 
ment of  his  provinces  or  his  armies,  and  even  drinking  the  health 
of  such  as  he  wiw  most  inclined  to  honor. 

At  intervals  of  several  years  he  made  a  circuit  of  his  vast 
estate,  or  empire,  carried  in  :t  sedan  chair,  stopping  at  the  govern- 
mental inns  along  tlic  iv)ute,  or  at  some  of  his  many  |wilapes  in 
the  great  towns. 

As  he  {)assed  along  the  grand  roads  wliich  the  genius  of  his 


844  THK  STOBY  OF  60TERKHBNT. 

ancestors  had  conceived,  and  which  he  kept  in  perfect  condition, 
the  ghid  populace  crowding  from  adjacent  villages  strewed  flowers 
before  him  and  sang  songs,  as  they  carried  fonvard  hia  haggage 
from  one  village  to  the  next.  Now  and  then  he  made  a  longer 
stop  to  listen  to  grievances,  or  to  settle  points  referred  to  him 
from  legal  tribunals,  and  wherever  he  halted  in  this  way  the 
people  regarded  the  spot  thereafter  as  holy  ground. 

The  palaces  of  the  Inca  were  not  of  imposing  exterior,  being 
low  and  long  with  rather  small  apartments  not  communicating  with 
each  other,  but  opening  into  a  common  square  or  courtyard.     The 


A   OOVERHUENTAL   HOTEL. 

sides  were  of  massive  stone,  and  the  roofs  were  of  wood  or  in 
some  places  only  a  tliatcli  of  I'ushes, 

But,  inside,  the  wealth  of  the  empire  flooded  floor  and  wall 
with  aplondor,  and  claitzled  the  souses  with  a  barbaric  drunken- 
ness of  magnificence.  Gold  and  silver  wn)ught  into  strangely 
»hai>en  vessels,  images  of  animals  and  plants  made  of  the  same 
costly  stuff,  and  tajiestries  of  gorgeously  coloit^d  wool  as  delicate 
in  textiu-e^a-s  it  was  rich  in  hue  would  have  tired  the  vision  by 
their  profiLsion,  had  it  not  been  relieved  by  the  niurvellous  variety 
in  8ha£)c  and  arriingemcnt. 

The  favorite  retreat  of  the  Incaa  from  cares  of  state  was  at 
Yucay,  about  twelve  miles  from  Cuzco.  Here,  amid  groves  and 
gardens  they  loved  to  linger  with  their  favorite  wives,  for  though 
the  m-.'i  of  the  people  were  monogamous  the  Incaa  as  a  rule  were 


FATBBNAL   SOCIALISM.  S46 

not.  The  queen  wife,  aa  among  the  Egyptians,  waa  generally  a 
aister,  this  being  a  part  of  their  religioua  duty  as  descend- 
anta  from  the  fiist  Inca  pair  vho  were  brother  and  sister. 

Here  they  had  baths  that  put  to  shame  those  of  the  Roman 
emperors;  huge  tanks  of  gold  into  which  crystalline  waters  deli- 
cately perfumed  were  conducted  through  subterranean  pipes  of 
silver,  while  flowers  of  rarest  hue  and  richest  odor  grew  crowding 
over  the  margins ;  and  side  by  side  with  the  natuial  flowers  and 
graceful  shrubs  that  sprang  up  without  coaxing  in  this  temperate 
region  of  the  tropics  were  planted  parterres  of  a  kind  never  seen 


in  Europe,  mjnriad  forma  of  floral  and  vegetable  life  skilfully 
imitated  in  gold  and  silver. 

Among  these  what  most  astonished  the  Spanianls  were  repro- 
ductions of  Indian  corn  —  that  most  beautiful  growth  among 
American  gmina  —  where  the  workmanaliip  waa  so  exquisite  that 
an  ear  of  gold  was  half  displayed  nestling  among  broad  leaves  of 
silver  with  a  light  feathery  tassel  of  the  same  metal  dangling 
gracefully  from  its  top. 

Should  such  a  sketch  of  Peruvian  opulence  stagger  the  reader's 
faith,  let  him  reflect  tliat  the  Andes  teemed  and  still  teem  with 


846  THE   STORY  OP   GOVERNMENT. 

gold  and  silver,  and  that  none  of  the  ore  taken  from  the  mines 
was  converted  into  use  as  money  but  all  belonged  to  the  Inca  to 
be  converted  into  beauty.  But  the  display  of  kingly  wealth  such 
as  the  Spanish  historians  attest  may  fairly  cause  surprise  when 
coupled  with  the  fact  that  in  this  respect  an  Inca  owed  nothing  to 
inheritance. 

His  tremendous  treasures  were  of  his  own  amassing,  for  at 
death  all  his  palaces  but  one,  with  all  their  contents  just  as  he 
had  left  them,  were  closed  up  forever.  The  reason  for  this  was 
the  belief  tliat  the  soul  of  the  departed  might  or  would  return  to 
earth  sometime,  and  they  wished  him  to  find  everything  just  as 
he  left  it  before  he  took  his  journey  among  the  stars. 

When  an  Inca  died,  or  in  his  own  language  "  was  called  home 
to  the  palaces  of  his  father  the  Sun,"  his  funeral  was  even  more 
solemn  and  gorgeous  than  his  life.  His  bowels  were  removed  and 
buried  in  the  temple  of  Tampu,  fifteen  miles  from  Cuzco,  and  with 
them  were  buried  some  of  his  gold  and  jewels,  and  some  of  his 
servants  and  favorite  wives. 

As  in  India,  where  a  similar  custom  prevailed  even  into  this 
century  till  abolished  by  the  British,  many  of  the  immolations 
on  the  part  of  the  women  were  volimtary;  and  it  is  of  record 
that  sometimes  the  women  when  denied  this  doom  of  conjugal  de- 
votion took  the  religious  rite  into  their  own  hands  and  killed 
themselves  over  the  grave. 

This  curious  ceremony  was  followed  by  a  year  of  general  mourn- 
ing, the  people  grieving  in  processionals  and  the  poets  singing  the 
virtues  and  glories  of  the  departed  as  if  to  stimulate  his  successor 
to  still  higher  achievement.  The  Peruvians  were  more  skilful 
than  the  Egyptians  in  the  wretched  device  of  prolonging  the 
integrity  of  the  body  beyond  the  limit  set  to  it  by  nature,  and 
this  skill  produced  a  spectacle  that  filled  the  Spaniards  with  an 
awesomeness  which  even  for  yeai-s  continued  to  affect  them. 

On  entering  the  Temple  of  the  Sim  at  Cuzco  one  might  see, 
ranged  face  to  face,  the  men  on  the  right,  and  the  women  on  the 
left,  the  embalmed  bodies  of  all  the  kings  and  queens  of  the  Inca 
race;  while  on  the  walls  of  the  temple  shone  many  a  dazzling  re* 
production  in  gold  of  the  sacred,  all-beholding  sun. 

These  bodies,  dressed  precisely  as  in  life,  sat  on  golden  chairs, 


OUABDIHO  A  OBAUt  FlBUh 


848  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

with  their  heads  bent  slightly  forward  and  their  hands  crossed 
over  their  bosoms.  It  seemed  like  an  assembly  of  priests  at  some 
mysterious  devotion,  and  was  so  startlingly  like  life  that  the 
Spaniards  at  first  found  difficulty  in  believing  that  it  was  merely 
a  museum  of  mummies.^ 

A  very  strange  custom  prevailed  in  regard  to  these  "dead,  but 
sceptred  sovereigns  who  still  ruled  men's  spirits  "  from  their 
temple  and  their  tomb.  On  certain  festivals  each  was  brought 
out  with  great  ceremony  into  the  public  square  of  the  capital 
and  a  banquet  was  served  before  this  kingly  "death's  head  at 
a  feast,*'  the  guests  partaking  in  the  presence  of  the  royal  phantom 
with  the  same  forms  of  courtly  etiquette  as  though  he  were 
a  living  king. 

Note  has  been  made  of  the  legislative  functions  of  the  empire, 
showing  how  they  began  and  ended  in  the  Inca,  like  the  curve  of 
a  circle  returning  on  itself.  The  fiscal  regulations  and  the  laws 
respecting  property  were  equally  curious. 

The  whole  ten-itoiy  was  divided  into  three  parts ;  one  for  the 
sun,  that  is,  for  the  maintenance  of  the  national  religion,  another 
for  the  Inca,  and  the  last  for  the  working-classes.  These  propor- 
•  tions  varied  in  different  provinces  according  to  the  amount  of  pop- 
ulation, and  the  greater  or  less  quantity  of  land  needed  by  the 
people. 

The  lands  were  divided,  per  capita^  in  equal  shares,  and  as  it 
was  provided  by  law  that  every  Peruvian  should  marry  on  attain- 
ing a  certain  age,  when  this  happened  the  commune  in  which  he 
lived  furnished  a  dwelling  and  a  lot  of  land,  an  additional  portion 
being  gitinted  for  every  child,  the  amount  for  a  son  double  that 
for  a  daughter. 

This  division  of  the  soil  among  the  workers  was  renewed  every 
year,  and  the  possessions  of  a  tenant  increased  or  diminished  ac- 
cording to  his  family.  Such  a  provision  might  be  fancied  fatal 
to  any  feeling  of  attachment  to  the  soil,  or  to  that  desire  for  im- 
proving it  which  generally  results  from  permanent  ownership. 

1  After  the  conquest  the  Peruvians  hid  these  royal  effigies  lest  the  Spaniards  shoold  pro- 
fane them ;  but  five  of  them  were  discovered  years  after,  and  the  historian  Garcilasso  saw 
them  in  1560,  **  perfect  as  life,*'  he  says,  *'  without  so  much  as  a  liair  or  an  eyebrow  wanting." 
As  they  were  borne  through  the  streets  of  conquered  Cuzco,  the  populace  knelt  down  with 
tears  and  groans,  and  were  deeply  touched  when  they  beheld  some  of  the  Spaniards  dofflng 
their  caps  in  sign  of  respect  to  departed  greatness. 


PATERNAL  SOCIALI8H.  S49 

Bat  it  is  probable  that  the  law  in  its  practical  operation  con- 
finned  the  firat  occupant  in  possession  year  after  year,  making 
him  a  tenant  for  life,  even  though  his  offspring  might  die,  unless, 
of  couise,  part  of  his  land  were  actually  needed  for  other  mem< 
hers  of  the  community. 

The  cultivation  of  the  entire  territory  was  done  wholly  by 
the  people,  who  first  planted  and  tilled  the  lands   belonging  to 


tlie  church,  iif  xt  the  lands  of  the  old,  the  sick,  the  widow,  the 
orphan,  and  of  soldiers  who  were  away  in  actual  service,  and 
these  duties  of  religion  and  of  morals  having  been  performed, 
the  people  were  then  allowed  to  till  their  own  grounds,  each  for 
himself,  but  with  the  understanding  that  he  must  assist  hia 
neighbor  whenever  sickness  or  the  burden   of  a  young  family 


860  THE  STOBY  OF  GOVERNMENT. 

might  demand.     Finally  came  the  cultivation  of  the  lands  espe- 
cially  appropriated  to  the  crown  or  the  Inca. 

It  speaks  well  for  the  government  that  in  this  agricultural 
arrangement  the  lands  of  the  Inca  were  ranked  last,  and  this 
cultivation  of  the  king's  lands  was  turned  into  a  sort  of  holi- 
day performance,  for  the  men,  women,  and  children,  summoned 
by  musical  instruments  from  the  central  tower  of  each  neighbor- 
hood, came  clad  in  their  gayest  apparel,  and  went  through  their 
labors  singing  the  popular  songs  which  were  so  soft  and  pleas- 
ing in  character  that  after  the  conquest  many  of  them  were  set 
to  music  by  the  conquerors. 

A  like  system  prevailed  as  to  manufactures.  The  llamas,  or 
Peruvian  sheep,  belonged  exclusively  to  the  Church  and  to  the 
Inca.  A  large  nimiber  were  sent  every  year,  from  the  colder 
regions  where  they  fed,  to  the  capital  for  the  consumption  of  the 
court,  and  for  the  religious  sacrifices,  but  these  were  only  the 
males,  and  their  flesh  was  not  eaten  by  the  common  people. 

At  the  season  of  shearing  all  the  wool  was  put  in  public  store- 
houses and  then  dealt  out  to  each  family  as  it  was  needed.  In  the 
lower  or  warmer  pait  of  the  empire  cotton  was  furnished  by  the 
Crown  in  the  same  way  to  the  people  for  their  garments.  After 
the  workers  had  made  their  year's  supply  of  clothing,  they  were 
required  to  make  the  clothes  of  the  Inca  and  the  court  officers. 

While  engaged  in  both  these  tasks,  committees  of  inspection 
visited  them  to  make  sure  that  each  household  employed  the 
materials  furnished  for  its  use  in  the  manner  intended,  and  also 
to  see  that  everybody  in  each  household,  from  the  child  of  five  to 
the  old  granny  able  to  hold  a  distaff,  did  their  share  in  this 
cooperative  work. 

No  one,  except  the  very  old,  or  the  sick,  could  eat  the  bread  of 
idleness  in  that  empire  of  order,  for  law  had  made  impossible  the 
parasitic  forms  that  hang  on  our  civilization  and  may  some  day 
drag  it  down  to  chaos  and  a  just  oblivion.  Idleness,  indeed, 
was  a  crime  in  Peru,  and  industry  was  made  a  matter  of  public 
honor  and  rewarded  with  special  prizes. 

A  similar  course  was  pursued  in  regard  to  all  other  manufac- 
tures, special  skill  in  any  craft  having  a  tendency,  of  course,  to 
make  that  cnift  hereditary  in  certain  families,  and  the  government 


A  OHJHUAIf  PBUfCBaB. 


862  THE   STORY   OP   GOVERNMENT. 

wisely  directing  that  those  who  were  employed  in  more  arduous 
or  dangerous  labors  should  have  shorter  hours ;  as,  for  instance, 
those  who  worked  in  mines  or  quarries. 

The  object  of  this  mild  semi-religious  despotism  was  not  to 
get  as  much  work  as  possible  out  of  a  man  and  use  him  up  in  a 
few  years,  but  to  make  him  work  just  enough  to  keep  him  in  good 
health  and  keep  the  general  government  in  a  like  condition. 

Fortified  against  the  pressure  of  penury  on  one  side,  and  saved 
from  the  degrading  passion  of  avarice  on  the  other,  by  there  being 
no  such  mysterious,  inanimate  mischief  as  money  breeding  discord 
among  them,  the  Peruvians  had  a  fair  chance  to  cultivate  the  real 
graces  and  dignities  of  life,  which  are  few  in  number,  and  do  not 
need  far-seeking. 

But  it  was  a  despotism,  and  though  all  fared  well  and  were 
happier  on  an  average  than  any  race  to-day,  some  fared  better  than 
others,  possessed  a  larger  share  of  authority,  had  finer  houses,  and 
walked  more  proudly  in  each  other's  eyes.  For  there  were  two 
orders  of  nobility  in  this  empire ;  the  first  and  most  important  of 
which  was  that  of  the  Inca  race  who  boasted  a  common  descent 
with  their  sovereign,  and  basked  in  the  reflected  splendor  of  his 
celestial  origin. 

These  nobles  of  the  blood  royal  were  utilized  as  officers  all  over 
the  kingdom.  They  wore  a  peculiar  dress  just  as  Chinese  man- 
darins do  to-day,  and  like  Chinese  mandarins  are  said  to  have 
spoken  a  special  language,  not  entirely  intelligible  to  the  com- 
mon people. 

They  alone  were  admissible  to  the  offices  of  the  priesthood,  and 
the  choicest  part  of  the  public  domain  was  assigned  for  their 
support.  For  a  long  time  the  laws  made  exception  in  their  favor 
and  just  as  an  early  English  noble  could  plead  his  rank  in  bar  of 
certain  accusations,  so  an  Inca  nobleman  was  held  incapable  of 
crime  except  against  one  of  his  order. 

The  other  nobility  was  that  of  the  curacas  who  were  the  caciques 
or  chiefs  of  recently  conquered  nations  or  their  descendants. 
It  was  the  policy  of  the  Peruvian  government,  when  it  added  by 
conquest  a  new  tribe  to  its  empire,  to  retain  the  ruler  of  such 
tribe  in  his  office,  and  to  take  his  son  to  the  Peruvian  capital  to 
be  educated. 


.  BOCIALISH. 


868 


These  bods  were  thus  hostages  for  the  fidelity  of  the  father  and, 
bjr  teceivitig  a  governmental  education  at  Cuzco  on  terms  of 
perfect  eqoalily  with  the  sons  of  the  native  nobility,  they  were 
converted  into  contented  and  valuable  officers  when  it  came  time 
to  appoint  them  to  positions  of  trust  and  importance. 

The/  generally  succeeded  their  father  in  the  office  of  curaos, 
though  it  appears  that  in  some  provinces  the  Inca  permitted  the 
people  to  elect  their  own  rulers  —  a  strange  geim  of  demootiK^  cr 


A  PKBWIJktf  TICXBOT  RKCEIVnrs  REPOBTS  BY  QinPTB. 


home  rule  to  find  in  a  despotism  dead  three  hundred  and  fifty 
years  ago ! 

So  well  regulated  ^vaa  the  Peruvian  government  that  our 
cumbrous,  costly,  and  extremely  uncertain  system  of  taking  the 
census  would  have  filled  them  v^ith  amazement  or  amusement. 
Their  census  was  being  taken  all  the  time  and  verified  itself 
from  month  to  month. 

The  nature  of  all  service  required  and  the  amount  of  all  com- 
modities needed  in  the  government  of  the  smallest  village  were 
reported  month  by  month  to  the  Inca  in  his  state  palace  at  Cuzco, 
and  a  register  was  kept  of  all  the  births  and  deaths  t^uxiughout 


864  THE  STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

the  country,  so  that  exact  returns  of  the  population  were  made 
every  year ;  and  at  certain  intervals  resurveys  of  the  country  were 
taken  so  that,  furnished  with  complete  statistical  details,  it  was 
easy  for  the  government,  after  determining  the  quantities  and 
qualities  of  work  required,  to  distribute  it  among  the  respective 
provinces  best  fitted  to  perform  it.  For  the  different  provinces 
of  the  country  furnished  persons  peculiarly  suited  to  different 
employments;  one  district  supplying  the  most  skilled  miners, 
another  the  most  skilled  workers  in  metals  or  in  wood. 

The  artisan  was  provided  by  the  government  with  the  mate- 
rials, and  was  only  required  t©  give  a  certain  portion  of  his  time 
to  the  public  service.  He  was  then  succeeded  by  another  for  an 
equal  term,  and  all  engaged  in  government  work  were  main- 
tained for  the  time  at  the  public  expense. 

By  this  constant  rotation  of  labor,  and  by  tliis  study  of  the 
special  aptitude  of  each  individual,  it  was  intended  that  no  one 
should  be  over-burdened,  but  each  hiive  time  to  provide  for  his 
own  household.  And  in  the  judgment  of  a  Spanish  historian 
who  was  corregidor  of  Cuzco  directly  after  the  conquest,  there 
was  no  flaw  discoverable  in  this  system  of  governmental  distribu- 
tion, so  perfectly  was  it  adjusted  to  the  needs  and  abilities  of 
the  artisan. 

The  Peruvians  had  no  written  language,  although  they  had  a 
literature  which  the  Spaniards  found  full  of  beauty  and  sublimity, 
and  their  poets,  or  haravecs^  as  they  were  called,  were  numerous. 
Their  means  of  transmitting  their  histories  and  of  communicating 
with  one  another  were  twofold. 

Like  the  early  Greek  rhapsodists  who  from  father  to  son,  by  oral 
teaching,  tmusmitted  the  poems  of  Homer  till  a  later  age  gathered 
them  into  books,  the  Peruvian  literature  was  always  from  mouth 
to  mouth,  a  living  literature  that  recited  itself  constantly  to  the 
people,  each  historian  before  he  died  training  a  younger  one  in 
all  his  knowledge. 

In  addition  to  this  method  of  preserving  thought  they  had  what 
is  called  the  quipu,  which  was  a  cord  about  two  feet  long  made 
of  different  colored  tlireads  tightly  intertwisted^  with  a  quantity 
of  smaller  threads  suspended  in  the  fashion  of  a  fringe.  These 
threads  were  of  different  colors  and  were  tied  in  knots. 


PATBBNAL  SOCIALISM. 


856 


The  colors  denoted  objects ;  white  stood  for  silver,  yellow  for 
gold.  They  sometimes,  too,  represented  abstract  ideas;  white 
signifying  peace,  red  war,  etc.,  but  though  they  were  used  as 
means  of  communicating  ideas,  they  were  chiefly  valuable  for 
arithmetical  purposes;  the  knots  serving  for  ciphers  and  being 


THE  QUIPU. 

combined  in  such  ways  as  to  represent  numbers  to  any  amount. 

All  the  statistics  of  the  empire  were  forwarded  from  the  dif- 
ferent provinces  in  this  fashion,  and  these  skeins  of  many  colored 
threads,  collected  and  carefully  preserved,  constituted  the  national 
archives.  The  Spaniards  bear  witness  to  the  rapidity  of  their 
calculations  by  these  means,  and  at  the  same  time  their  accuracy. 

Clever  as  were  the  Peruvians  in  manipulating  their  curious 
language  of  knots  and  colore,  they  were  quick  to  perceive  the 
superiority  of  an  alphabet  and  of  written  signs  to  convey  or  con- 
serve ideas,  when  this  new  method  was  made  known  to  them  by 
their  conquerors. 

This  point  is  illustrated  in  a  very  striking  anecdote  told  by 
Grarcilasso,  a  descendant  of  the  Incas  who  wrote  in  Spanish  a 
little  after  the  conquest.     It  is  given  by  him  as  an  additional 


866  THE   STORY   OF   GOVERNMENT. 

cause  for  Pizarro's  barbarity  to  the  captive  Inca,  Atahualpa,  who 
after  a  long  imprisonment  was  sentenced  to  be  burnt  at  the  stake. 

As  the  faggots  were  being  kindled,  a  priest  besought  the  Inca 
to  embrace  Christianity  and  be  baptized,  promising  that  if  he  did 
his  burning  should  be  commuted  to  the  milder  punishment  of 
death  by  strangulation.  The  Inca  yielded,  was  Christianized  and 
garroted.     Garcilasso's  story  is  this. 

While  in  prison  Atahualpa,  having  noticed  Spaniards  reading, 
asked  a  Spanish  soldier  to  write  the  name  of  God  on  his  thumb 
nail.  This  done,  the  captive  monarch  held  up  his  thumb  to 
several  of  his  guai-ds,  and  as  they  read  it  and  each  pronounced 
the  same  word,  the  penetititive  mind  of  the  monarch  was  pleased 
with  a  new  science  of  which  his  own  civilization  presented  no 
likeness. 

But  when  he  displayed  the  inscription  to  his  chief  captor, 
Pizarro,  that  chief  said  nothing,  and  the  Inca,  inferring  instantly 
that  he  could  not  read,  as  was  the  fact,  conceived  a  contempt  for 
a  leader  less  educated  than  the  men  he  led. 

Tliis  contempt  the  luckless  barbarian  was  not  sufficiently  politic 
to  conceal,  and  Pizarro,  learning  it,  thus  received  the  additional 
sting  of  a  wound  to  his  vanity  as  a  stinmlus  to  hi